About Lake Michigan
Geography and Physical Characteristics
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located entirely within the United States. It covers portions of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Lake Michigan is connected directly to Lake Huron, into which it drains, through the broad Straits of Mackinac. This hydrologic connection through the Straits keeps the water levels of the two www t mobile rebate status com in equilibrium, causing them to behave in many ways as though they are one lake. Water flows into Lake Michigan from several rivers in the 45,600 square mile Lake Michigan drainage basin, including the Fox-Wolf, the Grand, the St. Joseph, and the Kalamazoo rivers, among others. In addition to the main flow, some of the waters of Lake Michigan have been diverted into the Mississippi River basin via the Chicago River.
Facts About Lake Michigan
- Lake Michigan is 307 miles long and 118 miles across at its widest point.
- It has an average surface elevation of 577.5 feet (176.0 meters), although these water levels have ranged between about 576.0 feet and 582.3 feet over the past 100 years.
- It has an average depth of 279 feet (85 meters) but that varies considerably from place to place. The maximum depth of 923 feet (281 meters) is found in the Chippewa Basin, which dominates much of the northern half of the lake.
- It contains approximately 1,180 cubic miles of water, making it:
- The largest freshwater lake in the United States
- The second largest Great Lake (by volume)
- The fifth largest lake in the world
- It has a hydrologic residence time [PDF] of 62 years, which means water flushes through it much more slowly than all the other Great Lakes – with the exception of Lake Superior.
- Lake Michigan has some 1,638 miles of shoreline, of which 45 miles lie in Indiana. People from all over the world enjoy its many beaches.
- Lake Michigan’s ecosystem contains the world’s largest collection of freshwater sand dunes, which formed [PDF] along the eastern shorelines due to the combined action of wind and waves against glacial moraines long ago.
Ecology and Wildlife
The Nature Conservancy and Michigan Natural Features Inventory published a technical report in 2012 about Michigami: Great Water – Strategies to Conserve the Biodiversity of Lake Michigan [PDF]. These excerpts about Lake Michigan and its associated biodiversity are from pages 3 and 17 of the report:
“Lake Michigan … is an ecologically rich and globally significant ecosystem. .its coastline harbors boreal forests and coastal fens in the north and dry sand prairies and oak savannas in the south. In fact, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore is among the most biologically rich of all U.S. national parks, on a per‐area basis, due to the co‐occurrence of southern and northern species. .the shorelines provide food and shelter for millions of migrating birds every year. In the water, the variety of nearshore habitats provide spawning or nursery grounds for many fish species, supporting important fisheries; migratory fish connect the lake to its tributaries.”
“These natural communities provide habitat to a large number of rare species, many of which are only found in the Great Lakes region. Examples of globally significant plants found in the Lake Michigan coastal zone include: Pitcher’s thistle., Houghton’s goldenrod., Dwarf lake iris., prairie white‐fringed orchid  ., ram’s head lady’s slipper., spatulate moonwort., ginseng., prairie moonwort., and lakeside daisy. Examples of globally significant animals found in the Lake Michigan coastal zone include: Piping plover., Hine’s Emerald dragonfly., and Lake Huron locust.”
Why Biodiversity Matters
Biodiversity is an indication of the health of an ecosystem. Problems with biodiversity indicate stress on an ecosystem, which can be caused by:
- resource overuse (including over-hunting, over-logging, or over-fishing)
- habitat destruction or division
- introduction of invasive species
When an ecosystem’s biodiversity begins to decrease, it can take years to recover. This is capital one ceo email address organisms need to move back from other areas. Plus, if the number of total individuals in a species drops too low, the i m on my way lyrics becomes less genetically diverse (inbred) and is less able to fight off threats. In that case, it will often go extinct. Once a species disappears, there is no way to bring it back. Breeding programs can help, but many species do not respond very well to such efforts; it is far better to prevent a species from becoming endangered in the first place.
Many species provide, or have the potential to provide, value to human beings. The Dwarf lake iris, Houghton’s goldenrod, and Hine’s Emerald dragonfly are examples of species which add to the aesthetic quality of the outdoors that draws millions of visitors to Indiana’s Lake Michigan beaches each year. In addition, people are constantly finding new uses for plants and animals, including as sources of food and medicine. A 2001 study stated that, of the 252 drugs considered as basic and essential by the World Health Organization (WHO), 11% were exclusively of plant origin (S.M. Rates, 2001 [PDF]). However, even those organisms that provide no obvious benefit to people still have a place in the ecosystem’s food web.
People and Industry
Lake Michigan’s shoreline provides a home to over 10 million annual residents and includes the nation’s third largest city – Chicago, Illinois.
Many agricultural and industrial products such as iron ore, coal, limestone, metals, petroleum, coke, and chemicals are derived from the Lake Michigan basin's resources. The water of Lake Michigan serves many purposes. It supports large commercial and sport fishing industries. It provides industrial process and cooling water, and water for agricultural irrigation. Fleets of freighters pass over the lake carrying bulk commerce items. Lake Michigan serves as a source of drinking water, as a place for swimming and fishing, as a scenic wonderland, and as a drainage basin for municipal and industrial waste and runoff from the surrounding lands.
Beaches and Recreation
Lake Michigan provides extensive recreational opportunities, fueling a thriving tourism industry in the Great Lakes states. Lake Michigan visitors can enjoy a wide array of activities, including swimming at one of its beautiful beaches, sport fishing and recreational boating out of one of its many marinas, and hiking and camping at one of the many state and national parks located along the shoreline. There truly is something for everyone!
The Congo River Basin: Home of the deepest river in the world
The Congo River is a long, arcing river with a basin that spans nine countries in West-Central Africa. This extensive body of water provides food, water, medicine and transport to about 75 million people in the surrounding basin, according to Yale University's Global Forest Atlas.
The Congo River zigzags across the equator twice which region surrounds the banks of lakes and a river it first federal savings and loan aberdeen ms from eastern Africa, through the Congo rainforest, all the way to the Atlantic Ocean, according to Mongabay, a nonprofit environmental science and conservation news site. From its tributaries to where it meets the Atlantic Ocean, the massive river includes rapids, wetlands, floodplains, lakes and swamps.
In addition, the Congo River is the world's deepest recorded river at 720 feet (220 meters) deep in parts — too deep for light to penetrate, The New York Times reported. It's also the second-longest river in Africa, spanning a length of approximately 2,920 miles (4,700 kilometers), according to Phys.org. (Africa's Nile River is the longest river in the world at 4,135 miles, or 6,650 km long.) That makes the Congo River the ninth-longest in the world.
Related: Dying fish revealed Congo is world's deepest river
The region surrounding the Congo River holds an abundance of valuable resources, from ivory to rubber to timber, the BBC reported. "It's this massive freshwater heart of Africa," said Melanie Stiassny, an expert in Congolese ichthyology and curator at the American Museum of Natural History.
Governments have long fought for control of the Congo; the brutal colonial regime of the infamous King Leopold II of Belgium from 1885 to 1908, memorialized in the 1899 novella, "Heart of Darkness," by Joseph Conrad, was one of the bloodiest.
The location and geography of the Congo river system
The Congo River system runs through the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic which region surrounds the banks of lakes and a river the Congo, the Central African Republic, western Zambia, northern Angola, and parts of Cameroon and Tanzania, according to National Geographic.
This long river system has a unique anatomy that divides it into three distinct regions: the upper, middle and lower Congo. The upper is made up of tributaries and rapids, the middle is mostly a steady stream, and the lower consists of gorges and falls, which can make it dangerous.
The tributaries, or the smaller rivers or streams that feed the Congo River, are known as the upper Congo. The Lualaba River forms the Congo River's main tributary. It originates in the southeastern corner of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on the Katanga Plateau at an elevation of 4,000 feet (1,220 m), and flows northward through the country. It carries the most volume of water to the Congo of any of its tributaries. After 1,800 miles (2,900 km), the Lualaba River feeds into (and becomes) the Congo River.
Another smaller and more remote tributary that flows into the Congo River is the Chambeshi River, which starts in Zambia, and flows for about 300 miles (480 km) until it feeds into the Lualaba River near the border of Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This larger network of rivers is sometimes referred to as the Congo-Lualaba-Chambeshi River system.
These tributaries in eastern Africa flow north, and they account for the source of the middle and lower river, Stiassny said. This upper Congo section begins to curve, and forms an arc after it passes through the equator in the central Democratic Republic of the Congo. The river features some major rapids here before reaching the city of Kisangani (formerly known as Stanleyville), one of the largest cities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The upper Congo ends and becomes the middle Congo at these major rapids, which are known as Boyoma Falls (formerly known as Stanley Falls), a series of seven cataracts, or large waterfalls, that are barely passable and span about 60 miles (97 km), according to the Encyclopedia Britannica.
Downstream of these rapids, the river becomes relatively quiet and steady. The middle Congo is about 1,000 miles (1,609 km) long and as wide as 9 miles (14.5 km) in some spots. With its proximity to large cities and ease of navigation, many area residents use this section of the river for boat transport.
After the 1,000-mile stretch of the middle Congo, the river slows to a virtual stand-still for 20 miles (32 km) — a stretch known as Malebo Pool (formerly Stanley Pool). The capital of the Republic of the Congo, Brazzaville, is on the northern river bank, while the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kinshasa, sits on the southern bank of Malebo Pool. The pool ends abruptly with the Livingstone Falls, which feature 220 miles (354 km) of rapids. The water plunges over deep canyons at this point, marking the beginning of the lower Congo.
"You can imagine, you're dropping off a plateau and all of this water's plunging down what is actually a narrow gorge. It's a very different kind of river than the rest of the Congo," Stiassny said. "A meandering, slow-flowing river, and then it hits Malebo Pool, and then it just plunges down."
The lower Congo is an approximately 200-mile-long (320 km) narrow channel that empties into the Atlantic Ocean. This is different from most other major rivers, which usually form a river delta, or a network of smaller rivers and streams that spill out into the ocean.
The river's speed surges here because the massive amount of water it's carrying — nearly three times more than the Mississippi River carries — is jetting out of a narrow gorge that's less than 820 feet (250 m) across in some spots. The Congo River carries about 1.25 million cubic feet (35,000 cubic meters) of water into the Atlantic Ocean every second. (The Mississippi River, for comparison, discharges about 590,000 cubic feet (17,000 cubic meters) of water per second on average into the Gulf of Mexico, according to the National Parks Service.)
The Congo River Basin
The land area that drains into the Congo River is known as the Congo River Basin, or the Congo Basin. It's the world's second-largest river basin, at 1.3 million square miles (3.4 million square km), after the Amazon River Basin, which is nearly 3 million square miles (7.5 million square km). For reference, the size of India is about 1.27 million square miles (3.3 million square km).
The land in the Congo Basin is a web of smaller rivers, swamps and forests. Its entire area covers almost all of the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, western Zambia, northern Angola, and parts of Cameroon, Gabon and Tanzania. The basin is bordered by the Sahara Desert to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the south and west, and the East African lakes region to the east.
The Congo Basin surrounds the equator, with the river crossing the equator twice in about a 700-mile-long (1,100 km) stretch. The mix of equatorial climate and massive water source provided by the river provides the perfect ingredients for the second-largest tropical rainforest in the world.
The Congo Basin rainforest is home to an abundance of unique plant and animal life — scientists have estimated that about 10,000 species of tropical plants are found in this enormous rainforest, and about 30% of those aren't found anywhere else in the world, according to the World Wildlife Fund.
The Congo Basin is also the natural habitat of about 400 species of mammals, 1,000 species of birds and 700 species of fish. For comparison, the Nile River email santander consumer finance about 800 unique species of fish, and the Mississippi River has about 100.
Some of the more well-recognized and charismatic mammals in the region include forest elephants, lowland and mountain gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, okapi, leopards, hippos, manatees and lions. Other rainforest species include the recognizable tsetse flies, African Goliath beetles and Congo African grey parrots.
Related: Images: The amazing chimpanzees of Congo's Goualougo Triangle
Several animal species in this region are endangered, including mountain gorillas, chimpanzees and African wild dogs, mostly due to recent increases in deforestation and wildlife hunting.
The rainforest provides crucial ecosystem services, such as regulating the climate, preventing drought, preserving unique species, and providing a source of food and medicine to local communities, said Alexandra Tyukavina, an assistant research professor of geographical sciences at the University of Maryland in College Park, Maryland.
The Congo Basin rainforest is so valuable for sequestering carbon dioxide and producing oxygen that scientists have called the rainforest the world's "second lungs," following the Amazon rainforest, according to the European Space Agency.
Congo River Basin's population
Humans have lived in the Congo River Basin for 50,000 years, and the area is now home to approximately 75 million people, including 150 distinct ethnic groups, according to the World Wildlife Fund.
It's the home of prominent hunter-gatherer groups, who are often referred to as Pygmies: which region surrounds the banks of lakes and a river Ba'Aka, BaKa, BaMbuti and Efe, among others. The groups in the area that aren’t hunter-gatherers have relied on subsistence agriculture and bartering for goods for thousands of years, according to a 2015 review published in the journal Current Anthropology.
Archaeological evidence suggests that some tribes began to form villages along the Congo River around 4,700 years ago. Remnants of iron tools and pottery suggest that some of the groups settled along the river around 5,000 years ago, when populations of Bantu-speaking peoples migrated from the savannahs of West Central Africa throughout the Congo Basin — an event known as the Bantu expansion.
Threats to the Congo River Basin
Deforestation, primarily as part of modern agricultural practices, is the main environmental threat to the Congo River Basin and its rainforest.
"It's mainly slash-and-burn agriculture, when people clear back and forth manually and clear-cut down the trees. And then they burn those logs to fertilize the soil with the ashes and grow crops there," Tyukavina said.
Industrial logging is another driver of deforestation in the region, according to Mongabay.
In addition, as the population in the region has grown at a rate of about 1.7 million people each year, according to the World Wildlife Fund, so has the demand for food. Bushmeat, or meat from wild animals like bats, monkeys, rats and snakes, which hunter-gatherer groups have traditionally relied upon as their main source of food now faces a new threat: overhunting.
"Bushmeat is a good, important source of protein for people throughout the Basin," Tyukavina said. But commercial hunters have increasingly targeted animals like monkeys and antelope for the commercial bushmeat trade. These midsize mammals are unable to reproduce fast enough to compensate for the high rate of hunting, causing their populations to decline.
Elephants are also at risk from poachers looking to profit from the international ivory trade.
Related: Elephants vanish in Congo reserve
The history of the Congo
The region first became known as the "Congo" in the late 1300s, from the kingdom of Kongo, an independent state that ruled the area around the mouth of the river from the late 1300s through the 1800s, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica.
From 1971 to 1997, the Congo River was known as the Zaire River, during the reign of Democratic Republic of the Congo's dictator Mobutu Sese Seko, who changed the entire country's name to Zaire, the Atlantic reported. (Zaire is the Portuguese adaptation of the Kikongo word nzere or nzadi, which means "river that swallows all rivers.")
The Congo has a dark and storied history. Because of all the resources that can be found along the Congo (ivory, rubber, timber and rare metals such as cobalt, copper, diamond, tantalum, tin and gold), the region has long been the home of major conflicts and European colonialism.
In the late 1400s, Portuguese explorers arrived in the Kongo kingdom and established trade outposts along the Congo River, according to the BBC. By that time, slave trade had existed in Africa for centuries — some historians estimate that African kingdoms sold captive prisoners of war to other African and Arab groups starting around 1000 B.C., according to the Encyclopedia of Migration's "Trans-Saharan Slave Trade" (Spinger Link, 2013). Portuguese traders quickly entered into the slave trade and began to send African slaves to plantations that other Portuguese traders had established on islands off the African coast, including Madeira and the Canary Islands, according to the United Kingdom's National Archives.
A couple hundred years later, throughout the 1600s and 1700s, European traders from other countries, including Denmark, England, the Netherlands, Scotland and Sweden, came to the Congo region to seize African slaves for the trans-Atlantic roslyn savings bank mineola trade.
In 1885, King Leopold II of Belgium took control of the Congo region after signing a treaty with other European nations at the Conference of Berlin, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica. He called the region the "Congo Free State." According to historians, Leopold ran a mercenary force that used murder and torture to force the native population to extract and export the region's ivory, rubber and other natural resources. Historians estimate that from 1885 to 1908, approximately 10 million people in the region died at the hands of the Belgians, History Today reported.
And the legacy of Leopold's cruel regime has haunted the region since.
"It was only about 110 years ago when this [King Leopold's rule] ended, so there are still people in the region whose grandparents mbna costco login directly affected by this," Tyukavina said.
After Leopold's death, the region was annexed by the government of Belgium and ruled as the Belgian Congo from 1908 until 1960. The Belgian Congo leaders forced Congolese people to build road and railroad infrastructure for free, while plantations and mining companies used indentured laborers, or forced laborers who were able to later buy their freedom, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica.
Congolese resistance movements had been challenging European colonial rule since the 1920s, but it wasn't until 1958 when the nationwide Congolese political party, the Congo National Movement, rose to prominence. Skirmishes between Belgian forces and the Congolese broke out over the next year, and Belgium yielded to the nationalist forces.
In 1960, the country became independent, and political leader Joseph Kasa-Vubu became the first president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (then called the Republic of the Congo), serving from 1960 until 1965, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica. The fledgling independent government was divided and weak, and became a proxy conflict (called the "Congo Crisis") amid the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, with each country supporting opposing Congolese political factions, according to the Atomic Heritage Foundation.
In 1965, Mobutu Sese Seko, a Congolese military officer, seized power through a coup, using his command of the Congolese army. He developed a totalitarian regime, amassed a large personal fortune and became notorious for giving his corrupt friends and allies important positions in government. He was finally ousted more than 30 years later, in 1997, by a rebellion in the eastern part of the country. At that point, a civil war broke out and lasted until 2003, the BBC reported. In 2006, the newly instated government held democratic elections, the United Nations reported.
But the region is still not entirely peaceful. The area continues to be haunted by ethnic conflicts, economic inflation, political corruption, European colonialism and the Ebola virus. Because of so much political unrest, traveling along the Congo is unsafe in some areas. In January 2020, the Democratic Republic of the Congo issued a do-not-travel warning for certain provinces around the river due to the threat of ambush, armed robbery and kidnapping.
- Read more about one researcher's quest to study the Congo's native Bonobos, from the Smithsonian Magazine.
- Learn more about the threats facing the Congo Basin rainforest, from the New York Times.
- Get an inside look at the Republic of walmart optical Congo in this video produced by National Geographic.
Located in north-central North America, the Great Lakes are five large fresh-water lakes interconnected by natural and artificial waterways: Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario. Carved by ancient glaciers, these lakes contain approximately 20 percent of the world's surface fresh-water supply and 95 percent of the surface fresh water in the United States. The Great Lakes waterbody is so large that its natural features can be seen from the Moon.
The North American Great Lakes are a unique fresh-water resource on Earth, containing one-fifth of the world's fresh surface-water supply and nine-tenths of the U.S. fresh-water supply. Because the lakes and their watersheds span areas of the United States and Canada, they are an excellent case study of regional as well as international shared resource management.
Great Lakes Watershed
Native Americans were the original inhabitants of the Great Lakes basin. Historically, the Great Lakes played a significant role in Native American societies and approximately 120 bands of native peoples have occupied this region over the course of history. Notable tribes inhabiting the Great Lakes region include the Chippewa, Fox, Huron, Iroquois, Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Sioux. These Native peoples played an instrumental role when European explorers came to the region in the early 1600s, particularly in the development of the fur trade. Each of the names of the Great Lakes comes from either a Native tribe name or the Native words for the lakes.
Straddling the U.S.–Canada boundary, today's Great Lakes watershed is home to approximately 40 million Americans and Canadians. This population represents about 10 percent of the U.S. population and 25 percent of the Canadian population. In the United States, four of the twelve largest cities are located on the shores of the Great Lakes. The lakes constitute the largest inland water transportation system in the world, and have played an important role in the economic development of both the United States and Canada.
The Great Lakes encompass 16,000 kilometers (10,000 miles) of inland coastal waters, and collectively have been referred to as "the inland seas" and "the fourth coast of the United States". Lake Michigan is located entirely within the United States, while the other four lakes form a partial border between the United States and Canada. The lakes are bordered by the Canadian province of Ontario and by the eight U.S. states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The westernmost point of the Great Lakes is near Duluth, Minnesota, and the easternmost point is just north of Syracuse, New York (and connects with the St. Lawrence Seaway).
Covering a total surface area of about 244,000 square kilometers (94,000 square miles) the Great Lakes contain a volume of approximately 23,000 cubic kilometers (5,500 cubic miles) of water. This tremendous volume is hard home away rehoboth beach rentals conceptualize, but if it were spread over the contiguous 48 states, its waters would average about 2.9 meters (9.5 feet) deep. Together the lakes drain about 750,000 square kilometers (about 290,000 square miles), with the primary outlet being the St. Lawrence River.
The shores of the Great Lakes vary considerably from region to region. On the eastern side of Lake Michigan, sandy beaches are prevalent, whereas the shores of Lakes Superior and Huron are primarily rocky, and often framed by cliffs comprised of sandstone and shale. Wetlands are found along Lake Ontario's shore, including Canada's well-known Point Pelee National Park. These shoreline systems serve to protect their inland areas by absorbing the force of wind and wave which region surrounds the banks of lakes and a river energy from the lakes.
which region surrounds the banks of lakes and a river The Great Lakes and surrounding area is a natural resource of great importance in North America. The region also serves as the focal point of the industrial and agricultural base of the Midwest's heartland by providing a strong marine transportation system. Rivers, straits, canals, locks, and channels interconnect the Great Lakes, and together form one of the busiest shipping arteries in the world. *
With the 1959 completion of the St. Lawrence Seaway, the commercial potential of the lakes increased because they could now accommodate medium-sized oceangoing vessels. In fact, the St. Lawrence Seaway brought several Great Lakes ports closer to European markets than existing East Coast or Gulf ports, saving shippers both time and money. For example, the shipping distance from the port city of Baltimore, walmart black friday nov 25 2020 Maryland, to Liverpool, England, is 6,334 kilometers (3,936 miles). With the addition of the St. Lawrence Seaway, ships could reach Detroit, Michigan by covering only 5,911 kilometers (3,673 miles).
The Great Lakes today are home to the U.S. and Canadian flag fleets and to dozens of international vessels from ports around the world. The movement of shipping cargo is estimated to provide approximately 60,000 jobs throughout the Great Lakes region. The ability to efficiently ship materials such as iron ore, coal, and limestone enabled the rise of the steel and automobile industries in the Great Lakes region.
Recreation in the Great Lakes area became important beginning in the nineteenth century. A thriving pleasure-boat industry based on newly constructed canals on the lakes brought vacationers into the region, as did the already established railroads and highways. The lower lakes wilderness region attracted people who were seeking health benefits and even miracle cures from mineral waters.
In the twentieth century, the U.S. and Canadian governments acquired border lands to develop a system of parks, wilderness areas, and conservation areas in order to protect valuable resources and to serve the recreational needs of the population. Unfortunately, by the time the need for publicly
Niagara Falls is located on the international line between the cities of Niagara Falls, New York, and Niagara Falls, Ontario. This world-famous tourist destination, like other Great Lakes attractions, bolsters the local and regional economies of both countries.
Niagara Falls was one of the first Great Lakes tourist attractions, and it remains a popular destination. Niagara Falls were formed approximately 10,000 years ago when retreating glaciers exposed the Niagara escarpment, allowing the waters of Lake Erie to flow north to Lake Ontario. Until the early 1950s, the falls eroded at an average rate of 1 meter (3 feet) per year, but human modifications to the river's flow have since reduced the rate of erosion. Today, Goat Island splits the rapids into the American Falls (51 meters or 167 feet high and 323 meters or 1,060 feet wide) and the Horseshoe, or Canadian, Falls (48 meters and 158 feet high and 792 meters or 2,600 feet wide).
Great Lakes Fisheries
The Great Lakes support diverse fresh-water fisheries. Fish were a who is the largest bank in the world primary source of food to Native tribes of the Great Lakes region, and settlements often were established at places where the fisheries were good. Sturgeon, lake trout, and whitefish were popular catches of their time. Birchbark canoes and nets made from willow bark were commonly used to harvest fish. Tribal fishermen also practiced ice fishing, spearing through the ice and fishing with hand-carved decoys. Fish also were an important source of food to the early European settlers.
Commercial fishing began around 1820, and annual catches grew approximately 20 percent per year as improved fishing technologies were applied. During the 1880s, some species in Lake Erie began to decline. Commercial fishing harvests from the Great Lakes peaked between 1889 and 1899 at around 67,000 metric tons (147 million pounds).
By the late 1950s, the golden days of the Great Lakes commercial fishery were over. Since that time, average annual catches have been approximately 50,000 metric tons (110 million pounds). The fishery is increasingly dominated by smaller and relatively lower valued species. Moreover, the fishery is a mix of native and introduced species, with a number of species being restocked regularly. While each of the Great Lakes has its own mainstay species, common catches currently include lake trout, salmon, walleye, perch, whitefish, smallmouth bass, steelhead, and brown trout. *
In the 100 years since its peak harvests, the Great Lakes fishery has been severely threatened, mainly due to the effects of overfishing, shoreline and stream habitat destruction, and pollution. The accidental and deliberate introductions of nonnative invasive species, such as the sea lamprey and zebra mussel, have also played a role in the decline of this fishery. Today, only isolated pockets of the once large chase com log on fishery remain, and even these are uncertain, due largely to contaminants . Efforts undertaken to stabilize the commercial fishery have maintained its commercial and sport value at more than $4 billion annually as of 2002.
The degradation of the Great Lakes can be traced back to the westward expansion of the North American population. The fishery decline in late 1800s was one of the region's earliest environmental problems. Agricultural and forestry practices resulted in siltation, increased water temperature, and loss of habitat for native fish species. The discharge of pollutants into the lakes accompanied the region's population growth. The vastness of the Great Lakes encouraged the mistaken belief that their great volumes of water could indefinitely dilute pollutants to harmless levels.
Yet impacts to the environment and human health were inevitable. The direct discharge of domestic wastes from cities along the lakeshores led to typhoid and cholera epidemics in the early 1900s. Moreover, fish would become so contaminated by municipal and industrial pollutants that their flesh was no longer safe to eat.
which region surrounds the banks of lakes and a river In 1909, the United States and Canada cooperatively negotiated the Boundary Waters Treaty. This treaty established the International Joint Commission (IJC) which is a permanent binational body addressing, among other important boundary issues, water quality concerns and the regulation of water levels and flows between the two countries. The Great Lakes Water Quality Board and the Great Lakes Science Advisory Board are bodies of the IJC. Six commissioners are the final arbitrators of the IJC: the United States and Canada appoint three each.
Several key water agreements have been produced by the International Joint Commission process, most notably the 1972 and 1978 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreements. Since the 1972 agreement, forty-three Areas of Concern (AOC) have been identified, twenty-six located within the United States, twelve located within Canada, and five that are shared by both countries.
Primarily due to the declining condition of Lake Erie, the 1978 Agreement went beyond setting narrow water-quality goals and addressed toxic contamination from an ecosystem perspective. This 1978 agreement has become a driver of the ecosystem approach to water management throughout the Great Lakes basin, and further amendments were passed in 1987. The 1987 U.S. Clean Water Act (Section 118) also addressed the Great Lakes situation and included provisions for monitoring of their water quality.
The Story of Lake Erie.
Reports since the 1950s of the "death" of Lake Erie serve as a reminder of the human impact on natural ecosystems. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Cuyahoga River, which empties into Lake Erie, caught fire due to oily pollutants on its surface. * Pollution problems from organic and inorganic wastes and nutrients were compounded by the effects of deforestation, sedimentation, and wetland drainage. Floating raw sewage, algal blooms, and the buildup of toxic metals in its sediments caused beach closings, oxygen depletion, contaminated fish advisories, and reports of the lake's death. Many feared the other lakes would follow a similar demise.
Concerted management efforts were undertaken in the 1970s to restore Lake Erie and the other lakes back to health. Yet after more than two decades of mostly good news about the lake's improving health, Lake Erie again is showing signs of an environmental crisis. Scientists attribute diverse and complex causes to the latest ecosystem disruption: large-scale fish and bird die-offs; a large "dead zone" off the Ohio shoreline; and the threat of invasion by more nonnative species, particularly the Asian carp and quagga mussel.
Renewed Concerns Over Water Levels
Measurements of water levels in the great Lakes constitute one of the longest continuous hydrometeorological datasets in North America. Reference gage records start in 1860, with sporadic records going back to the early 1800s.
Water levels on the Great Lakes change seasonally each year and can vary dramatically over longer periods. Seasonally, changes are to be expected, and the range of seasonal water-level fluctuation averages about 0.3 to 0.45 meters (12 to 18 inches) from winter lows to summer highs. Long-term fluctuations are harder to predict, and occur over periods of consecutive years. Over the last century, the range from extreme high to extreme low water levels has been nearly 1.2 meters (4 feet) for Lake Superior, and between 1.8 and 2.1 meters (6 to 7 feet) for the other Great Lakes.
As of 2002, the Great Lakes apparently were starting to recover from water-level lows not recorded since the mid-1960s. The declines probably were due predominantly to evaporation during the warmer-than-usual temperatures experienced during the late 1990s, a series of mild winters, and the below-average snowpack melts in the Lake Superior basin. Lower water levels have a variety of effects, including affecting shipping, recreation, property values, and habitat diversity. Concerns relating to potential impacts of global climate change on the Great Lakes are being researched.
Diversion of Great Lakes Waters
Proposals to divert water from the Great Lakes hydrologic system have proven very controversial. As these lakes are a shared international resource, many governments and organizations are concerned with managing and protecting the integrity of the Great Lakes waters and ecosystem. For these groups, the bulk export of Great Lakes basin water is an increasing concern in a water-scarce world.
Existing diversions comprising sizable quantities of water involve Ontario, Canada; Chicago, Illinois; and the intrabasin transfers of the Welland Canal. These diversions have been operational since the early 1900s. Much first national bank alaska foreclosures smaller diversions involve New York, Wisconsin, Ohio (via the City of Akron), and Michigan (via the City of Detroit).
Since 1995, new diversion and export schemes have included:
- a permit granted to Perrier to bottle water from an aquifer in Michigan;
- a plan to divert millions of liters of groundwater per day from Lake Michigan's watershed for use in mining-related activities that would discharge much of the diverted water into the Mississippi River Basin;
- a permit issued by the Canadian province of Ontario for the bulk transfer of water from Lake Superior for sale in Asian markets as bottled water (but this permit was later revoked); and
- a 2002 proposal by the City of Detroit to bottle and sell water from which region surrounds the banks of lakes and a river which region surrounds the banks of lakes and a river the Detroit River.
Water diversions and exports have come under intense scrutiny, especially as the lake levels were falling and reached near-record lows. As levels rise, many see opportunities to use the waters of the Great Lakes for commercial uses and to make profits. A debate also has intensified over whether groundwater is part of "Great Lakes waters" as defined by the Water Resources Development Act of 1986.
Two policies have been enacted to attempt to govern potential diversions from the Great Lakes basin: the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 and the Great Lakes Charter of 1985. The Boundary Waters Treaty expresses a commitment by both countries to refrain from harming the waters which region surrounds the banks of lakes and a river the other country (e.g., due to bulk exports). The Great Lakes Charter specifically urges U.S. governors and Canadian premiers in the region to seek each other's approval prior to granting diversion requests for large-volume bulk exports above a threshold level; however, this is a nonbinding treaty.
Additionally, U.S. diversions from the Great Lakes may also be subject to the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (amended in 2000). This act requires the approval by all eight U.S. Great Lakes governors on any proposed exports out of the basin. Within the region, many are concerned that this policy is not strong enough to protect the lakes from diversions and several pieces of legislation have been introduced into Congress to help prevent future diversions and even to create a moratorium on these bulk exports.
While efforts to protect Great Lakes waters surely will continue, international free trade agreements may clear the path for additional diversions, bulk removals, or the selling of bottled water. On the other hand, ongoing concerns over impacts on lake levels and potential consequences from climate change may spur new laws and treaties to prevent future diversions and exports from the basin.
Future of the Great Lakes
Managing the Great Lakes system and implementing an ecosystem approach are made difficult by the myriad of agencies and programs with responsibility in this area. Two countries, eight states, two provinces, and numerous tribal councils and local jurisdictions share an interest in managing the waters of the Great Lakes. Many local citizens groups have also formed to address water issues.
Threats of water diversions from the Great Lakes are of great concern to the region, both in the United States and Canada. This Michigan billboard, posted in 2001 by a nonprofit organization, advocates the need for greater protection against out-of-basin exports and diversions. Although water-scarce western and southwestern U.S. states are viewed as potential exporters of Great Lakes waters, new diversion schemes in and near the Great Lakes Basin have proven far more imminent.
A 2002 report by the International Joint Commission concluded that progress to restore and maintain the chemical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes basin ecosystem is making some progress, but proceeding at a slow pace. It also stated that cleaning up contaminated sediments and stopping the invasion of alien species are two top priorities for restoring the chemical and biological integrity of this ecosystem. The Great Lakes basin has and will continue to serve as a vast laboratory where scientists can learn more about both ecosystem and water management.
and William Arthur Atkins
Ashworth, William. Great Lakes Journey: A New Look at America's Freshwater Coast. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 2000.
MacKenzie, Susan Hill. Integrated Resource Management: The Ecosystem Approach in the Great Lakes Basin. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996.
LAKE SUPERIOR IS APTLY NAMED
Lake Superior is the largest lake with respect to both surface area and volume of water. It is also the deepest and coldest of the five lakes. If filled with the smaller lakes, Lake Superior could contain each of the other four Great Lakes and three more lakes the size of Lake Erie. The northwestern section of Lake Superior contains the archipelago of Isle Royale National Park.
* See "Army Corps of Engineers, U.S." for a photograph of a vessel at the Soo Locks.
* See "Fisheries, Fresh-Water" for a photograph of a recreational fisher holding a Lake Michigan steelhead.
* See "Environmental Movement, Role of Water in the" for a photograph of the 1952 Cuyahoga River fire.
Also read article about Great Lakes from Wikipedia
Globalization and Water GroundwaterИсточник: http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Ge-Hy/Great-Lakes.html
Ontario’s forest regions
There are four main forest regions in Ontario, each with unique characteristics and species:
- the Hudson Bay Lowlands in the far north
- the boreal forest region in the northern Ontario
- the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence forest in southern and central Ontario
- the deciduous forest in southern Ontario
Most of Ontario’s population lives within the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence and deciduous forest regions.
Hudson Bay Lowlands
Distinguished by bogs and fens, sparse slow growing forest and tundra, the Hudson Bay Lowlands is the northernmost forest region in Ontario.
This forest has one of the largest expanses of wetland in the world. With an area of 26 million hectares, it is dominated by trees and open muskeg (over two-thirds of its area) and is dotted with thousands of small lakes and ponds.
This region is:
- 26.3% of Ontario’s area
- 2.3% within the Area of the Undertaking
- 24.2% forest cover
Productive forest is generally made up of stunted tamarack and black spruce growing along river banks and other well-drained areas. White birch, dwarf birch and willow are the common deciduous trees in this forest region.
The Hudson Bay Lowlands region provides vital habitat for a variety of unique mammals and migratory birds including:
- woodland caribou, polar bear, arctic fox, and arctic hare
- Canada geese, snow geese, willow ptarmigan and various species of sea ducks
Boreal forest region
Ontario’s boreal forest is the largest forest region in Ontario and Canada. With an area of 50 million hectares, the boreal forest contains two-thirds of Ontario’s forest. It extends from the northern limits of the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence forest to the Hudson Bay Lowlands.
This region is:
- 50% of Ontario’s area
- 58% within the Area of the Undertaking
- 74% forest cover
Coniferous (softwood) and mixed-wood forests dominate the Boreal region. The main conifer species are black and white spruce, jack pine, balsam fir, tamarack and eastern white cedar. The predominant deciduous (hardwood) species are poplar and white birch.
Boreal forests are heavily influenced by natural disturbances. Although large, intense fires often burn across the landscape, boreal species have adapted to this. As part of their life cycle, species like jack pine and black spruce require this kind of disturbance to regenerate. New forests quickly grow after these disturbances, creating the natural pattern of even-aged, single species forests found in the boreal region.
The boreal forest contains hundreds of species of plants such as ferns, mosses, fungi, shrubs and herbs.
It is also home to a wide variety of wildlife, including:
- predators such as black bears, wolves and lynx
- large ungulates like moose and caribou
- a myriad of birds ranging from the great owl to the tiny winter wren
- many small mammals such as the pine marten, hare, red fox and porcupine
Great Lakes–St. Lawrence forest region
The Great Lakes–St. Lawrence forest is the second largest forest region in Ontario. It covers approximately 20 million hectares of Ontario. This forest extends along the St. Lawrence River across central Ontario to Lake Huron and west of Lake Superior along the border with Minnesota. The southern portion of the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence forest extends into the populated areas of Ontario.
This region is:
- 20% of Ontario’s area
- 70% within Area of the Undertaking
- 62% forest cover
The Great Lakes–St. Lawrence forest is dominated by hardwood forests, featuring species such as maple, oak, yellow birch, white and red pine. Coniferous trees such as white pine, red pine, hemlock and white cedar, commonly mix with deciduous broad-leaved species, such as yellow birch, sugar and red maples, basswood and red oak. Much of the forest in the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence forest is uneven aged, meaning that young and old trees can be found within the same group of trees.
The Great Lakes–St. Lawrence region is home to a wide variety of wildlife, including:
- predators such as black bear, wolves
- large ungulates like white-tailed deer and moose
- many small mammals such as beaver, muskrat, otter
- pileated woodpecker and various migratory birds
Deciduous forest region
The deciduous forest is the southernmost region in Ontario, dominated by agriculture and urban areas. Totaling almost 3 million hectares, this region has largely been cleared with scattered woodlots remaining on sites too poor for agriculture. This forest generally has the greatest diversity of tree species, while at the same time having the lowest proportion of forest.
This region is:
- 3% of Ontario’s area
- 0% within Area of the Undertaking
- 10.3% forest cover
It has most of the tree and shrubs species found in the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence forest, and also contains black walnut, butternut, tulip, magnolia, black gum, many types of oaks, hickories, sassafras and red bud — species commonly found in Ohio, Pennsylvania and the Carolinas in the USA.
The deciduous forest region has the most diverse forest life in Ontario. The region has many rare mammals, birds, plants, insects, reptiles and amphibians such as:
- sassafras and tulip tree
- southern flying squirrel and red-bellied woodpecker
- black rat snake, milk snake and gray tree frog
12 Best Lakes in Oregon
Written by Brad Lane
Jun 15, 2020
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Looking for the best lake in Oregon to paddle, fish, or swim? The top lakes in the state cater to every aquatic activity under the sun. From lakes near Portland to Crater Lake in southern Oregon, fun places to access the water span the entire state. East of the Cascade Mountains, within the high desert region near Bend, several great lakes offer a warm-weather respite and place to bring a boat.
It's not just on-the-water activities at Oregon's best lakes that draw a crowd. Some of the best campgrounds and hiking trails in Oregon also surround the top lakes, not to mention drool-inducing Cascade Mountain scenery like Mt. Hood, South Sister, and Broken Top. These scenic amenities make the best Oregon Lakes a joy to visit, even if you never get your feet wet.
The Cascade Lakes Scenic Byway, in the central part of the state highlights several glistening bodies of water. This aptly named roadway travels for 66 miles and connects several elevated lakes that the whole family can enjoy. The true postcard lake of Oregon, Crater Lake is near the southern city of Ashland, surrounded by Oregon's only national park.
Explore the state's most beautiful bodies of water with our list of the best lakes in Oregon.
Note: Some businesses may be temporarily closed due to recent global health and safety issues.
1. Crater Lake, Klamath County
Nearly 2,000 feet deep, Crater Lake, in southern Oregon, is the deepest lake in the United States. This must-see Oregon attraction is the result of the ancient Mount Mazama erupting over 7,000 years ago and collapsing into itself. This volcanic history makes Crater Lake a caldera, and not a crater, as its name implies. However formed, Crater Lake today is one of the most beautiful national parks in the country and a true natural wonder that deserves a visit.
On the southern rim of Crater Lake, the Rim Village and Rim Visitor Center are an excellent place to start exploring the national park. The 33-mile Rim Drive extends from the visitor center to reveal panoramic vistas of Crater Lake. Rim Drive is curvy and potentially congested in the summer months. Bicyclists also share the route.
A popular hiking trail also heads west from the Rim Visitor Center and provides expansive views of features like Wizard Island. No streams or inlets flow into the ancient caldera, and only rain and snowmelt add to the enchanting blue water of Crater Lake. An alternative route on the cross-country Pacific Crest Trail also skirts the southeast edge of the rim.
Cleetwood Cove is the only place where swimming is allowed in Crater Lake. To access the shoreline, hikers head down the 1.1-mile Cleetwood Cove Trail on the northeast rim. No personal watercraft is allowed on Crater Lake, but the park does offer guided ferry rides to Wizard Island throughout the summer.
2. Detroit Lake, Linn & Marion Counties
Sixty miles east of Salem, Detroit Lake is a massive reservoir on the North Santiam River. The best place to access this 3,500-acre lake is the Detroit Lake State Recreation Area on the northeast shore. The Recreation Area provides boat ramps, a visitor center, and over 250 campsites. The campground facilitates RV and tent camping, and all overnight users share access to flushing restrooms and showers.
The encompassing Willamette National Forest operates several other campgrounds surrounding the lake. The Piety Island Campground in the middle of the lake is perhaps the most unique and is only accessible by boat. Other popular Forest Service campgrounds include Cove Creek Campground and Southshore Campground.
Fishing is a popular activity at Detroit Lake. Anglers often aim for rainbow trout thanks to the many hatcheries nearby. Two marinas, both in the adjacent city of Detroit, offer boat rentals, as well as bait and fishing supplies.
3. Timothy Lake, Clackamas County
South of Mt. Hood in northern Oregon, Timothy Lake is a heavily used man-made lake and recreation destination. Hikers, mountain bikers, and horse riders flock to this aquatic attraction to use the variety of trails near the water.
The 12-mile Timothy Lake Loop circumnavigates the water and is the most traveled trail of the area. Also lining the shoreline of Timothy Lake are seven campgrounds with over 200 sites total.
Timothy Lake is one of few lakes in Mt. Hood National Forest that allow motorized boating. Still, the most popular way to experience the water is on a canoe, kayak, or paddleboard. While on the lake, it's hard to miss the great, glaciated view of Mount Hood on the northern horizon. Swimming from the shoreline is also a popular summertime activity.
Mt. Hood National Forest isn't short on amazing bodies of water. Trillium Lake is another popular lake in the area that provides one of the most iconic images of Mt. Hood. This mirror-like lake is 20 miles north of Timothy Lake and near the town of Government Camp.
4. Paulina Lake, Deschutes County
Paulina Lake is one of a pair of crater lakes in the Newberry National Volcanic Monument of central Oregon. Like other crater lakes in the state, rainwater and snowmelt are the only contributors to the water of Paulina Lake. These clean sources give the lake a hypnotizing shade of blue that lures visitors throughout the summer.
Approximately 25 miles south of Bend, Paulina Lake and the surrounding Volcanic Monument are popular for boating, swimming, hiking, and camping. An inviting hot spring is on the north shore of the lake and is only accessible via boat or shoreline hiking trail. Motorized and non-motorized boats are allowed on Paulina Lake. The lake also has a healthy population of rainbow trout and kokanee salmon.
The adjacent lake in the Newberry Caldera, East Lake is well regarded for the big brown trout that get pulled from its water. The East Lake Resort is on the southeast shore and provides cabin rentals, tent sites, and RV parking spots. The resort also features boat rentals.
A must-stop when visiting either lake in the Newberry National Volcanic Monument is the nearby Lava Lands Visitor Center. This educational space offers an encompassing perspective on the surrounding environment.
5. Emigrant Lake, Jackson County
A great place to beat the heat of southern Oregon, Emigrant Lake is accessible from both Ashland and Medford in Jackson County. The lake is a popular day trip and overnight destination with an expansive shoreline and lakeside campground. One of the unique attractions of the lake is a 280-foot twin flume waterslide operated by the county.
All types of boating are welcome at Emigrant Lake. Any given day in the summer, visitors should expect to see kayaks and water-skiers skimming across the water. Fishing is also a visitor favorite at Emigrant Lake, with anglers casting lines for bass, crappie, and trout. The boat ramp at Emigrant Lake is on the northern shore within Emigrant Lake County Park.
Emigrant Lake Campground is also within Emigrant Lake County Park. Thirty-two sites at the campground support RVs, with full hookups available. An additional 40 sites cater more towards tent camping and small camping trailers. All which region surrounds the banks of lakes and a river at Emigrant Lake have access to shower and restroom facilities, as well as excellent views of the water.
6. Elk Lake, Deschutes County
Near the inspiring peak of Mount Bachelor within Deschutes National Forest, and a 45-mile drive from Bend in central Oregon, Elk Lake delivers with a postcard setting. This crystal-clear lake is a summer hot spot for boating, fishing, and swimming. Kokanee Salmon is the most abundant species in Elk Lake, and anglers should head to the southern shore to cast their lines.
On the northern shore, the National Forest Service operates Elk Lake Campground with 26 reservable sites. The adjacent Elk Lake Resort also features campsites, as well as cabins and a lodge restaurant. The resort also features pontoon boat rentals and other services like scenic cruises and private dock rentals.
7. Wallowa Lake, Wallowa County
At the base of the glaciated Wallowa Mountains in eastern Oregon, Wallowa Lake is a popular getaway with a great backdrop. The entire region surrounding Wallowa Lake offers a unique alpine experience in this less populated region of the state.
Wallowa Lake State Park, on the southern shore, is an excellent base camp for exploring this wild region. The state park features boat ramps, a campground, and an extensive day-use area. For boat rentals and local tips on fishing, head to the adjacent Wallowa Lake Marina.
The nearby Wallowa Lake Tramway is a Swiss-made tram that transports visitors to the top of Mt. Howard. From this high vantage point, alongside great views of the Wallowa Lake basin, a small network of trails reveals impressive views of the surrounding glaciers. The adjacent Eagle Cap Wilderness is also accessible by taking the tram.
8. Lake Billy Chinook
In the high desert region of eastern Oregon, this massive reservoir is a first-class recreation destination. Incorporating waters of the Deschutes, Crooked, and Metolius Rivers, Lake Billy Chinook encompasses more than 70 miles of shoreline. Impressive canyon walls line much of the lake for extra scenic appeal while boating, fishing, or camping near td bank routing number washington dc shore.
The Cove Palisades State Park, on the Deschutes and Crooked River portions of the lake, is the best spot to enjoy Lake Billy Chinook. The State Park features over 160 campsites ranging from full hookup RV spots to tent-only camping areas. The State Park also provides several ways to access the water, including a boat ramp, fishing pier, and guided kayak tours.
9. Todd Lake, Deschutes County
Todd Lake is a popular high mountain body of water located near Bend in Deschutes National Forest. The lake is easily accessible from the 66-mile Cascade Lakes Scenic Byway. This scenic roadway is open to traffic from late spring to early fall.
With limited hiking needed to reach the shoreline, Todd Lake is a great place for families looking for easy alpine adventures. Motorized boats are not allowed on Todd Lake, but other activities like kayaking, hiking, and photography flourish.
The Todd Lake Day Use Area is the most common spot for getting on the water. Facilities include picnic tables, restrooms, and places to fish from the shoreline. Visitors can access the Three Sisters Wilderness from the Todd Lake Trailhead. The nearby Todd Lake Campground features less than five lakeside tent sites available on a first-come, first-serve basis.
10. Siltcoos Lake
Two hours west of Eugene, Siltcoos Lake is the largest lake on the Oregon Coast. This freshwater lake is a popular destination for fishing and boating, as well as camping and hiking. While salmon, trout, and crappie also inhabit the lake, anglers often flock to the warm water of Siltcoos Lake to cast for largemouth bass.
Much of the Siltcoos Lake shoreline is inaccessible, so bringing a boat is the best way to enjoy the water. For those without a boat, land activities at Siltcoos Lake are also abundant. Several campgrounds line the banks of the nearby Siltcoos River, like the 55-site Waxmyrtle Campground. Several hiking trails, like the Waxmyrtle Trail, also span the area and lead to the ocean.
11. Sparks Lake
A popular day trip and weekend getaway in Central Oregon, Sparks Lake is a 30-mile drive west of Bend. Within the Deschutes National Forest, the lake is accessible via the stunning Cascade Lakes Scenic Byway. The 360 acres of Sparks Lake has a beautiful backdrop of South Sister and features a vibrant environment to explore on and off the water.
Motorized and non-motorized boats make a gentle wake across Sparks Lake throughout the summer. Sparks Lake is not a spot for water-skiing or tubing, however, as the speed limit is 10 miles per hour. Fly fishing is the only type of angling allowed on the lake. Boating tends to be the most popular way to cast a line because of the ancient lava flows that obstruct the shoreline.
This distinct shoreline and other vibrant Cascade Mountain features also attract a lot of visitors to Sparks Lake. The 2.5-mile Ray Atkeson Memorial Trail offers a great interpretive path to explore the scenic environment. The trail begins near the Sparks Lake boat ramp and traverses through lava flows and lodgepole pines.
12. Upper Klamath Lake
Upper Klamath Lake is the largest freshwater lake in the state. This impressive body of water connects to the city of Klamath Falls and is a southern Oregon vacation destination. The Rocky Point Resort, on a far northwest arm of the lake, is a great gathering place with boat rentals, cabins, and a lodge restaurant.
Activities at Upper Klamath Lake range from boating and fishing to hiking and camping. Stunning views of Cascade Mountain scenery go along with all things to do at the lake. An abundance of wildlife also often makes an appearance, particularly birds due to the lake's vicinity to the Pacific Flyway.
The lake experiences environmental transformations that affect how visitors use the water. Seasonal algae blooms occur on the lake, which can be harmful to people and pets if swallowed. These blooms are well reported, and visitors should check lake conditions before visiting. Activities like hiking, camping, and fishing are still prevalent during these seasonal algae blooms.
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How New Orleans Flooded
1. Katrina makes landfall in Louisiana at 6:10 a.m., but the flooding one united bank business residential areas in greater New Orleans actually begins an hour and a half earlier. Between 4:30 and 5 a.m., levees located where the CSX Railroad crosses the northern arm of the Industrial Canal, in the eastern part of Orleans Parish, breach. With metal gates normally used at this spot not working following damage during a train derailment, engineers had used sandbags to seal the levee "I" walls where the railroad passed through the walls. The ever-growing storm surge, which at this time of the early morning is about nine feet above sea level, breaks through these sandbags and begins flooding the city both to the east and west.
2. Before the storm's landfall an 18-foot surge with huge waves develops in Lake Borgne, peaking between 7 and 8 a.m. About two hours earlier, however, the westward-directed waves on the lake rapidly start eroding the levees fronting the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet. (The MR-GO is a man-made waterway built to offer oceangoing ships a direct route between New Orleans and the Gulf of Mexico.) The MR-GO's levees, which make up the easternmost length of the ring of hurricane-protection levees surrounding St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward, are rapidly overwhelmed and in some places destroyed. The surge then roars westward into St. Bernard Parish, flooding all the lower areas of Chalmette, Meraux, and Violet, and reaching the Lower Ninth Ward by 6:30 a.m.
3. When Katrina makes landfall in Louisiana, it pushes a 14-to-17-foot surge of seawater up the Mississippi River as well as through the adjacent MR-GO and from Mississippi Sound through to Lake Borgne. The latter two surges coalesce in an area known as the "Funnel," so called because the levee systems go from being which region surrounds the banks of lakes and a river nine miles apart to just several hundreds yards apart in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway in the easternmost part of New Orleans. The loss over recent decades of nearby wetlands, which are natural absorbers of both wind energy and surge height during hurricanes, greatly exacerbates the surge now beginning to flood the city. In St. Bernard Parish, for instance, where marshes front levees, minimal erosion and breaches occur; where marshes are gone, the levees are wiped out.
4. At about 6:30 a.m., with the hurricane's eye still south of the city, the surge in the Funnel overtops the levees on its banks and starts to flood St. Bernard Parish on either side of the waterway. This exacerbates the flooding already coming from the MR-GO breaches. Floodwaters begin to rise even faster in the Lower Ninth Ward.
5. The surge flowing westwards through the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway races into both branches of the north-south-running Industrial Canal. Surge waters flowing south down the canal are stopped by the closed locks that separate the canal from the Mississippi River, while those flowing north pour into Lake Pontchartrain, which at this point in the early morning is still 10 feet lower in elevation. At about 6:50 a.m., the surge waters overtop levees all along the Industrial Canal, sending floodwater into the city to both the east and west of the canal. The Lower Ninth Ward takes a triple hit, having already been receiving floodwaters overtopping levees in the MR-GO to the east and Funnel to the north.
6. In the Industrial Canal, the floodwaters start to erode the earthen levee embankments and cause four sections of the concrete levee "I" walls to bulge outwards. Cracks appear on the concrete walls' canal-side bases. As the walls tilt or in some cases are even moved backwards, large cracks develop in the canal-side soil that underlies the concrete "I" walls. Water begins percolating down these cracks and under the pilings, weakening the soil foundation. The stage is now set for a major breach of the levee here and an even larger one a little which region surrounds the banks of lakes and a river down the canal.
7. Around 7:45 a.m., the levees along the eastern side of the Industrial Canal's southern arm breach explosively. A head of water almost 20 feet high destroys houses in the immediate vicinity of the breach and pushes others off their foundations. The Lower Ninth Ward begins flooding extremely rapidly, and a barge drifts through the major part of the breach, breaking the top nine inches off the already-failed concrete wall. All areas east of the breach flood to about 12 feet above sea level; since these areas lie below sea level, their houses are totally submerged.
8. Early in the morning surge waters cresting over the levee system in the northern arm of the Industrial Canal flood Orleans East. Later, around 10 a.m., floodwaters overtop levees along Lake Pontchartrain near the Lakefront Airport and gush for a few hours into Orleans East. The waters flow over a section of concrete levee that, strangely, lies almost two feet lower than the earthen walls to which it is attached. Also, a small portion of the earthen levee gives way here.
9. Once the eye of Katrina reaches the southern shore of Lake Pontchartrain, the surge in the Funnel and Industrial Canal levels off and begins to drain due to the storm's westerly winds. But the damage has been done. Besides the major breaches on the Industrial Canal, miles of levees along the MR-GO have been totally eroded, and St. Bernard Parish between the outlet and the Mississippi River has completely flooded.
10. As the eye of the storm starts to cross the Rigolets, a strait northeast of New Orleans that connects Lakes Pontchartrain and Borgne, the winds along the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain swing to the northwest. This drives highly turbulent surge water in the lake into canals opening onto the lake's south shore as well as against the levees lining those canals.
11. Surge waters from Lake Pontchartrain rush into the London Avenue Canal, continuing to rise until about 9 a.m. Far down the canal, near the Mirabeau Avenue bridge, the walls of the canal's levee, which consist of concrete walls atop earthen embankments, begin to swell outwards from the pressure. At appromixately 9:30 a.m., just after the peak of the surge, an eastern section of this levee fails catastrophically. Water drains into the city, lifting one home off its foundations and shoving it 40 yards across a road.
12. While the pressure on the levee walls in the southern portion of the London Avenue Canal eases after the breach, pressure farther north remains heavy. Bbvacompass com go clearpoints card walls just south of the Robert E. Lee Boulevard bridge begin to bulge outwards. About 10:30 a.m., the wall here fails on the west side of the canal, sending an eight-foot-high wall of water cascading into surrounding neighborhoods. This breach occurs even though the surge at the time is only seven feet above sea level, down three feet from the peak 90 minutes earlier.
13. Surge water floods into the 17th Street Canal at the same time as it does into the London Avenue Canal farther east. At the mouth of the 17th Street Canal, small homes and boathouses immediately west of the lake entrance to the canal fly apart, their debris blown into the waterway. Restaurants at the mouth of the canal along its eastern flank are also annihilated by the winds and waves, and some of this debris also enters the canal.
14. At about 10:30 a.m., the eastern levee of the 17th Street Canal bursts forth a few hundred yards south of the hurricane-proof bridge along the Metairie Hammond Highway. Eyewitnesses say the surge waters now flooding the western portion of Orleans Parish rise rapidly. As floodwaters continue to rush into the canal from Lake Pontchartrain, debris backs up against the low-slung Metairie Hammond Highway bridge.
15. The catastrophic failure of the levee walls seals New Orleans' fate. Designed to protect the city from a surge of at least 11.2 feet above sea level, the walls failed with a maximum surge of 10.5 feet—thus, before their design criteria were exceeded. It takes another two days for the floodwaters inside the city and in Lake Pontchartrain to equalize to about three feet above sea level. This leaves the average home in six to nine feet of standing water. Investigations into why the levees failed have only just begun.