great western bank ames

Profiles of all 1560 Great Western Bank employees: Chanelle Grandison, Job VP Commercial Lending at First National Bank, Ames/Ankeny/W Des Moines. At Great Western Bank, we empower our team members by embracing each other's differences, distinct backgrounds and viewpoints. We know that diverse perspectives. Find information or Apply for any service Great Western Bank offers in Ames, Iowa: Financial Services, Banks, Loans, Retirement Planning Services and more.

Great western bank ames -

Great Western Bank

Other Places:

Town & Country Credit Union
102 N Elm St, Avoca, IA 51521, USA
Coordinate: 41.4767564, -95.3395654
(http://towncountrycu.com/)

U.S. Bank Branch
155 S Elm St, Avoca, IA 51521, USA
Coordinate: 41.4763681, -95.3392092

Federal Reserve Bank
2201 Farnam St, Omaha, NE 68102, USA
Coordinate: 41.257033, -95.9452644
(http://www.kansascityfed.org/)

Omaha Branch
2201 Farnam St, Omaha, NE 68102, USA
Coordinate: 41.2571142, -95.9448259

Bank of the West
1921 Harney St, Omaha, NE 68102, USA
Coordinate: 41.256313, -95.941786
(https://www.bankofthewest.com/customer-service/branch/nebraska/)

Wells Fargo Bank
1919 Douglas St, Omaha, NE 68102, USA
Coordinate: 41.2584823, -95.9420405
(https://www.wellsfargo.com/locator/bank/1919__DOUGLAS__ST_OMAHA)

U.S. Bank - Omaha Main Drive-Up
1800 Douglas St, Omaha, NE 68102, USA
Coordinate: 41.2585187, -95.9401515
(http://www.usbank.com/)

U.S. Bank Branch
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Coordinate: 41.2583345, -95.9400177
(https://locations.usbank.com/index/nebraska/omaha/omaha-main-dr)

U.S. Bank Branch
202 S 18th St, Omaha, NE 68102, USA
Coordinate: 41.2583345, -95.9400177
(https://locations.usbank.com/index/nebraska/omaha/omaha-main-dr)

U.S. Bank Branch
1700 Farnam St, Omaha, NE 68102, USA
Coordinate: 41.2579084, -95.938907
(https://locations.usbank.com/index/nebraska/omaha/omaha-main-br)

First National Capital Markets
1620 Dodge St # 1104, Omaha, NE 68102, USA
Coordinate: 41.2598651, -95.9380566
(https://www.fncapitalmarkets.com/)

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Coordinate: 41.2591269, -95.9379124

FNBO - First National Bank of Omaha
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Coordinate: 41.259898, -95.937954
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Lauritzen Investments Inc
1601 Dodge St, Omaha, NE 68102, USA
Coordinate: 41.259182, -95.937831

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Coordinate: 41.2600084, -95.9379108

Security National Bank - Old Market
507 S 11th St, Omaha, NE 68102, USA
Coordinate: 41.2551464, -95.9302709
(https://www.snbconnect.com/?utm_source=google&utm_medium=Yext)

FNBO - First National Bank of Omaha
3815 Denmark Dr, Council Bluffs, IA 51501, USA
Coordinate: 41.221099, -95.834829
(https://www.fnbo.com/)

Pinnacle Bank
1016 Douglas St, Omaha, NE 68102, USA
Coordinate: 41.2588178, -95.9299265
(https://www.pinnbank.com/)

State Farm Bank
Omaha, NE 68102, USA
Coordinate: 41.2598627, -95.9300318

Gallup FCU
1001 Gallup Dr, Omaha, NE 68102, USA
Coordinate: 41.2696151, -95.9223529
(http://www.gallupfcu.com/)

Источник: https://cumaps.net/en/US/great-western-bank-p1502732


               



Another GAAR in the books! Congrats to the 2021 participants and thank you to our many volunteers, sponsors and supporters! Race results can be found on Webscorer at www.webscorer.com/gaar and as pdfs here (by Category) and here (Overall). Event photos can be found on the Great Ames Adventure Race Facebook Page.

Since 2007 the Great Ames Adventure Race (The GAAR) has called people of all ages and abilities to test their mettle at a triathlon of events. Participants compete in solo, tandem or relay divisions on a course that starts and ends at Ada Hayden Heritage Park, 5205 Grand Avenue in North Ames. The race begins with waves of six on a 2.5 mile race around the lake. Participants then exit the lake to a transition area where the 15 mile bike race and the 5K run begin.

The Bike Route (modified in 2016) is entirely on paved roads south, west and north of the park. The 5K is on asphalt and cinder trails within the park. PFDs (life jackets) and bike helmets are required!

New in 2021, we've added an Adult-Youth Relay Category! As with Adult-Youth Tandem Teams, the adult and child (age 12 or under) must stay together during each leg of the race.

Come and challenge yourself, or challenge family, friends, and coworkers in a fun paddle-bike-run event that keeps people coming back, year after year.

Check us out on FACEBOOK!


REGISTRATION:
(Register early to ensure that you'll get an event t-shirt!)

    Advance Registration Fees

    • SOLO and SOLO MASTERS - $40.00

    • TANDEM and ADULT/YOUTH TANDEM - $80.00

    • Two, three and four person Relay Teams - $30.00 per particpant

    ONLINE REGISTRATION will be available through September 9th at GetMeRegistered.com/GAAR.

    Day-of-event Registrations will be $50 per participant.

    To register by mail print and complete the Registration Form and Waiver page (or pdf) and mail with payment to:

        GAAR
        2908 White Oak Drive
        Ames, IA 50014

        Please make checks payable to "GAAR" and note "Registration" in the memo.

    GAAR reserves the right to use your photo, including video, for promotional purposes.


Prizes and AWARDS will be presented at the Moose Lodge
(1/4 mile north of the park at Hwy 69 and 190th Street) following the race. A pancake breakfast will be served at the Moose Lodge from 8:00 a.m. until noon. The breakfast is included with each registration and is available to family, friends and the general public at $4/person ($2/child).



FAQ's

    Are there restrictions or regulations on what kind of canoe/kayak, bike, or paddle I can use?
    No, you may use any type of bike, paddle, canoe or kayak

    Do I have to wear a helmet while on my bike?
    Yes, all participants on the bike portion of the race will be required to wear CPSC/ANSI approved helmets.

    Do I have to wear a life jacket while I am in my boat?
    Yes, all participants will be required to wear a US Coast Guard approved personal flotation device while on the lake.

    COMPLETE EVENT RULES can be found here.

    How do the categories work?

    • SOLO participants compete in the entire course.
      Solo Masters participants are aged 50 and over.

    • TANDEM participants compete together over the entire course, paddling and/or biking tandem. The finish times of Adult - Tandem particpants are averaged; Adult - Youth participants must race together. (Eligible youth are aged 12 and under.)

    • RELAY participants compete in sections of the race as assigned by their team. Two, three and four - person Relay Teams will compete together as one category.

    Can I rent a boat?
    You are responsible for providing your own boat. Canoe and kayak rentals can be arranged IN ADVANCE with:

    • JAX Outdoor Gear, (515) 292-2276

    • Seven Oaks Recreation, (515) 432-9457

    • ISU Outdoor Recreation, (515) 294-8200 (for ISU students, staff, affiliates)

    Be sure to tell them you are renting for the GAAR and work out arrangements for transport with them!

    Where do the proceeds from this race go?
    The GAAR is a joint, volunteer effort between members of the Ames Area Running Club, Ames Velo, Friends of Central Iowa Biking (2008-2017), and the Skunk River Paddlers. Proceeds have helped support the Lincoln Way Chapter of the American Red Cross, Food at First, the Friends of Ada Hayden Heritage Park, the Ames Emergency Residence Project, Friendship Ark Homes, the Story County Sheriff's Dive Team, the Story County Amateur Radio Club the Gilbert Trail Project, the Ames Miracle League Field/Playground and WeCycle.

    2019 proceeds went to Iowa Able, to Story County Conservation (for the  HOINT), to the Let's Connect Woodward to Perry Trail project and to the paddler's Access Ada Hayden accessible dock and launch project.

    How can I volunteer to help?
    Many volunteers are needed for the GAAR. Please email [email protected] and indicate how you or your group might like to help.




2019 GAAR


    Congrats to our 2019 participants and thank you to our many volunteers, sponsors and supporters! Race results can be found on Webscorer at www.webscorer.com/gaar and in a pdf here. Event photos can be found on the Great Ames Adventure Race Facebook Page.

    The GAAR planning committee has distributed 2019 race proceeds to Iowa Able, to Story County Conservation (for the  HOINT), to the Let's Connect Woodward to Perry Trail project and to the paddler's Access Ada Hayden accessible dock and launch project. Be sure to thank our sponsors for making these gifts possible!


2018 GAAR


2017 GAAR


2016 GAAR


    Thanks, EVERYONE, for another Great Race! Results are HERE and photos are on our Facebook Page.

    The Story County Sheriff's Dive Team and the Story County Amateur Radio Club have supported the GAAR each year since the inaugural event in 2007. In recognition of their support, and in support of the services that they provide to the community, a portion of the 2016 GAAR proceeds has been donated to each organization. A donation has also been made to the Friends of Ada Hayden Heritage Park.

    Please be sure to thank our sponsors, Skunk River Cycles, JAX Outdoor Gear, FOX Engineering and Bike World Ames.


2015 GAAR


2014 GAAR


2013 GAAR

    THANK YOU ALL FOR ANOTHER FINE RACE!   Many thanks to our sponsors, supporters and prize donors, and to the many volunteers that make the GAAR what it is. Race results are at www.greatamesadventurerace.org/files/2013Results.pdf and we have over 500 event photos on our FACEBOOK PAGE.

    After expenses were paid the GAAR Committee donated $800 each to Food at First and to Friends of Ada Hayden Heritage Park. The contributions represent the net proceeds from the 2013 race.


2012 GAAR

    CONGRATULATIONS EVERYONE and a big thank you to all of the 2012 sponsors, supporters and volunteers - especially Skunk River Cycles, JAX, Bike World and Fox Engineering. RACE RESULTS are HERE. PHOTOS are on Facebook. After expenses were paid, the GAAR Committee presented a check in the amount of $1000 to Food at First, in Ames.


2011 GAAR

    THE 2011 GAAR: THANK YOU ALL FOR ANOTHER GREAT RACE! Many thanks to our sponsors, supporters, prize donors and volunteers, and congratulations to each and every participant. We hope you all enjoyed the race and we encourage you to express your appreciation to our sponsors and supporters.

    After expenses were paid, the GAAR Committee presented a check in the amount of $1000 to Kim Linduska, Chair of the Lincoln Way Chapter, Red Cross of Iowa.

    The 2011 results are by category: Solo, Tandem, and Relay
    First Place Winners are in the September 16 News Release
    Photos are on Picasa and on our Facebook Page
    We have one GAAR leftover: a water bottle     Email info @ greatamesadventurace.org to claim


2010 GAAR

    Great Ames Adventure Race committee donates $1,000 to American Red Cross (Ames Tribune 12/8/2010) The Great Ames Adventure Race committee recently presented the Lincoln Way Chapter of the American Red Cross with a check for $1,000, representing proceeds from the 2010 Great Ames Adventure Race. A donation from the Moose Lodge was presented by members Chuck Clatt and Art Barton.

    CONGRATULATIONS to the 2010 GAAR Athletes and Volunteers for yet another fantastic event, and MANY THANKS to our sponsors and prize donors!

    RACE RESULTS are available by category at gaar10_solo_relay_results.xls,   gaar10_tandem_results.xls,   gaar10_solo_relay_results.pdf,   gaar10_tandem_results.pdf & gaar10_top35.pdf.

    Hundreds of photographs were taken of the event by Jeff White and Diane Lowry. This year the "Around the GAAR" images are presented in Windows Media Video (wmv) format, and if there's a particular photo that you might like to have in high resolution please let us know at photo(~at~) greatamesadventurerace.org.   PHOTOS: gaar2010paddle, gaar2010bike1, bike2, gaar2010run1, run2, & around_the_gaar.wmv.

    Great Ames Adventure Race set for Sunday (Ames Tribune 9/7/2010)

    GAAR Committee member issues Challenge (Ames Tribune 7/30/2010)

    GAAR gift to Red Cross (Ames Tribune 7/7/2010)

2009 GAAR

    THANK YOU, and CONGRATULATIONS, to the 2009 GAAR Participants and Volunteers for another fantastic event!   RACE RESULTS are available by category at gaar09_results.xls and gaar09_results.pdf.  The top 25 are listed at gaar09_top25.pdf. Also, thanks to Jeff White, Diane Lowry and Lydia Lowry, we have over 400 PHOTOS of the event. See paddle, bike, run, and around_the_gaar!

    Letter to the Ames Tribune (9/23/2009)

    2009 AMES ADVENTURE RACE SET FOR LABOR DAY WEEKEND!   (Press Release, 7/20/09)

2008 GAAR

    Congratulations to the 2008 GAAR Participants and THANK YOU to the GAAR Volunteers for a fantastic event! Race results are available by category at gaar08_results.pdf and we have nearly 750 PHOTOS of the event - see prerace, paddle, bike, run, and the_GAAR!

    9/15/2008 - GAAR Committee presents gift to Red Cross - Members of the Skunk River Paddlers, Friends of Central Iowa Biking and Ames Running Club presented a gift of $500 to Kirk Brocker, the new Executive Director of the Lincoln Way Chapter of the American Red Cross. The '07 event was a joint effort with the Red Cross so we were pleased to have the opportunity to extend the relationship!

    The Great Ames Adventure Race returns to Ada Hayden Park   (Press Release, 7/31/08)

2007 GAAR

    The inaugural, 2007 Great Ames Adventure Race was a joint effort of the Lincoln Way Chapter of the American Red Cross and the Skunk River Paddlers, a local paddling group. Doug Yetman, Director of the Ames Chapter at that time, and David Kraemer, a Chapter Board Member, paddler and then - editor of the Ames Tribune, imagined a local event as a Red Cross fundraiser after participating together in a similar event on the Maquoketa River.

    Great Ames Adventure Race draws 136 participants   (Ames Tribune, 6/12/07)

    The 2007 GAAR results originally from www.lincolnwayarc.org/GAAR/index.html
    Photos from 2007: Prerace, Paddle, BikeRun, MooseLodge
       

The information provided on the GAAR website is provided as a service to the event organizers.

Источник: http://www.greatamesadventurerace.org/

Review Great Western Bank,blockly,IA in Leon, Iowa - Vimarsana.com

Great Western Bank

North Main Street

Leon,

Iowa,United-states - 50144

[email protected]

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Frequently Asked Questions About This Location

Qus: 1).what is the mode of payment accepted ?

Ans: Cash , Credit Card and Wallets

Qus: 2).What are the hours of operation ?

Ans: Open all days from 9:30 to 8:30 and exceptions on Sundays

Qus: 3).Do they have Global Plus code for this location?

Ans: Yes . Plus code is created for all the location by plus.codes . Plus code for this location is 86G8P7R3+28.

Qus: 4).What is the Latitude & Longtitude Of the location?

Ans: Latitude of the location is 40.740051 Longtitude of the location is - -93.7466584

vimarsana © 2020. All Rights Reserved.

Источник: https://vimarsana.com/ampreview/great-western-bank-decatur-iowa

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Jesse James

American outlaw, confederate guerrilla, and train robber

For other uses, see Jesse James (disambiguation).

Jesse Woodson James (September 5, 1847 – April 3, 1882) was an American outlaw, bank and train robber, guerrilla, and leader of the James–Younger Gang. Raised in the "Little Dixie" area of western Missouri, James and his family maintained strong Southern sympathies.[further explanation needed] He and his brother Frank James joined pro-Confederate guerrillas known as "bushwhackers" operating in Missouri and Kansas during the American Civil War. As followers of William Quantrill and "Bloody Bill" Anderson, they were accused of committing atrocities against Union soldiers and civilian abolitionists, including the Centralia Massacre in 1864.

After the war, as members of various gangs of outlaws, Jesse and Frank robbed banks, stagecoaches, and trains across the Midwest, gaining national fame and often popular sympathy despite the brutality of their crimes. The James brothers were most active as members of their own gang from about 1866 until 1876, when as a result of their attempted robbery of a bank in Northfield, Minnesota, several members of the gang were captured or killed. They continued in crime for several years afterward, recruiting new members, but came under increasing pressure from law enforcement seeking to bring them to justice. On April 3, 1882, Jesse James was shot and killed by Robert Ford, a new recruit to the gang who hoped to collect a reward on James's head and a promised amnesty for his previous crimes. Already a celebrity in life, James became a legendary figure of the Wild West after his death.

Despite popular portrayals of James as an embodiment of Robin Hood, robbing from the rich and giving to the poor, this is a case of romantic revisionism since there is absolutely no evidence that he or his gang shared any loot from their robberies with anyone outside their network.[1] Scholars and historians have characterized James as one of many criminals inspired by the regional insurgencies of ex-Confederates following the Civil War, rather than as a manifestation of alleged economic justice or of frontier lawlessness.[2] James continues to be one of the most famous figures from the era, and his life has been dramatized and memorialized numerous times.

Early life

Jesse Woodson James was born on September 5, 1847, in Clay County, Missouri, near the site of present-day Kearney.[3] This area of Missouri was largely settled by people from the Upper South, especially Kentucky and Tennessee, and became known as Little Dixie for this reason. James had two full siblings: his elder brother, Alexander Franklin "Frank" James, and a younger sister, Susan Lavenia James. He was of English and Scottish descent. His father, Robert S. James, farmed commercial hemp in Kentucky and was a Baptist minister before coming to Missouri. After he married, he migrated to Bradford, Missouri and helped found William Jewell College in Liberty, Missouri.[2] He held six slaves and more than 100 acres (0.40 km2) of farmland.

Robert traveled to California during the Gold Rush to minister to those searching for gold;[4] he died there when James was three years old.[5] After Robert's death, his widow Zerelda remarried twice, first to Benjamin Simms in 1852 and then in 1855 to Dr. Reuben Samuel, who moved into the James family home. Jesse's mother and Samuel had four children together: Sarah Louisa, John Thomas, Fannie Quantrell, and Archie Peyton Samuel.[4][6] Zerelda and Samuel acquired a total of seven slaves, who served mainly as farmhands in tobacco cultivation.[6][7]

Historical context

The approach of the American Civil War loomed large in the James–Samuel household. Missouri was a border state, sharing characteristics of both North and South, but 75% of the population was from the South or other border states.[4] Clay County in particular was strongly influenced by the Southern culture of its rural pioneer families. Farmers raised the same crops and livestock as in the areas from which they had migrated. They brought slaves with them and purchased more according to their needs. The county counted more slaveholders and more slaves than most other regions of the state; in Missouri as a whole, slaves accounted for only 10 percent of the population, but in Clay County, they constituted 25 percent.[8] Aside from slavery, the culture of Little Dixie was Southern in other ways as well. This influenced how the population acted during and for a period of time after the war.

After the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act in 1854, Clay County became the scene of great turmoil as the question of whether slavery would be expanded into the neighboring Kansas Territory bred tension and hostility. Many people from Missouri migrated to Kansas to try to influence its future. Much of the dramatic build-up to the Civil War centered on the violence that erupted on the Kansas–Missouri border between pro- and anti-slavery militias.[7][9]

American Civil War

After a series of campaigns and battles between conventional armies in 1861, guerrilla warfare gripped Missouri, waged between secessionist "bushwhackers" and Union forces which largely consisted of local militias known as "jayhawkers". A bitter conflict ensued, resulting in an escalating cycle of atrocities committed by both sides. Confederate guerrillas murdered civilian Unionists, executed prisoners, and scalped the dead. The Union presence enforced martial law with raids on homes, arrests of civilians, summary executions, and banishment of Confederate sympathizers from the state.[10]

The James–Samuel family sided with the Confederates at the outbreak of war.[11] Frank James joined a local company recruited for the secessionist Drew Lobbs Army, and fought at the Battle of Wilson's Creek in August 1861. He fell ill and returned home soon afterward. In 1863, he was identified as a member of a guerrilla squad that operated in Clay County. In May of that year, a Union militia company raided the James–Samuel farm looking for Frank's group. They tortured Reuben Samuel by briefly hanging him from a tree. According to legend, they lashed young Jesse.[4]

Quantrill's Raiders

Frank James eluded capture and was believed to have joined the guerrilla organization led by William C. Quantrill known as Quantrill's Raiders. It is thought that he took part in the notorious massacre of some two hundred men and boys in Lawrence, Kansas, a center of abolitionists.[12][13] Frank followed Quantrill to Sherman, Texas, over the winter of 1863–1864. In the spring he returned in a squad commanded by Fletch Taylor. After they arrived in Clay County, 16-year-old Jesse James joined his brother in Taylor's group.[4]

Taylor was severely wounded in the summer of 1864, losing his right arm to a shotgun blast. The James brothers then joined the bushwhacker group led by William "Bloody Bill" Anderson. Jesse suffered a serious wound to the chest that summer. The Clay County provost marshal reported that both Frank and Jesse James took part in the Centralia Massacre in September, in which guerrillas stopped a train carrying unarmed Union soldiers returning home from duty and killed or wounded some 22 of them; the guerrillas scalped and dismembered some of the dead. The guerrillas also ambushed and defeated a pursuing regiment of Major A. V. E. Johnson's Union troops, killing all who tried to surrender, who numbered more than 100. Frank later identified Jesse as a member of the band who had fatally shot Major Johnson.[14]

As a result of the James brothers' activities, Union military authorities forced their family to leave Clay County. Though ordered to move South beyond Union lines, they moved north across the nearby state border into Nebraska Territory.[15]

After "Bloody Bill" Anderson was killed in an ambush in October, the James brothers separated. Frank followed Quantrill into Kentucky, while Jesse went to Texas under the command of Archie Clement, one of Anderson's lieutenants. He is known to have returned to Missouri in the spring.[14] At the age of 17, Jesse suffered the second of two life-threatening chest wounds when he was shot while trying to surrender after they ran into a Union cavalry patrol near Lexington, Missouri.[16][17]

After the Civil War

Clay County Savings in Liberty, Missouri

At the end of the Civil War, Missouri remained deeply divided. The conflict split the population into three bitterly opposed factions: anti-slavery Unionists identified with the Republican Party; segregationist conservative Unionists identified with the Democratic Party; and pro-slavery, ex-Confederate secessionists, many of whom were also allied with the Democrats, especially in the southern part of the state.

The Republican-dominated Reconstruction legislature passed a new state constitution that freed Missouri's slaves. It temporarily excluded former Confederates from voting, serving on juries, becoming corporate officers, or preaching from church pulpits. The atmosphere was volatile, with widespread clashes between individuals and between armed gangs of veterans from both sides of the war.[18][19]

Jesse recovered from his chest wound at his uncle's boardinghouse in Harlem, Missouri (north across the Missouri River from the City of Kansas's River Quay [changed to Kansas City in 1889]). He was tended to by his first cousin, Zerelda "Zee" Mimms, named after Jesse's mother.[14] Jesse and his cousin began a nine-year courtship that culminated in their marriage. Meanwhile, his former commander Archie Clement kept his bushwhacker gang together and began to harass Republican authorities.[11]

These men were the likely culprits in the first daylight armed bank robbery in the United States during peacetime,[20] the robbery of the Clay County Savings Association in the town of Liberty, Missouri, on February 13, 1866. The bank was owned by Republican former militia officers. They had recently conducted the first Republican Party rally in Clay County's history. During the gang's escape from the town, an innocent bystander, 17-year-old George C. "Jolly" Wymore, a student at William Jewell College, was shot dead on the street.[21]

It remains unclear whether Jesse and Frank took part in the Clay County robbery. After the James brothers successfully conducted other robberies and became legendary, some observers retroactively credited them with being the leaders of the robbery.[14] Others have argued that Jesse was at the time still bedridden with his wound and could not have participated. No evidence has been found that connects either brother to the crime, nor conclusively rules them out.[22] On June 13, 1866, in Jackson County, Missouri, the gang freed two jailed members of Quantrill's gang, killing the jailer in the effort.[23] Historians believe that the James brothers were involved in this crime.

Local violence continued to increase in the state; Governor Thomas Clement Fletcher had recently ordered a company of militia into Johnson County to suppress guerrilla activity.[24]Archie Clement continued his career of crime and harassment of the Republican government, to the extent of occupying the town of Lexington, Missouri, on election day in 1866. Shortly afterward, the state militia shot Clement dead. James wrote about this death with bitterness a decade later.[21][22]

The survivors of Clement's gang continued to conduct bank robberies during the next two years, though their numbers dwindled through arrests, gunfights, and lynchings. While they later tried to justify robbing the banks, most of their targets were small, local banks based on local capital, and the robberies only penalized the locals they claimed to support.[25] On May 23, 1867, for example, they robbed a bank in Richmond, Missouri, in which they killed the mayor and two others.[14][26] It remains uncertain whether either of the James brothers took part, although an eyewitness who knew the brothers told a newspaper seven years later "positively and emphatically that he recognized Jesse and Frank James ... among the robbers."[27] In 1868, Frank and Jesse James allegedly joined Cole Younger in robbing a bank in Russellville, Kentucky.

Jesse James did not become well known until December 7, 1869, when he and (most likely) Frank robbed the Daviess County Savings Association in Gallatin, Missouri. The robbery netted little money. Jesse is believed to have shot and killed the cashier, Captain John Sheets, mistakenly believing him to be Samuel P. Cox, the militia officer who had killed "Bloody Bill" Anderson during the Civil War.[28]

James claimed he was taking revenge, and the daring escape he and Frank made through the middle of a posse shortly afterward attracted newspaper coverage for the first time.[29][30] An 1882 history of Daviess County said, "The history of Daviess County has no blacker crime in its pages than the murder of John W. Sheets."[31]

State of Missouri vs. Frank & Jesse James including indictment; capias to Clay & Jackson Counties; sheriff's returns; warrant to any sheriff or marshall of the Criminal Court in Missouri. Courtesy of the Missouri State Archives.

The only known civil case involving Frank and Jesse James was filed in the Common Pleas Court of Daviess County in 1870. In the case, Daniel Smoote asked for $223.50 from Frank and Jesse James to replace a horse, saddle, and bridle stolen as they fled the robbery of the Daviess County Savings Bank. The brothers denied the charges, saying they were not in Daviess County on December 7, the day the robbery occurred. Frank and Jesse failed to appear in court, and Smoote won his case against them.[32] It is unlikely that he ever collected the money due.

The 1869 robbery marked the emergence of Jesse James as the most famous survivor of the former Confederate bushwhackers. It was the first time he was publicly labeled an "outlaw"; Missouri Governor Thomas T. Crittenden set a reward for his capture.[31] This was the beginning of an alliance between James and John Newman Edwards, editor and founder of the Kansas City Times. Edwards, a former Confederate cavalryman, was campaigning to return former secessionists to power in Missouri. Six months after the Gallatin robbery, Edwards published the first of many letters from Jesse James to the public, asserting his innocence. Over time, the letters gradually became more political in tone and James denounced the Republicans and expressed his pride in his Confederate loyalties. Together with Edwards's admiring editorials, the letters helped James become a symbol of Confederate defiance of federal Reconstruction policy. James's initiative in creating his rising public profile is debated by historians and biographers. The high tensions in politics accompanied his outlaw career and enhanced his notoriety.[30][33]

James–Younger Gang

Main article: James–Younger Gang

Meanwhile, the James brothers joined with Cole Younger and his brothers John, Jim, and Bob, as well as Clell Miller and other former Confederates, to form what came to be known as the James–Younger Gang. With Jesse James as the most public face of the gang (though with operational leadership likely shared among the group), the gang carried out a string of robberies from Iowa to Texas, and from Kansas to West Virginia.[34] They robbed banks, stagecoaches, and a fair in Kansas City, often carrying out their crimes in front of crowds, and even hamming it up for the bystanders.

On July 21, 1873, they turned to train robbery, derailing a Rock Island Line train west of Adair, Iowa, and stealing approximately $3,000 (equivalent to $65,000 in 2020). For this, they wore Ku Klux Klan masks. By this time, the Klan had been suppressed in the South by President Grant's use of the Enforcement Acts. Former rebels attacked the railroads as symbols of threatening centralization.[35]

The gang's later train robberies had a lighter touch. The gang held up passengers only twice, choosing in all other incidents to take only the contents of the express safe in the baggage car. John Newman Edwards made sure to highlight such techniques when creating an image of James as a kind of Robin Hood. Despite public sentiment toward the gang's crimes, there is no evidence that the James gang ever shared any of the robbery money outside their personal circle.[33]

Jesse and his cousin Zee married on April 24, 1874. They had two children who survived to adulthood: Jesse Edward James (b. 1875) and Mary Susan James (later Barr, b. 1879).[36] Twins Gould and Montgomery James (b. 1878) died in infancy. Jesse Jr. became a lawyer who practiced in Kansas City, Missouri, and Los Angeles, California.[37]

Pinkertons

In 1874, the Adams Express Company turned to the Pinkerton National Detective Agency to stop the James–Younger Gang. The Chicago-based agency worked primarily against urban professional criminals, as well as providing industrial security, such as strike breaking. Because the gang received support by many former Confederate soldiers in Missouri, they eluded the Pinkertons. Joseph Whicher, an agent dispatched to infiltrate Zerelda Samuel's farm, was soon found killed. Two other agents, Captain Louis J. Lull and John Boyle, were sent after the Youngers; Lull was killed by two of the Youngers in a roadside gunfight on March 17, 1874. Before he died, Lull fatally shot John Younger. A deputy sheriff named Edwin Daniels also died in the skirmish.[38][39]

Allan Pinkerton, the agency's founder and leader, took on the case as a personal vendetta. He began to work with former Unionists who lived near the James family farm. On the night of January 25, 1875, he staged a raid on the homestead. Detectives threw an incendiary device into the house; it exploded, killing James's young half-brother Archie (named for Archie Clement) and blowing off one of Zerelda Samuel's arms. Afterward, Pinkerton denied that the raid's intent was arson. But biographer Ted Yeatman found a letter by Pinkerton in the Library of Congress in which Pinkerton declared his intention to "burn the house down."[40][41]

Many residents were outraged by the raid on the family home. The Missouri state legislature narrowly defeated a bill that praised the James and Younger brothers and offered them amnesty.[11] Allowed to vote and hold office again, former Confederates in the legislature voted to limit the size of rewards the governor could offer for fugitives. This extended a measure of protection over the James–Younger gang by minimizing the incentive for attempting to capture them. The governor had offered rewards higher than the new limit only on Frank and Jesse James.[42][43]

Across a creek and up a hill from the James house was the home of Daniel Askew, who is thought to have been killed by James or his gang on April 12, 1875. They may have suspected Askew of cooperating with the Pinkertons in the January 1875 arson of the James house.[citation needed]

Downfall of the gang

On September 7, 1876, the opening day of hunting season in Minnesota, the James–Younger gang attempted a raid on the First National Bank of Northfield, Minnesota. The robbery quickly went wrong, however, and after the robbery, only Frank and Jesse James remained alive and free.[44]

Cole and Bob Younger later said they selected the bank because they believed it was associated with the Republican politician Adelbert Ames, the governor of Mississippi during Reconstruction, and Union general Benjamin Butler, Ames's father-in-law and the Union commander of occupied New Orleans. Ames was a stockholder in the bank, but Butler had no direct connection to it.[45]

The gang attempted to rob the bank in Northfield at about 2 pm. To carry out the robbery, the gang divided into two groups. Three men entered the bank, two guarded the door outside, and three remained near a bridge across an adjacent square. The robbers inside the bank were thwarted when acting cashier Joseph Lee Heywood refused to open the safe, falsely claiming that it was secured by a time lock even as they held a Bowie knife to his throat and cracked his skull with a pistol butt. Assistant cashier Alonzo Enos Bunker was wounded in the shoulder as he fled through the back door of the bank. Meanwhile, the citizens of Northfield grew suspicious of the men guarding the door and raised the alarm. The five bandits outside fired into the air to clear the streets, driving the townspeople to take cover and fire back from protected positions. They shot two bandits dead and wounded the rest in the barrage. Inside, the outlaws turned to flee. As they left, one shot the unarmed cashier Heywood in the head. Historians have speculated about the identity of the shooter but have not reached consensus.

The gang barely escaped Northfield, leaving two dead companions behind. They killed Heywood and Nicholas Gustafson, a Swedish immigrant from the Millersburg community west of Northfield. A substantial manhunt ensued. It is believed that the gang burned 14 Rice County mills shortly after the robbery.[46] The James brothers eventually split from the others and escaped to Missouri. The militia soon discovered the Youngers and one other bandit, Charlie Pitts. In a gunfight, Pitts died and the Youngers were taken prisoner. Except for Frank and Jesse James, the James–Younger Gang was destroyed.[47][48]

Later in 1876, Jesse and Frank James surfaced in the Nashville, Tennessee, area, where they went by the names of Thomas Howard and B. J. Woodson, respectively. Frank seemed to settle down, but Jesse remained restless. He recruited a new gang in 1879 and returned to crime, holding up a train at Glendale, Missouri (now part of Independence),[49] on October 8, 1879. The robbery was the first in a spree of crimes, including the hold-up of the federal paymaster of a canal project in Killen, Alabama, and two more train robberies. But the new gang was not made up of battle-hardened guerrillas; they soon turned against each other or were captured. James grew suspicious of other members; he scared away one man and some believe that he killed another gang member.

In 1879, the James gang robbed two stores in far western Mississippi, at Washington in Adams County and Fayette in Jefferson County. The gang left with $2,000 cash from the second robbery and took shelter in abandoned cabins on the Kemp Plantation south of St. Joseph, Louisiana. A law enforcement posse attacked and killed two of the outlaws but failed to capture the entire gang. Among the deputies was Jefferson B. Snyder, later a long-serving district attorney in northeastern Louisiana.[50]

By 1881, with local Tennessee authorities growing suspicious, the brothers returned to Missouri, where they felt safer. James moved his family to St. Joseph, Missouri, in November 1881, not far from where he had been born and reared. Frank, however, decided to move to safer territory and headed east to settle in Virginia. They intended to give up crime. The James gang had been reduced to the two of them.[51][52]

Death

Site at 1318 Lafayette Street, where James was killed. To the right is the top of Patee House, where his widow Zerelda stayed after his death. His house was subsequently moved to the Belt Highway and later to its current location on the Patee House grounds.
Jesse James's home in St. Joseph, where he was shot (currently at the grounds of the Patee House)

With his gang nearly annihilated, James trusted only the Ford brothers, Charley and Robert.[53] Although Charley had been out on raids with James, Bob Ford was an eager new recruit. For protection, James asked the Ford brothers to move in with him and his family. James had often stayed with their sister Martha Bolton and, according to rumor, he was "smitten" with her.[1] By that time, Bob Ford had conducted secret negotiations with Missouri Governor Thomas T. Crittenden, planning to bring in the famous outlaw.[53] Crittenden had made capture of the James brothers his top priority; in his inaugural address he declared that no political motives could be allowed to keep them from justice. Barred by law from offering a large reward, he had turned to the railroad and express corporations to put up a $5,000 bounty for the delivery of each of them and an additional $5,000 for the conviction of either of them.[54]

A woodcutshows Robert Ford famously shooting Jesse James in the back while he hangs a picture in his house. Ford's brother Charles looks on.[55]

On April 3, 1882, after eating breakfast, the Fords and Jameses went into the living room before traveling to Platte City for a robbery. From the newspaper, James had just learned that gang member Dick Liddil had confessed to participating in Wood Hite's murder. He was suspicious that the Fords had not told him about it. Robert Ford later said he believed that James had realized they were there to betray him. Instead of confronting them, James walked across the living room and laid his revolvers on a sofa. He turned around and noticed a dusty picture above the mantle, and stood on a chair to clean it. Robert Ford drew his weapon and shot the unarmed Jesse James in the back of the head.[56][57][58] James's two previous bullet wounds and partially missing middle finger served to positively identify the body.[14]

The death of Jesse James became a national sensation. The Fords made no attempt to hide their role. Robert Ford wired the governor to claim his reward. Crowds pressed into the little house in St. Joseph to see the dead bandit. The Ford brothers surrendered to the authorities and were dismayed to be charged with first-degree murder. In the course of a single day, the Ford brothers were indicted, pleaded guilty, were sentenced to death by hanging, and were granted a full pardon by Governor Crittenden.[59] The governor's quick pardon suggested he knew the brothers intended to kill James rather than capture him. The implication that the chief executive of Missouri conspired to kill a private citizen startled the public and added to James's notoriety.[60][61][62]

After receiving a small portion of the reward, the Fords fled Missouri. Sheriff James Timberlake and Marshal Henry H. Craig, who were law enforcement officials active in the plan, were awarded the majority of the bounty.[63] Later, the Ford brothers starred in a touring stage show in which they re-enacted the shooting.[64][65] Public opinion was divided between those against the Fords for murdering Jesse, and those of the opinion that it had been time for the outlaw to be stopped. Suffering from tuberculosis (then incurable) and a morphine addiction, Charley Ford committed suicide on May 6, 1884, in Richmond, Missouri. Bob Ford operated a tent saloon in Creede, Colorado. On June 8, 1892, Edward O'Kelley went to Creede, loaded a double-barrel shotgun, entered Ford's saloon and said "Hello, Bob," before shooting Ford in the throat, killing him instantly. O'Kelley was sentenced to life in prison, but his sentence was subsequently commuted because of a 7,000-signature petition in favor of his release, as well as a medical condition. The Governor of Colorado pardoned him on October 3, 1902.[66]

Jesse James Gravestone in Kearney, Missouri.

James's original grave was on his family property, but he was later moved to a cemetery in Kearney. The original footstone is still there, although the family has replaced the headstone. James's mother Zerelda Samuel wrote the following epitaph for him: "In Loving Memory of my Beloved Son, Murdered by a Traitor and Coward Whose Name is not Worthy to Appear Here."[53] James's widow Zerelda Mimms James died alone and in poverty.

Rumors of survival

Rumors of Jesse James's survival proliferated almost as soon as the newspapers announced his death. Some said that Robert Ford killed someone other than James in an elaborate plot to allow him to escape justice.[11] These tales have received little credence, then or since. None of James's biographers accepted them as plausible. The body buried in Kearney, Missouri, marked "Jesse James" was exhumed in 1995 and subjected to mitochondrial DNA typing. The report, prepared by Anne C. Stone, Ph.D., James E. Starrs, L.L.M., and Mark Stoneking, Ph.D., confirmed the mtDNA recovered from the remains was consistent with the mtDNA of one of James's relatives in the female line.[67]

The theme of survival was featured in a 2009 documentary, Jesse James' Hidden Treasure, which aired on the History Channel. The documentary was dismissed as pseudo-history and pseudoscience by historian Nancy Samuelson in a review she wrote for the Winter 2009–2010 edition of The James-Younger Gang Journal.[68]

J. Frank Dalton claimed to be Jesse James; he died August 15, 1951, in Granbury, Texas.[69] Dalton was allegedly 101 years old at the time of his first public appearance, in May 1948. Oran Baker, Hood County Sheriff, conducted a visual post-mortem exam and found he had thirty-two bullet wounds and a rope burn around his neck. He was buried in Granbury Cemetery, where the headstone bears the name of "Jesse Woodson James".[70] His story did not hold up to questioning from James's surviving relatives.[71]

Legacy

Further information: Social bandits and Robin Hood

James's turn to crime after the end of the Reconstruction era helped cement his place in American life and memory as a simple but remarkably effective bandit. After 1873, he was covered by the national media as part of social banditry.[72] During his lifetime, James was celebrated chiefly by former Confederates, to whom he appealed directly in his letters to the press. Displaced by Reconstruction, the antebellum political leadership mythologized the James Gang exploits. Frank Triplett wrote about James as a "progressive neo-aristocrat" with "purity of race".[73] Some historians credit James's myth as contributing to the rise of former Confederates to dominance in Missouri politics.[citation needed] In the 1880s, both U.S. Senators from the state, former Confederate military commander Francis Cockrell, and former Confederate CongressmanGeorge Graham Vest, were identified with the Confederate cause.

In the 1880s, after James's death, the James Gang became the subject of dime novels that represented the bandits as pre-industrial models of resistance.[73] During the Populist and Progressive eras, James became an icon as America's Robin Hood, standing up against corporations in defense of the small farmer, robbing from the rich and giving to the poor. There is no evidence that he shared the loot of his robberies with anyone other than his gang members; only they enjoyed the riches with him.[1]

In the 1950s, James was pictured as a psychologically troubled man rather than a social rebel. Some filmmakers portrayed the former outlaw as a revenger, replacing "social with exclusively personal motives."[74] While his "heroic outlaw" image is commonly portrayed in films, as well as in songs and folklore, since the late 20th century, historians such as Stiles have classified him as a self-aware vigilante and terrorist who used local tensions to create his own myth among the widespread insurgent guerrillas and vigilantes following the American Civil War.[2]

Jesse James remains a controversial symbol, one who can always be reinterpreted in various ways according to cultural tensions and needs. Some of the neo-Confederate movement regard him as a hero.[60][75][76] But renewed cultural battles over the place of the Civil War in American history have replaced the long-standing interpretation of James as a Western frontier hero.

Museums

Museums and sites devoted to Jesse James:

  • James Farm in Kearney, Missouri: In 1974, Clay County, Missouri, bought the property. The county operates the site as a house museum and historic site.[77] It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972, with a boundary increase in 1978.[78]
  • Jesse James Home Museum: The house where Jesse James was killed in south St. Joseph was moved in 1939 to the Belt Highway on St. Joseph's east side to attract tourists. In 1977, it was moved to its current location, near Patee House, which was the headquarters of the Pony Express. The house is owned and operated by the Pony Express Historical Association.[79]
  • The Jesse James Bank Museum, on the square in Liberty, Missouri, is the site of the first daylight bank robbery in the United States in peacetime. The museum is managed by Clay County along with the James Farm Home and Museum outside of Kearney.[80]
  • First National Bank of Northfield: The Northfield Historical Society in Northfield, Minnesota, has restored the building that housed the First National Bank, the scene of the 1876 raid.[81]
  • Heaton Bowman Funeral Home, 36th Street and Frederick Avenue, St. Joseph, Missouri: The funeral home's predecessor conducted the original autopsy and funeral for Jesse James. A room in the back holds the log book and other documentation.
  • The Jesse James Tavern is located in Asdee, County Kerry, Ireland. It has been claimed that James's ancestors were from that area of Ireland.[82] But documented evidence suggests that on his father's side, Jesse was a third-generation American of English descent.[83][84]
  • According to the National Park Service, Jesse James has a historical connection to Mammoth Cave National Park, having reportedly occupied some of the cave's inner areas during his escapes from the law, and having committed a stage coach robbery between Cave City and Mammoth Cave.[85][86] These claims are disputed, as, according to Katie Cielinski, a local cave expert, "If every cave that claims Jesse James had been there (was valid), Jesse James would never have been on the surface."[87] It is likely these legends are based on the ample evidence that the Kentucky cave system played host to outlaw camps in general.

Festivals

The Defeat of Jesse James Days in Northfield, Minnesota, is among the largest outdoor celebrations in the state.[88] It is held annually in September during the weekend after Labor Day. Thousands of visitors watch reenactments of the robbery, a championship rodeo, a carnival, performances of a 19th-century style melodrama musical, and a parade during the five-day event.[89]

Jesse James's boyhood home in Kearney, Missouri, is operated as a museum dedicated to the town's most famous resident. Each year a recreational fair, the Jesse James Festival, is held during the third weekend in September.[90]

The annual Victorian Festival in Jersey County, Illinois, is held on Labor Day weekend[91] at the 1866 Col. William H. Fulkerson estate Hazel Dell. Festivities include telling Jesse James's history in stories and by reenactments of stagecoach holdups. Over the three-day event, thousands of spectators learn of the documented James Gang's stopover at Hazel Dell and of their connection with ex-Confederate Fulkerson.

Russellville, Kentucky, the site of the robbery of the Southern Bank in 1868, holds a reenactment of the robbery every year as of the Logan County Tobacco and Heritage Festival.[92]

The small town of Oak Grove, Louisiana, also hosts a town-wide annual Jesse James Outlaw Roundup Festival, usually in the early to mid-autumn. This is a reference to a short time James supposedly spent near this area.[93]

Cultural depictions

Main article: Cultural depictions of Jesse James

References

  1. ^ abcHayworth, Wil (September 17, 2007). "A story of myth, fame, Jesse James". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on December 29, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  2. ^ abcStiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. ISBN .
  3. ^Burlingame, Jeff (March 1, 2010). Jesse James: I Will Never Surrender. Enslow Publishers, Inc. p. 12. ISBN .
  4. ^ abcdeSettle, William A. (1977). Jesse James Was His Name, or, Fact and Fiction Concerning the Careers of the Notorious James Brothers of Missouri. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 7, 12, 16, 26. ISBN . Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  5. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 23–6. ISBN .
  6. ^ abYeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 26–8. ISBN .
  7. ^ abStiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 26–55. ISBN .
  8. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 37–46. ISBN .
  9. ^Hurt, R. Douglas (1992). Agriculture and Slavery in Missouri's Little Dixie. University of Missouri Press. ISBN .
  10. ^Fellman, Michael (1990). Inside War: The Guerrilla Conflict in Missouri onto the American Civil War. Oxford University Press. pp. 61–143. ISBN .
  11. ^ abcdAndrews, Dale C (June 18, 2013). "Jesse James and Meramec Caverns". Route 66. Washington: SleuthSayers.
  12. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 30–45. ISBN .
  13. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 61–2, 84–91. ISBN .
  14. ^ abcdefSettle, William A. (1977). Jesse James Was His Name. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 28–35. ISBN . Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  15. ^Settle, William A. (1977). Jesse James Was His Name. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 140–41. ISBN . Retrieved December 7, 2008.
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  17. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 100–11, 121–3, 136–7, 140–1, 150–4. ISBN .
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  20. ^"PBS.org Jesse James Bank Robberies". Retrieved February 12, 2009.
  21. ^ abStiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 168–75, 179–87. ISBN .
  22. ^ abYeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 83–9. ISBN .
  23. ^"Jailer Henry Bugler, Jackson County Sheriff's Office, Missouri". Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  24. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. p. 173. ISBN .
  25. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. p. 238. ISBN .
  26. ^"Deputy Sheriff Frank S. Griffin, Ray County Sheriff's Department". Officer Down Memorial Page. Retrieved October 3, 2008.
  27. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 192–95. ISBN .
  28. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 91–8. ISBN .
  29. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 190–206. ISBN .
  30. ^ abSettle, William A. (1977). Jesse James Was His Name, or, Fact and Fiction Concerning the Careers of the Notorious James Brothers of Missouri. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN . Retrieved December 7, 2008.
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  33. ^ abStiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 207–48. ISBN .
  34. ^Old Campsite of Jesse and Frank James: US 380, approximately 5 miles east of Decatur: Texas marker #3700 – Texas Historical Commission
  35. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 236–238. ISBN .
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  41. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 272–85. ISBN .
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  46. ^"An Inventory of the Northfield (Minnesota) Bank Robbery of 1876: Selected Manuscripts Collection". Mnhs.org. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  47. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 169–86. ISBN .
  48. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 326–47. ISBN .
  49. ^"Skillful Detective Work; Another of the James Gang Captured in Missouri". The New York Times. March 19, 1889.
  50. ^"Jefferson B. Snyder". New Orleans Times-Picayune, April 15, 1938. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
  51. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 193–270. ISBN .
  52. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 351–73. ISBN .
  53. ^ abcKing, Susan (September 17, 2007). "One more shot at the legend of Jesse James". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  54. ^Hanes, Elizabeth. "Jesse James Wanted Poster Goes Up for Auction". History.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  55. ^Dove, Laurie L. "10 of History's Most Notorious Traitors". HowStuffWorks. InfoSpace Holdings LLC. System1 Company. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  56. ^"Jesse James Shot Down. Killed By One Of His Confederates Who Claims To Be A Detective". New York Times. April 4, 1882. Retrieved December 9, 2008.
  57. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 363–75. ISBN .
  58. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 264–9. ISBN .
  59. ^"Jesse James's Murderers. The Ford Brothers Indicted, Plead Guilty, Sentenced To Be Hanged, And Pardoned All In One Day". New York Times. April 18, 1882. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  60. ^ abStiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 376–81. ISBN .
  61. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 270–2. ISBN .
  62. ^Settle, William A. (1977). Jesse James Was His Name. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 117–36. ISBN . Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  63. ^"Feared by Jesse James". Spokane Daily Chronicle. Spokane, Washington. March 10, 1891. p. 1. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  64. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 378, 395–95. ISBN .
  65. ^Stiles
  66. ^Ries, Judith (1994). Ed O'Kelley: The Man Who Murdered Jesse James' Murderer. Stewart Printing and Publishing Co. ISBN .
  67. ^
  68. ^Leaf Blower (April 2, 2010). "James-Younger Gang Journal pans Jesse James' Hidden Treasure". Ericjames.org. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  69. ^Kross, Peter (November 25, 2015). American Conspiracy Files: The Stories We Were Never Told. SCB Distributors. p. 46. ISBN .
  70. ^Saltarelli, Mary Estelle Gott (2009). Historic Hood County: An Illustrated History. HPN Books. p. 60. ISBN .
  71. ^Walker, Dale L. (November 15, 1998). Legends and Lies: Great Mysteries of the American West. Forge Books. pp. 87–110. ISBN .
  72. ^Slotkin, Richard (1998). Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 128. ISBN .
  73. ^ abSlotkin, Richard (1998). Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 134–136. ISBN .
  74. ^Slotkin, Richard (1998). Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 381–382. ISBN .
  75. ^Slotkin, Richard (1998). Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 125–55. ISBN .
  76. ^Settle, William A. (1977). Jesse James Was His Name. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 149–201. ISBN . Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  77. ^"Friends of the James Farm". Jessejames.org. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  78. ^"National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
  79. ^"St. Joseph History – Jesse James Home"Archived April 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, City of St. Joseph, Missouri
  80. ^"Jesse James Bank Museum". Retrieved March 11, 2012.
  81. ^"Bank Site."Northfield Historical Society.
  82. ^"Asdee—where Jesse James's ancestors originated—County Kerry, Ireland", 1st Stop County Kerry, accessed June 20, 2008
  83. ^Steele, Philip W. "Jesse and Frank James: The Family History". Pelican Publishing, 1987, p. 27.
  84. ^Ireland and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: a Multidisciplinary Encyclopedia, Volume 2, edited by: James Patrick Byrne, Philip Coleman, Jason Francis King, pp. 475–476.
  85. ^"Kentucky: 225 Years on the Move". Kentucky Historical Society.
  86. ^"NPS - Page In-Progress". www.nps.gov.
  87. ^[email protected], WES SWIETEK. "Lost River has unique history, role as 'urban oasis'". Bowling Green Daily News.
  88. ^Garrison, Webb (November 3, 1998). A Treasury of Minnesota Tales: Unusual, Interesting, and Little-Known Stories of Minnesota. Thomas Nelson. p. 42. ISBN .
  89. ^"Defeat of Jesse James Days". Djjd.org. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  90. ^"Jesse James Festival." JesseJamesFestival.com.
  91. ^"Jersey County Victorian Festival."Archived October 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine GreatRiverRoad.com.
  92. ^"Logan County Tobacco & Heritage Festival 2017". Logan County Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  93. ^Jesse James Outlaw Roundup Festival on Facebook

Bibliography

  • Fellman, Michael. Inside War: The Guerrilla Conflict in Missouri onto the American Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-19-506471-2.
  • Settle, William A. Jesse James Was His Name, or, Fact and Fiction Concerning the Careers of the Notorious James Brothers of Missouri'. University of Nebraska Press, 1977. ISBN 0-8032-5860-7.
  • Stiles, T. J. Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing, 2002. ISBN 0-375-40583-6.
  • Yeatman, Ted P. Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing, 2000. ISBN 1-58182-325-8.
  • Quist, B. Wayne, The History of the Christdala Evangelical Swedish Lutheran Church of Millersburg, Minnesota, Dundas, Minnesota, Third Edition, July 2009, page 19–23, The Murder of Nicholaus Gustafson.

Further reading

  • Dyer, Robert. "Jesse James and the Civil War in Missouri,"University of Missouri Press, 1994
  • Hobsbawm, Eric J. Bandits, Pantheon, 1981
  • Koblas, John J. Faithful Unto Death, Northfield Historical Society Press, 2001
  • Smith, Carter F. Gangs and the Military: Gangsters, Bikers, and Terrorists with Military Training. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017.
  • Thelen, David. Paths of Resistance: Tradition and Dignity in Industrializing Missouri, Oxford University Press, 1986
  • Wellman, Paul I. A Dynasty of Western Outlaws. Doubleday, 1961; 1986.
  • White, Richard. "Outlaw Gangs of the Middle Border: American Social Bandits," Western Historical Quarterly 12, no. 4 (October 1981)

External links

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesse_James

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Jesse James

American outlaw, confederate guerrilla, and train robber

For other uses, see Jesse James (disambiguation).

Jesse Woodson James (September 5, 1847 – April 3, 1882) was an American outlaw, bank and train robber, guerrilla, and leader of the James–Younger Gang. Raised in the "Little Dixie" area of western Missouri, James and his family maintained strong Southern sympathies.[further explanation needed] He and his brother Frank James joined pro-Confederate guerrillas known as "bushwhackers" operating in Missouri and Kansas during the American Civil War. As followers of William Quantrill and "Bloody Bill" Anderson, they were accused of committing atrocities against Union soldiers and civilian abolitionists, including the Centralia Massacre in 1864.

After the war, as members of various gangs of outlaws, Jesse and Frank robbed banks, stagecoaches, and trains across the Midwest, gaining national fame and often popular sympathy despite the brutality of their crimes. The James brothers were most active as members of their own gang from about 1866 until 1876, when as a result of their attempted robbery of a bank in Northfield, Minnesota, several members of the gang were captured or killed. They continued in crime for several years afterward, recruiting new members, but came under increasing pressure from law enforcement seeking to bring them to justice. On April 3, 1882, Jesse James was shot and killed by Robert Ford, a new recruit to the gang who hoped to collect a reward on James's head and a promised amnesty for his previous crimes. Already a celebrity in life, James became a legendary figure of the Wild West after his death.

Despite popular portrayals of James as an embodiment of Robin Hood, robbing from the rich and giving to the poor, this is a case of romantic revisionism since there is absolutely no evidence that he or his gang shared any loot from their robberies with anyone outside their network.[1] Scholars and historians have characterized James as one of many criminals inspired by the regional insurgencies of ex-Confederates following the Civil War, rather than as a manifestation of alleged economic justice or of frontier lawlessness.[2] James continues to be one of the most famous figures from the era, and his life has been dramatized and memorialized numerous times.

Early life

Jesse Woodson James was born on September 5, 1847, in Clay County, Missouri, near the site of present-day Kearney.[3] This area of Missouri was largely settled by people from the Upper South, especially Kentucky and Tennessee, and became known as Little Dixie for this reason. James had two full siblings: his elder brother, Alexander Franklin "Frank" James, and a younger sister, Susan Lavenia James. He was of English and Scottish descent. His father, Robert S. James, farmed commercial hemp in Kentucky and was a Baptist minister before coming to Missouri. After he married, he migrated to Bradford, Missouri and helped found William Jewell College in Liberty, Missouri.[2] He held six slaves and more than 100 acres (0.40 km2) of farmland.

Robert traveled to California during the Gold Rush to minister to those searching for gold;[4] he died there when James was three years old.[5] After Robert's death, his widow Zerelda remarried twice, first to Benjamin Simms in 1852 and then in 1855 to Dr. Reuben Samuel, who moved into the James family home. Jesse's mother and Samuel had four children together: Sarah Louisa, John Thomas, Fannie Quantrell, and Archie Peyton Samuel.[4][6] Zerelda and Samuel acquired a total of seven slaves, who served mainly as farmhands in tobacco cultivation.[6][7]

Historical context

The approach of the American Civil War loomed large in the James–Samuel household. Missouri was a border state, sharing characteristics of both North and South, but 75% of the population was from the South or other border states.[4] Clay County in particular was strongly influenced by the Southern culture of its rural pioneer families. Farmers raised the same crops and livestock as in the areas from which they had migrated. They brought slaves with them and purchased more according to their needs. The county counted more slaveholders and more slaves than most other regions of the state; in Missouri as a whole, slaves accounted for only 10 percent of the population, but in Clay County, they constituted 25 percent.[8] Aside from slavery, the culture of Little Dixie was Southern in other ways as well. This influenced how the population acted during and for a period of time after the war.

After the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act in 1854, Clay County became the scene of great turmoil as the question of whether slavery would be expanded into the neighboring Kansas Territory bred tension and hostility. Many people from Missouri migrated to Kansas to try to influence its future. Much of the dramatic build-up to the Civil War centered on the violence that erupted on the Kansas–Missouri border between pro- and anti-slavery militias.[7][9]

American Civil War

After a series of campaigns and battles between conventional armies in 1861, guerrilla warfare gripped Missouri, waged between secessionist "bushwhackers" and Union forces which largely consisted of local militias known as "jayhawkers". A bitter conflict ensued, resulting in an escalating cycle of atrocities committed by both sides. Confederate guerrillas murdered civilian Unionists, executed prisoners, and scalped the dead. The Union presence enforced martial law with raids on homes, arrests of civilians, summary executions, and banishment of Confederate sympathizers from the state.[10]

The James–Samuel family sided with the Confederates at the outbreak of war.[11] Frank James joined a local company recruited for the secessionist Drew Lobbs Army, and fought at the Battle of Wilson's Creek in August 1861. He fell ill and returned home soon afterward. In 1863, he was identified as a member of a guerrilla squad that operated in Clay County. In May of that year, a Union militia company raided the James–Samuel farm looking for Frank's group. They tortured Reuben Samuel by briefly hanging him from a tree. According to legend, they lashed young Jesse.[4]

Quantrill's Raiders

Frank James eluded capture and was believed to have joined the guerrilla organization led by William C. Quantrill known as Quantrill's Raiders. It is thought that he took part in the notorious massacre of some two hundred men and boys in Lawrence, Kansas, a center of abolitionists.[12][13] Frank followed Quantrill to Sherman, Texas, over the winter of 1863–1864. In the spring he returned in a squad commanded by Fletch Taylor. After they arrived in Clay County, 16-year-old Jesse James joined his brother in Taylor's group.[4]

Taylor was severely wounded in the summer of 1864, losing his right arm to a shotgun blast. The James brothers then joined the bushwhacker group led by William "Bloody Bill" Anderson. Jesse suffered a serious wound to the chest that summer. The Clay County provost marshal reported that both Frank and Jesse James took part in the Centralia Massacre in September, in which guerrillas stopped a train carrying unarmed Union soldiers returning home from duty and killed or wounded some 22 of them; the guerrillas scalped and dismembered some of the dead. The guerrillas also ambushed and defeated a pursuing regiment of Major A. V. E. Johnson's Union troops, killing all who tried to surrender, who numbered more than 100. Frank later identified Jesse as a member of the band who had fatally shot Major Johnson.[14]

As a result of the James brothers' activities, Union military authorities forced their family to leave Clay County. Though ordered to move South beyond Union lines, they moved north across the nearby state border into Nebraska Territory.[15]

After "Bloody Bill" Anderson was killed in an ambush in October, the James brothers separated. Frank followed Quantrill into Kentucky, while Jesse went to Texas under the command of Archie Clement, one of Anderson's lieutenants. He is known to have returned to Missouri in the spring.[14] At the age of 17, Jesse suffered the second of two life-threatening chest wounds when he was shot while trying to surrender after they ran into a Union cavalry patrol near Lexington, Missouri.[16][17]

After the Civil War

Clay County Savings in Liberty, Missouri

At the end of the Civil War, Missouri remained deeply divided. The conflict split the population into three bitterly opposed factions: anti-slavery Unionists identified with the Republican Party; segregationist conservative Unionists identified with the Democratic Party; and pro-slavery, ex-Confederate secessionists, many of whom were also allied with the Democrats, especially in the southern part of the state.

The Republican-dominated Reconstruction legislature passed a new state constitution that freed Missouri's slaves. It temporarily excluded former Confederates from voting, serving on juries, becoming corporate officers, or preaching from church pulpits. The atmosphere was volatile, with widespread clashes between individuals and between armed gangs of veterans from both sides of the war.[18][19]

Jesse recovered from his chest wound at his uncle's boardinghouse in Harlem, Missouri (north across the Missouri River from the City of Kansas's River Quay [changed to Kansas City in 1889]). He was tended to by his first cousin, Zerelda "Zee" Mimms, named after Jesse's mother.[14] Jesse and his cousin began a nine-year courtship that culminated in their marriage. Meanwhile, his former commander Archie Clement kept his bushwhacker gang together and began to harass Republican authorities.[11]

These men were the likely culprits in the first daylight armed bank robbery in the United States during peacetime,[20] the robbery of the Clay County Savings Association in the town of Liberty, Missouri, on February 13, 1866. The bank was owned by Republican former militia officers. They had recently conducted the first Republican Party rally in Clay County's history. During the gang's escape from the town, an innocent bystander, 17-year-old George C. "Jolly" Wymore, a student at William Jewell College, was shot dead on the street.[21]

It remains unclear whether Jesse and Frank took part in the Clay County robbery. After the James brothers successfully conducted other robberies and became legendary, some observers retroactively credited them with being the leaders of the robbery.[14] Others have argued that Jesse was at the time still bedridden with his wound and could not have participated. No evidence has been found that connects either brother to the crime, nor conclusively rules them out.[22] On June 13, 1866, in Jackson County, Missouri, the gang freed two jailed members of Quantrill's gang, killing the jailer in the effort.[23] Historians believe that the James brothers were involved in this crime.

Local violence continued to increase in the state; Governor Thomas Clement Fletcher had recently ordered a company of militia into Johnson County to suppress guerrilla activity.[24]Archie Clement continued his career of crime and harassment of the Republican government, to the extent of occupying the town of Lexington, Missouri, on election day in 1866. Shortly afterward, the state militia shot Clement dead. James wrote about this death with bitterness a decade later.[21][22]

The survivors of Clement's gang continued to conduct bank robberies during the next two years, though their numbers dwindled through arrests, gunfights, and lynchings. While they later tried to justify robbing the banks, most of their targets were small, local banks based on local capital, and the robberies only penalized the locals they claimed to support.[25] On May 23, 1867, for example, they robbed a bank in Richmond, Missouri, in which they killed the mayor and two others.[14][26] It remains uncertain whether either of the James brothers took part, although an eyewitness who knew the brothers told a newspaper seven years later "positively and emphatically that he recognized Jesse and Frank James ... among the robbers."[27] In 1868, Frank and Jesse James allegedly joined Cole Younger in robbing a bank in Russellville, Kentucky.

Jesse James did not become well known until December 7, 1869, when he and (most likely) Frank robbed the Daviess County Savings Association in Gallatin, Missouri. The robbery netted little money. Jesse is believed to have shot and killed the cashier, Captain John Sheets, mistakenly believing him to be Samuel P. Cox, the militia officer who had killed "Bloody Bill" Anderson during the Civil War.[28]

James claimed he was taking revenge, and the daring escape he and Frank made through the middle of a posse shortly afterward attracted newspaper coverage for the first time.[29][30] An 1882 history of Daviess County said, "The history of Daviess County has no blacker crime in its pages than the murder of John W. Sheets."[31]

State of Missouri vs. Frank & Jesse James including indictment; capias to Clay & Jackson Counties; sheriff's returns; warrant to any sheriff or marshall of the Criminal Court in Missouri. Courtesy of the Missouri State Archives.

The only known civil case involving Frank and Jesse James was filed in the Common Pleas Court of Daviess County in 1870. In the case, Daniel Smoote asked for $223.50 from Frank and Jesse James to replace a horse, saddle, and bridle stolen as they fled the robbery of the Daviess County Savings Bank. The brothers denied the charges, saying they were not in Daviess County on December 7, the day the robbery occurred. Frank and Jesse failed to appear in court, and Smoote won his case against them.[32] It is unlikely that he ever collected the money due.

The 1869 robbery marked the emergence of Jesse James as the most famous survivor of the former Confederate bushwhackers. It was the first time he was publicly labeled an "outlaw"; Missouri Governor Thomas T. Crittenden set a reward for his capture.[31] This was the beginning of an alliance between James and John Newman Edwards, editor and founder of the Kansas City Times. Edwards, a former Confederate cavalryman, was campaigning to return former secessionists to power in Missouri. Six months after the Gallatin robbery, Edwards published the first of many letters from Jesse James to the public, asserting his innocence. Over time, the letters gradually became more political in tone and James denounced the Republicans and expressed his pride in his Confederate loyalties. Together with Edwards's admiring editorials, the letters helped James become a symbol of Confederate defiance of federal Reconstruction policy. James's initiative in creating his rising public profile is debated by historians and biographers. The high tensions in politics accompanied his outlaw career and enhanced his notoriety.[30][33]

James–Younger Gang

Main article: James–Younger Gang

Meanwhile, the James brothers joined with Cole Younger and his brothers John, Jim, and Bob, as well as Clell Miller and other former Confederates, to form what came to be known as the James–Younger Gang. With Jesse James as the most public face of the gang (though with operational leadership likely shared among the group), the gang carried out a string of robberies from Iowa to Texas, and from Kansas to West Virginia.[34] They robbed banks, stagecoaches, and a fair in Kansas City, often carrying out their crimes in front of crowds, and even hamming it up for the bystanders.

On July 21, 1873, they turned to train robbery, derailing a Rock Island Line train west of Adair, Iowa, and stealing approximately $3,000 (equivalent to $65,000 in 2020). For this, they wore Ku Klux Klan masks. By this time, the Klan had been suppressed in the South by President Grant's use of the Enforcement Acts. Former rebels attacked the railroads as symbols of threatening centralization.[35]

The gang's later train robberies had a lighter touch. The gang held up passengers only twice, choosing in all other incidents to take only the contents of the express safe in the baggage car. John Newman Edwards made sure to highlight such techniques when creating an image of James as a kind of Robin Hood. Despite public sentiment toward the gang's crimes, there is no evidence that the James gang ever shared any of the robbery money outside their personal circle.[33]

Jesse and his cousin Zee married on April 24, 1874. They had two children who survived to adulthood: Jesse Edward James (b. 1875) and Mary Susan James (later Barr, b. 1879).[36] Twins Gould and Montgomery James (b. 1878) died in infancy. Jesse Jr. became a lawyer who practiced in Kansas City, Missouri, and Los Angeles, California.[37]

Pinkertons

In 1874, the Adams Express Company turned to the Pinkerton National Detective Agency to stop the James–Younger Gang. The Chicago-based agency worked primarily against urban professional criminals, as well as providing industrial security, such as strike breaking. Because the gang received support by many former Confederate soldiers in Missouri, they eluded the Pinkertons. Joseph Whicher, an agent dispatched to infiltrate Zerelda Samuel's farm, was soon found killed. Two other agents, Captain Louis J. Lull and John Boyle, were sent after the Youngers; Lull was killed by two of the Youngers in a roadside gunfight on March 17, 1874. Before he died, Lull fatally shot John Younger. A deputy sheriff named Edwin Daniels also died in the skirmish.[38][39]

Allan Pinkerton, the agency's founder and leader, took on the case as a personal vendetta. He began to work with former Unionists who lived near the James family farm. On the night of January 25, 1875, he staged a raid on the homestead. Detectives threw an incendiary device into the house; it exploded, killing James's young half-brother Archie (named for Archie Clement) and blowing off one of Zerelda Samuel's arms. Afterward, Pinkerton denied that the raid's intent was arson. But biographer Ted Yeatman found a letter by Pinkerton in the Library of Congress in which Pinkerton declared his intention to "burn the house down."[40][41]

Many residents were outraged by the raid on the family home. The Missouri state legislature narrowly defeated a bill that praised the James and Younger brothers and offered them amnesty.[11] Allowed to vote and hold office again, former Confederates in the legislature voted to limit the size of rewards the governor could offer for fugitives. This extended a measure of protection over the James–Younger gang by minimizing the incentive for attempting to capture them. The governor had offered rewards higher than the new limit only on Frank and Jesse James.[42][43]

Across a creek and up a hill from the James house was the home of Daniel Askew, who is thought to have been killed by James or his gang on April 12, 1875. They may have suspected Askew of cooperating with the Pinkertons in the January 1875 arson of the James house.[citation needed]

Downfall of the gang

On September 7, 1876, the opening day of hunting season in Minnesota, the James–Younger gang attempted a raid on the First National Bank of Northfield, Minnesota. The robbery quickly went wrong, however, and after the robbery, only Frank and Jesse James remained alive and free.[44]

Cole and Bob Younger later said they selected the bank because they believed it was associated with the Republican politician Adelbert Ames, the governor of Mississippi during Reconstruction, and Union general Benjamin Butler, Ames's father-in-law and the Union commander of occupied New Orleans. Ames was a stockholder in the bank, but Butler had no direct connection to it.[45]

The gang attempted to rob the bank in Northfield at about 2 pm. To carry out the robbery, the gang divided into two groups. Three men entered the bank, two guarded the door outside, and three remained near a bridge across an adjacent square. The robbers inside the bank were thwarted when acting cashier Joseph Lee Heywood refused to open the safe, falsely claiming that it was secured by a time lock even as they held a Bowie knife to his throat and cracked his skull with a pistol butt. Assistant cashier Alonzo Enos Bunker was wounded in the shoulder as he fled through the back door of the bank. Meanwhile, the citizens of Northfield grew suspicious of the men guarding the door and raised the alarm. The five bandits outside fired into the air to clear the streets, driving the townspeople to take cover and fire back from protected positions. They shot two bandits dead and wounded the rest in the barrage. Inside, the outlaws turned to flee. As they left, one shot the unarmed cashier Heywood in the head. Historians have speculated about the identity of the shooter but have not reached consensus.

The gang barely escaped Northfield, leaving two dead companions behind. They killed Heywood and Nicholas Gustafson, a Swedish immigrant from the Millersburg community west of Northfield. A substantial manhunt ensued. It is believed that the gang burned 14 Rice County mills shortly after the robbery.[46] The James brothers eventually split from the others and escaped to Missouri. The militia soon discovered the Youngers and one other bandit, Charlie Pitts. In a gunfight, Pitts died and the Youngers were taken prisoner. Except for Frank and Jesse James, the James–Younger Gang was destroyed.[47][48]

Later in 1876, Jesse and Frank James surfaced in the Nashville, Tennessee, area, where they went by the names of Thomas Howard and B. J. Woodson, respectively. Frank seemed to settle down, but Jesse remained restless. He recruited a new gang in 1879 and returned to crime, holding up a train at Glendale, Missouri (now part of Independence),[49] on October 8, 1879. The robbery was the first in a spree of crimes, including the hold-up of the federal paymaster of a canal project in Killen, Alabama, and two more train robberies. But the new gang was not made up of battle-hardened guerrillas; they soon turned against each other or were captured. James grew suspicious of other members; he scared away one man and some believe that he killed another gang member.

In 1879, the James gang robbed two stores in far western Mississippi, at Washington in Adams County and Fayette in Jefferson County. The gang left with $2,000 cash from the second robbery and took shelter in abandoned cabins on the Kemp Plantation south of St. Joseph, Louisiana. A law enforcement posse attacked and killed two of the outlaws but failed to capture the entire gang. Among the deputies was Jefferson B. Snyder, later a long-serving district attorney in northeastern Louisiana.[50]

By 1881, with local Tennessee authorities growing suspicious, the brothers returned to Missouri, where they felt safer. James moved his family to St. Joseph, Missouri, in November 1881, not far from where he had been born and reared. Frank, however, decided to move to safer territory and headed east to settle in Virginia. They intended to give up crime. The James gang had been reduced to the two of them.[51][52]

Death

Site at 1318 Lafayette Street, where James was killed. To the right is the top of Patee House, where his widow Zerelda stayed after his death. His house was subsequently moved to the Belt Highway and later to its current location on the Patee House grounds.
Jesse James's home in St. Joseph, where he was shot (currently at the grounds of the Patee House)

With his gang nearly annihilated, James trusted only the Ford brothers, Charley and Robert.[53] Although Charley had been out on raids with James, Bob Ford was an eager new recruit. For protection, James asked the Ford brothers to move in with him and his family. James had often stayed with their sister Martha Bolton and, according to rumor, he was "smitten" with her.[1] By that time, Bob Ford had conducted secret negotiations with Missouri Governor Thomas T. Crittenden, planning to bring in the famous outlaw.[53] Crittenden had made capture of the James brothers his top priority; in his inaugural address he declared that no political motives could be allowed to keep them from justice. Barred by law from offering a large reward, he had turned to the railroad and express corporations to put up a $5,000 bounty for the delivery of each of them and an additional $5,000 for the conviction of either of them.[54]

A woodcutshows Robert Ford famously shooting Jesse James in the back while he hangs a picture in his house. Ford's brother Charles looks on.[55]

On April 3, 1882, after eating breakfast, the Fords and Jameses went into the living room before traveling to Platte City for a robbery. From the newspaper, James had just learned that gang member Dick Liddil had confessed to participating in Wood Hite's murder. He was suspicious that the Fords had not told him about it. Robert Ford later said he believed that James had realized they were there to betray him. Instead of confronting them, James walked across the living room and laid his revolvers on a sofa. He turned around and noticed a dusty picture above the mantle, and stood on a chair to clean it. Robert Ford drew his weapon and shot the unarmed Jesse James in the back of the head.[56][57][58] James's two previous bullet wounds and partially missing middle finger served to positively identify the body.[14]

The death of Jesse James became a national sensation. The Fords made no attempt to hide their role. Robert Ford wired the governor to claim his reward. Crowds pressed into the little house in St. Joseph to see the dead bandit. The Ford brothers surrendered to the authorities and were dismayed to be charged with first-degree murder. In the course of a single day, the Ford brothers were indicted, pleaded guilty, were sentenced to death by hanging, and were granted a full pardon by Governor Crittenden.[59] The governor's quick pardon suggested he knew the brothers intended to kill James rather than capture him. The implication that the chief executive of Missouri conspired to kill a private citizen startled the public and added to James's notoriety.[60][61][62]

After receiving a small portion of the reward, the Fords fled Missouri. Sheriff James Timberlake and Marshal Henry H. Craig, who were law enforcement officials active in the plan, were awarded the majority of the bounty.[63] Later, the Ford brothers starred in a touring stage show in which they re-enacted the shooting.[64][65] Public opinion was divided between those against the Fords for murdering Jesse, and those of the opinion that it had been time for the outlaw to be stopped. Suffering from tuberculosis (then incurable) and a morphine addiction, Charley Ford committed suicide on May 6, 1884, in Richmond, Missouri. Bob Ford operated a tent saloon in Creede, Colorado. On June 8, 1892, Edward O'Kelley went to Creede, loaded a double-barrel shotgun, entered Ford's saloon and said "Hello, Bob," before shooting Ford in the throat, killing him instantly. O'Kelley was sentenced to life in prison, but his sentence was subsequently commuted because of a 7,000-signature petition in favor of his release, as well as a medical condition. The Governor of Colorado pardoned him on October 3, 1902.[66]

Jesse James Gravestone in Kearney, Missouri.

James's original grave was on his family property, but he was later moved to a cemetery in Kearney. The original footstone is still there, although the family has replaced the headstone. James's mother Zerelda Samuel wrote the following epitaph for him: "In Loving Memory of my Beloved Son, Murdered by a Traitor and Coward Whose Name is not Worthy to Appear Here."[53] James's widow Zerelda Mimms James died alone and in poverty.

Rumors of survival

Rumors of Jesse James's survival proliferated almost as soon as the newspapers announced his death. Some said that Robert Ford killed someone other than James in an elaborate plot to allow him to escape justice.[11] These tales have received little credence, then or since. None of James's biographers accepted them as plausible. The body buried in Kearney, Missouri, marked "Jesse James" was exhumed in 1995 and subjected to mitochondrial DNA typing. The report, prepared by Anne C. Stone, Ph.D., James E. Starrs, L.L.M., and Mark Stoneking, Ph.D., confirmed the mtDNA recovered from the remains was consistent with the mtDNA of one of James's relatives in the female line.[67]

The theme of survival was featured in a 2009 documentary, Jesse James' Hidden Treasure, which aired on the History Channel. The documentary was dismissed as pseudo-history and pseudoscience by historian Nancy Samuelson in a review she wrote for the Winter 2009–2010 edition of The James-Younger Gang Journal.[68]

J. Frank Dalton claimed to be Jesse James; he died August 15, 1951, in Granbury, Texas.[69] Dalton was allegedly 101 years old at the time of his first public appearance, in May 1948. Oran Baker, Hood County Sheriff, conducted a visual post-mortem exam and found he had thirty-two bullet wounds and a rope burn around his neck. He was buried in Granbury Cemetery, where the headstone bears the name of "Jesse Woodson James".[70] His story did not hold up to questioning from James's surviving relatives.[71]

Legacy

Further information: Social bandits and Robin Hood

James's turn to crime after the end of the Reconstruction era helped cement his place in American life and memory as a simple but remarkably effective bandit. After 1873, he was covered by the national media as part of social banditry.[72] During his lifetime, James was celebrated chiefly by former Confederates, to whom he appealed directly in his letters to the press. Displaced by Reconstruction, the antebellum political leadership mythologized the James Gang exploits. Frank Triplett wrote about James as a "progressive neo-aristocrat" with "purity of race".[73] Some historians credit James's myth as contributing to the rise of former Confederates to dominance in Missouri politics.[citation needed] In the 1880s, both U.S. Senators from the state, former Confederate military commander Francis Cockrell, and former Confederate CongressmanGeorge Graham Vest, were identified with the Confederate cause.

In the 1880s, after James's death, the James Gang became the subject of dime novels that represented the bandits as pre-industrial models of resistance.[73] During the Populist and Progressive eras, James became an icon as America's Robin Hood, standing up against corporations in defense of the small farmer, robbing from the rich and giving to the poor. There is no evidence that he shared the loot of his robberies with anyone other than his gang members; only they enjoyed the riches with him.[1]

In the 1950s, James was pictured as a psychologically troubled man rather than a social rebel. Some filmmakers portrayed the former outlaw as a revenger, replacing "social with exclusively personal motives."[74] While his "heroic outlaw" image is commonly portrayed in films, as well as in songs and folklore, since the late 20th century, historians such as Stiles have classified him as a self-aware vigilante and terrorist who used local tensions to create his own myth among the widespread insurgent guerrillas and vigilantes following the American Civil War.[2]

Jesse James remains a controversial symbol, one who can always be reinterpreted in various ways according to cultural tensions and needs. Some of the neo-Confederate movement regard him as a hero.[60][75][76] But renewed cultural battles over the place of the Civil War in American history have replaced the long-standing interpretation of James as a Western frontier hero.

Museums

Museums and sites devoted to Jesse James:

  • James Farm in Kearney, Missouri: In 1974, Clay County, Missouri, bought the property. The county operates the site as a house museum and historic site.[77] It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972, with a boundary increase in 1978.[78]
  • Jesse James Home Museum: The house where Jesse James was killed in south St. Joseph was moved in 1939 to the Belt Highway on St. Joseph's east side to attract tourists. In 1977, it was moved to its current location, near Patee House, which was the headquarters of the Pony Express. The house is owned and operated by the Pony Express Historical Association.[79]
  • The Jesse James Bank Museum, on the square in Liberty, Missouri, is the site of the first daylight bank robbery in the United States in peacetime. The museum is managed by Clay County along with the James Farm Home and Museum outside of Kearney.[80]
  • First National Bank of Northfield: The Northfield Historical Society in Northfield, Minnesota, has restored the building that housed the First National Bank, the scene of the 1876 raid.[81]
  • Heaton Bowman Funeral Home, 36th Street and Frederick Avenue, St. Joseph, Missouri: The funeral home's predecessor conducted the original autopsy and funeral for Jesse James. A room in the back holds the log book and other documentation.
  • The Jesse James Tavern is located in Asdee, County Kerry, Ireland. It has been claimed that James's ancestors were from that area of Ireland.[82] But documented evidence suggests that on his father's side, Jesse was a third-generation American of English descent.[83][84]
  • According to the National Park Service, Jesse James has a historical connection to Mammoth Cave National Park, having reportedly occupied some of the cave's inner areas during his escapes from the law, and having committed a stage coach robbery between Cave City and Mammoth Cave.[85][86] These claims are disputed, as, according to Katie Cielinski, a local cave expert, "If every cave that claims Jesse James had been there (was valid), Jesse James would never have been on the surface."[87] It is likely these legends are based on the ample evidence that the Kentucky cave system played host to outlaw camps in general.

Festivals

The Defeat of Jesse James Days in Northfield, Minnesota, is among the largest outdoor celebrations in the state.[88] It is held annually in September during the weekend after Labor Day. Thousands of visitors watch reenactments of the robbery, a championship rodeo, a carnival, performances of a 19th-century style melodrama musical, and a parade during the five-day event.[89]

Jesse James's boyhood home in Kearney, Missouri, is operated as a museum dedicated to the town's most famous resident. Each year a recreational fair, the Jesse James Festival, is held during the third weekend in September.[90]

The annual Victorian Festival in Jersey County, Illinois, is held on Labor Day weekend[91] at the 1866 Col. William H. Fulkerson estate Hazel Dell. Festivities include telling Jesse James's history in stories and by reenactments of stagecoach holdups. Over the three-day event, thousands of spectators learn of the documented James Gang's stopover at Hazel Dell and of their connection with ex-Confederate Fulkerson.

Russellville, Kentucky, the site of the robbery of the Southern Bank in 1868, holds a reenactment of the robbery every year as of the Logan County Tobacco and Heritage Festival.[92]

The small town of Oak Grove, Louisiana, also hosts a town-wide annual Jesse James Outlaw Roundup Festival, usually in the early to mid-autumn. This is a reference to a short time James supposedly spent near this area.[93]

Cultural depictions

Main article: Cultural depictions of Jesse James

References

  1. ^ abcHayworth, Wil (September 17, 2007). "A story of myth, fame, Jesse James". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on December 29, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  2. ^ abcStiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. ISBN .
  3. ^Burlingame, Jeff (March 1, 2010). Jesse James: I Will Never Surrender. Enslow Publishers, Inc. p. 12. ISBN .
  4. ^ abcdeSettle, William A. (1977). Jesse James Was His Name, or, Fact and Fiction Concerning the Careers of the Notorious James Brothers of Missouri. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 7, 12, 16, 26. ISBN . Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  5. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 23–6. ISBN .
  6. ^ abYeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 26–8. ISBN .
  7. ^ abStiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 26–55. ISBN .
  8. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 37–46. ISBN .
  9. ^Hurt, R. Douglas (1992). Agriculture and Slavery in Missouri's Little Dixie. University of Missouri Press. ISBN .
  10. ^Fellman, Michael (1990). Inside War: The Guerrilla Conflict in Missouri onto the American Civil War. Oxford University Press. pp. 61–143. ISBN .
  11. ^ abcdAndrews, Dale C (June 18, 2013). "Jesse James and Meramec Caverns". Route 66. Washington: SleuthSayers.
  12. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 30–45. ISBN .
  13. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 61–2, 84–91. ISBN .
  14. ^ abcdefSettle, William A. (1977). Jesse James Was His Name. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 28–35. ISBN . Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  15. ^Settle, William A. (1977). Jesse James Was His Name. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 140–41. ISBN . Retrieved December 7, 2008.
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  18. ^Parrish, William E. (1965). Missouri Under Radical Rule, 1865–1870. University of Missouri Press. ASIN B0014QRLJC.
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  23. ^"Jailer Henry Bugler, Jackson County Sheriff's Office, Missouri". Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  24. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. p. 173. ISBN .
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  26. ^"Deputy Sheriff Frank S. Griffin, Ray County Sheriff's Department". Officer Down Memorial Page. Retrieved October 3, 2008.
  27. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 192–95. ISBN .
  28. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 91–8. ISBN .
  29. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 190–206. ISBN .
  30. ^ abSettle, William A. (1977). Jesse James Was His Name, or, Fact and Fiction Concerning the Careers of the Notorious James Brothers of Missouri. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN . Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  31. ^ ab"Civil lawsuit against Frank & Jesse James". Daviess County Historical Society. August 30, 2007. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  32. ^Missouri State Archives. "Frank and Jesse James Court Documents from Daviess County". Missouri Digital Heritage. Missouri Office of the Secretary of State. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
  33. ^ abStiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 207–48. ISBN .
  34. ^Old Campsite of Jesse and Frank James: US 380, approximately 5 miles east of Decatur: Texas marker #3700 – Texas Historical Commission
  35. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 236–238. ISBN .
  36. ^Monaco, Ralph A., II (2012). Son Of A Bandit, Jesse James & The Leeds Gang, Monaco Publishing, L.L.C. Sonofabandit.com. 2012. ISBN . Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  37. ^"Original reference: Los Angeles Times, Orange County Edition, August 25, 2001, Page F2". Ericjames.org. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  38. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 111–20. ISBN .
  39. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 249–58. ISBN .
  40. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 128–44. ISBN .
  41. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 272–85. ISBN .
  42. ^Settle, William A. (1977). Jesse James Was His Name. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 76–84. ISBN . Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  43. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 286–305. ISBN .
  44. ^"St. Joseph History — Jesse James". St. Joseph, Missouri. Archived from the original on January 24, 2009. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  45. ^Stiles, T. J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 324–5. ISBN .
  46. ^"An Inventory of the Northfield (Minnesota) Bank Robbery of 1876: Selected Manuscripts Collection". Mnhs.org. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  47. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 169–86. ISBN .
  48. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 326–47. ISBN .
  49. ^"Skillful Detective Work; Another of the James Gang Captured in Missouri". The New York Times. March 19, 1889.
  50. ^"Jefferson B. Snyder". New Orleans Times-Picayune, April 15, 1938. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
  51. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 193–270. ISBN .
  52. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 351–73. ISBN .
  53. ^ abcKing, Susan (September 17, 2007). "One more shot at the legend of Jesse James". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  54. ^Hanes, Elizabeth. "Jesse James Wanted Poster Goes Up for Auction". History.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  55. ^Dove, Laurie L. "10 of History's Most Notorious Traitors". HowStuffWorks. InfoSpace Holdings LLC. System1 Company. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  56. ^"Jesse James Shot Down. Killed By One Of His Confederates Who Claims To Be A Detective". New York Times. April 4, 1882. Retrieved December 9, 2008.
  57. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 363–75. ISBN .
  58. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 264–9. ISBN .
  59. ^"Jesse James's Murderers. The Ford Brothers Indicted, Plead Guilty, Sentenced To Be Hanged, And Pardoned All In One Day". New York Times. April 18, 1882. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  60. ^ abStiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 376–81. ISBN .
  61. ^Yeatman, Ted P. (2000). Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 270–2. ISBN .
  62. ^Settle, William A. (1977). Jesse James Was His Name. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 117–36. ISBN . Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  63. ^"Feared by Jesse James". Spokane Daily Chronicle. Spokane, Washington. March 10, 1891. p. 1. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  64. ^Stiles, T.J. (2002). Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing. pp. 378, 395–95. ISBN .
  65. ^Stiles
  66. ^Ries, Judith (1994). Ed O'Kelley: The Man Who Murdered Jesse James' Murderer. Stewart Printing and Publishing Co. ISBN .
  67. ^
  68. ^Leaf Blower (April 2, 2010). "James-Younger Gang Journal pans Jesse James' Hidden Treasure". Ericjames.org. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  69. ^Kross, Peter (November 25, 2015). American Conspiracy Files: The Stories We Were Never Told. SCB Distributors. p. 46. ISBN .
  70. ^Saltarelli, Mary Estelle Gott (2009). Historic Hood County: An Illustrated History. HPN Books. p. 60. ISBN .
  71. ^Walker, Dale L. (November 15, 1998). Legends and Lies: Great Mysteries of the American West. Forge Books. pp. 87–110. ISBN .
  72. ^Slotkin, Richard (1998). Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 128. ISBN .
  73. ^ abSlotkin, Richard (1998). Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 134–136. ISBN .
  74. ^Slotkin, Richard (1998). Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 381–382. ISBN .
  75. ^Slotkin, Richard (1998). Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 125–55. ISBN .
  76. ^Settle, William A. (1977). Jesse James Was His Name. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 149–201. ISBN . Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  77. ^"Friends of the James Farm". Jessejames.org. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  78. ^"National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
  79. ^"St. Joseph History – Jesse James Home"Archived April 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, City of St. Joseph, Missouri
  80. ^"Jesse James Bank Museum". Retrieved March 11, 2012.
  81. ^"Bank Site."Northfield Historical Society.
  82. ^"Asdee—where Jesse James's ancestors originated—County Kerry, Ireland", 1st Stop County Kerry, accessed June 20, 2008
  83. ^Steele, Philip W. "Jesse and Frank James: The Family History". Pelican Publishing, 1987, p. 27.
  84. ^Ireland and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: a Multidisciplinary Encyclopedia, Volume 2, edited by: James Patrick Byrne, Philip Coleman, Jason Francis King, pp. 475–476.
  85. ^"Kentucky: 225 Years on the Move". Kentucky Historical Society.
  86. ^"NPS - Page In-Progress". www.nps.gov.
  87. ^[email protected], WES SWIETEK. "Lost River has unique history, role as 'urban oasis'". Bowling Green Daily News.
  88. ^Garrison, Webb (November 3, 1998). A Treasury of Minnesota Tales: Unusual, Interesting, and Little-Known Stories of Minnesota. Thomas Nelson. p. 42. ISBN .
  89. ^"Defeat of Jesse James Days". Djjd.org. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  90. ^"Jesse James Festival." JesseJamesFestival.com.
  91. ^"Jersey County Victorian Festival."Archived October 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine GreatRiverRoad.com.
  92. ^"Logan County Tobacco & Heritage Festival 2017". Logan County Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  93. ^Jesse James Outlaw Roundup Festival on Facebook

Bibliography

  • Fellman, Michael. Inside War: The Guerrilla Conflict in Missouri onto the American Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-19-506471-2.
  • Settle, William A. Jesse James Was His Name, or, Fact and Fiction Concerning the Careers of the Notorious James Brothers of Missouri'. University of Nebraska Press, 1977. ISBN 0-8032-5860-7.
  • Stiles, T. J. Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing, 2002. ISBN 0-375-40583-6.
  • Yeatman, Ted P. Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing, 2000. ISBN 1-58182-325-8.
  • Quist, B. Wayne, The History of the Christdala Evangelical Swedish Lutheran Church of Millersburg, Minnesota, Dundas, Minnesota, Third Edition, July 2009, page 19–23, The Murder of Nicholaus Gustafson.

Further reading

  • Dyer, Robert. "Jesse James and the Civil War in Missouri,"University of Missouri Press, 1994
  • Hobsbawm, Eric J. Bandits, Pantheon, 1981
  • Koblas, John J. Faithful Unto Death, Northfield Historical Society Press, 2001
  • Smith, Carter F. Gangs and the Military: Gangsters, Bikers, and Terrorists with Military Training. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017.
  • Thelen, David. Paths of Resistance: Tradition and Dignity in Industrializing Missouri, Oxford University Press, 1986
  • Wellman, Paul I. A Dynasty of Western Outlaws. Doubleday, 1961; 1986.
  • White, Richard. "Outlaw Gangs of the Middle Border: American Social Bandits," Western Historical Quarterly 12, no. 4 (October 1981)

External links

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesse_James


               



Another GAAR in the books! Congrats to the 2021 participants and thank you to our many volunteers, sponsors and supporters! Race results can be found on Webscorer at www.webscorer.com/gaar and as pdfs here (by Category) and here (Overall). Event photos can be found on the Great Ames Adventure Race Facebook Page.

Since 2007 the Great Ames Adventure Race (The GAAR) has called people of all ages and abilities to test their mettle at a triathlon of events. Participants compete in solo, tandem or relay divisions on a course that starts and ends at Ada Hayden Heritage Park, 5205 Grand Avenue in North Ames. The race begins with waves of six on a 2.5 mile race around the lake. Participants then exit the lake to a transition area where the 15 mile bike race and the 5K run begin.

The Bike Route (modified in 2016) is entirely on paved roads south, west and north of the park. The 5K is on asphalt and cinder trails within the park. PFDs (life jackets) and bike helmets are required!

New in 2021, we've added an Adult-Youth Relay Category! As with Adult-Youth Tandem Teams, the adult and child (age 12 or under) must stay together during each leg of the race.

Come and challenge yourself, or challenge family, friends, and coworkers in a fun paddle-bike-run event that keeps people coming back, year after year.

Check us out on FACEBOOK!


REGISTRATION:
(Register early to ensure that you'll get an event t-shirt!)

    Advance Registration Fees

    • SOLO and SOLO MASTERS - $40.00

    • TANDEM and ADULT/YOUTH TANDEM - $80.00

    • Two, three and four person Relay Teams - $30.00 per particpant

    ONLINE REGISTRATION will be available through September 9th at GetMeRegistered.com/GAAR.

    Day-of-event Registrations will be $50 per participant.

    To register by mail print and complete the Registration Form and Waiver page (or pdf) and mail with payment to:

        GAAR
        2908 White Oak Drive
        Ames, IA 50014

        Please make checks payable to "GAAR" and note "Registration" in the memo.

    GAAR reserves the right to use your photo, including video, for promotional purposes.


Prizes and AWARDS will be presented at the Moose Lodge
(1/4 mile north of the park at Hwy 69 and 190th Street) following the race. A pancake breakfast will be served at the Moose Lodge from 8:00 a.m. until noon. The breakfast is included with each registration and is available to family, friends and the general public at $4/person ($2/child).



FAQ's

    Are there restrictions or regulations on what kind of canoe/kayak, bike, or paddle I can use?
    No, you may use any type of bike, paddle, canoe or kayak

    Do I have to wear a helmet while on my bike?
    Yes, all participants on the bike portion of the race will be required to wear CPSC/ANSI approved helmets.

    Do I have to wear a life jacket while I am in my boat?
    Yes, all participants will be required to wear a US Coast Guard approved personal flotation device while on the lake.

    COMPLETE EVENT RULES can be found here.

    How do the categories work?

    • SOLO participants compete in the entire course.
      Solo Masters participants are aged 50 and over.

    • TANDEM participants compete together over the entire course, paddling and/or biking tandem. The finish times of Adult - Tandem particpants are averaged; Adult - Youth participants must race together. (Eligible youth are aged 12 and under.)

    • RELAY participants compete in sections of the race as assigned by their team. Two, three and four - person Relay Teams will compete together as one category.

    Can I rent a boat?
    You are responsible for providing your own boat. Canoe and kayak rentals can be arranged IN ADVANCE with:

    • JAX Outdoor Gear, (515) 292-2276

    • Seven Oaks Recreation, (515) 432-9457

    • ISU Outdoor Recreation, (515) 294-8200 (for ISU students, staff, affiliates)

    Be sure to tell them you are renting for the GAAR and work out arrangements for transport with them!

    Where do the proceeds from this race go?
    The GAAR is a joint, volunteer effort between members of the Ames Area Running Club, Ames Velo, Friends of Central Iowa Biking (2008-2017), and the Skunk River Paddlers. Proceeds have helped support the Lincoln Way Chapter of the American Red Cross, Food at First, the Friends of Ada Hayden Heritage Park, the Ames Emergency Residence Project, Friendship Ark Homes, the Story County Sheriff's Dive Team, the Story County Amateur Radio Club the Gilbert Trail Project, the Ames Miracle League Field/Playground and WeCycle.

    2019 proceeds went to Iowa Able, to Story County Conservation (for the  HOINT), to the Let's Connect Woodward to Perry Trail project and to the paddler's Access Ada Hayden accessible dock and launch project.

    How can I volunteer to help?
    Many volunteers are needed for the GAAR. Please email [email protected] and indicate how you or your group might like to help.




2019 GAAR


    Congrats to our 2019 participants and thank you to our many volunteers, sponsors and supporters! Race results can be found on Webscorer at www.webscorer.com/gaar and in a pdf here. Event photos can be found on the Great Ames Adventure Race Facebook Page.

    The GAAR planning committee has distributed 2019 race proceeds to Iowa Able, to Story County Conservation (for the  HOINT), to the Let's Connect Woodward to Perry Trail project and to the paddler's Access Ada Hayden accessible dock and launch project. Be sure to thank our sponsors for making these gifts possible!


2018 GAAR


2017 GAAR


2016 GAAR


    Thanks, EVERYONE, for another Great Race! Results are HERE and photos are on our Facebook Page.

    The Story County Sheriff's Dive Team and the Story County Amateur Radio Club have supported the GAAR each year since the inaugural event in 2007. In recognition of their support, and in support of the services that they provide to the community, a portion of the 2016 GAAR proceeds has been donated to each organization. A donation has also been made to the Friends of Ada Hayden Heritage Park.

    Please be sure to thank our sponsors, Skunk River Cycles, JAX Outdoor Gear, FOX Engineering and Bike World Ames.


2015 GAAR


2014 GAAR


2013 GAAR

    THANK YOU ALL FOR ANOTHER FINE RACE!   Many thanks to our sponsors, supporters and prize donors, and to the many volunteers that make the GAAR what it is. Race results are at www.greatamesadventurerace.org/files/2013Results.pdf and we have over 500 event photos on our FACEBOOK PAGE.

    After expenses were paid the GAAR Committee donated $800 each to Food at First and to Friends of Ada Hayden Heritage Park. The contributions represent the net proceeds from the 2013 race.


2012 GAAR

    CONGRATULATIONS EVERYONE and a big thank you to all of the 2012 sponsors, supporters and volunteers - especially Skunk River Cycles, JAX, Bike World and Fox Engineering. RACE RESULTS are HERE. PHOTOS are on Facebook. After expenses were paid, the GAAR Committee presented a check in the amount of $1000 to Food at First, in Ames.


2011 GAAR

    THE 2011 GAAR: THANK YOU ALL FOR ANOTHER GREAT RACE! Many thanks to our sponsors, supporters, prize donors and volunteers, and congratulations to each and every participant. We hope you all enjoyed the race and we encourage you to express your appreciation to our sponsors and supporters.

    After expenses were paid, the GAAR Committee presented a check in the amount of $1000 to Kim Linduska, Chair of the Lincoln Way Chapter, Red Cross of Iowa.

    The 2011 results are by category: Solo, Tandem, and Relay
    First Place Winners are in the September 16 News Release
    Photos are on Picasa and on our Facebook Page
    We have one GAAR leftover: a water bottle     Email info @ greatamesadventurace.org to claim


2010 GAAR

    Great Ames Adventure Race committee donates $1,000 to American Red Cross (Ames Tribune 12/8/2010) The Great Ames Adventure Race committee recently presented the Lincoln Way Chapter of the American Red Cross with a check for $1,000, representing proceeds from the 2010 Great Ames Adventure Race. A donation from the Moose Lodge was presented by members Chuck Clatt and Art Barton.

    CONGRATULATIONS to the 2010 GAAR Athletes and Volunteers for yet another fantastic event, and MANY THANKS to our sponsors and prize donors!

    RACE RESULTS are available by category at gaar10_solo_relay_results.xls,   gaar10_tandem_results.xls,   gaar10_solo_relay_results.pdf,   gaar10_tandem_results.pdf & gaar10_top35.pdf.

    Hundreds of photographs were taken of the event by Jeff White and Diane Lowry. This year the "Around the GAAR" images are presented in Windows Media Video (wmv) format, and if there's a particular photo that you might like to have in high resolution please let us know at photo(~at~) greatamesadventurerace.org.   PHOTOS: gaar2010paddle, gaar2010bike1, bike2, gaar2010run1, run2, & around_the_gaar.wmv.

    Great Ames Adventure Race set for Sunday (Ames Tribune 9/7/2010)

    GAAR Committee member issues Challenge (Ames Tribune 7/30/2010)

    GAAR gift to Red Cross (Ames Tribune 7/7/2010)

2009 GAAR

    THANK YOU, and CONGRATULATIONS, to the 2009 GAAR Participants and Volunteers for another fantastic event!   RACE RESULTS are available by category at gaar09_results.xls and gaar09_results.pdf.  The top 25 are listed at gaar09_top25.pdf. Also, thanks to Jeff White, Diane Lowry and Lydia Lowry, we have over 400 PHOTOS of the event. See paddle, bike, run, and around_the_gaar!

    Letter to the Ames Tribune (9/23/2009)

    2009 AMES ADVENTURE RACE SET FOR LABOR DAY WEEKEND!   (Press Release, 7/20/09)

2008 GAAR

    Congratulations to the 2008 GAAR Participants and THANK YOU to the GAAR Volunteers for a fantastic event! Race results are available by category at gaar08_results.pdf and we have nearly 750 PHOTOS of the event - see prerace, paddle, bike, run, and the_GAAR!

    9/15/2008 - GAAR Committee presents gift to Red Cross - Members of the Skunk River Paddlers, Friends of Central Iowa Biking and Ames Running Club presented a gift of $500 to Kirk Brocker, the new Executive Director of the Lincoln Way Chapter of the American Red Cross. The '07 event was a joint effort with the Red Cross so we were pleased to have the opportunity to extend the relationship!

    The Great Ames Adventure Race returns to Ada Hayden Park   (Press Release, 7/31/08)

2007 GAAR

    The inaugural, 2007 Great Ames Adventure Race was a joint effort of the Lincoln Way Chapter of the American Red Cross and the Skunk River Paddlers, a local paddling group. Doug Yetman, Director of the Ames Chapter at that time, and David Kraemer, a Chapter Board Member, paddler and then - editor of the Ames Tribune, imagined a local event as a Red Cross fundraiser after participating together in a similar event on the Maquoketa River.

    Great Ames Adventure Race draws 136 participants   (Ames Tribune, 6/12/07)

    The 2007 GAAR results originally from www.lincolnwayarc.org/GAAR/index.html
    Photos from 2007: Prerace, Paddle, BikeRun, MooseLodge
       

The information provided on the GAAR website is provided as a service to the event organizers.

Источник: http://www.greatamesadventurerace.org/

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Review Great Western Bank,blockly,IA in Leon, Iowa - Vimarsana.com

Great Western Bank

North Main Street

Leon,

Iowa,United-states - 50144

[email protected]

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, 40 740051 74 371948
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Frequently Asked Questions About This Location

Qus: 1).what is the mode of payment accepted ?

Ans: Cash , Credit Card and Wallets

Qus: 2).What are the hours of operation ?

Ans: Open all days from 9:30 to 8:30 and exceptions on Sundays

Qus: 3).Do they have Global Plus code for this location?

Ans: Yes . Plus code is created for all the location by plus.codes . Plus code for this location is 86G8P7R3+28.

Qus: 4).What is the Latitude & Longtitude Of the location?

Ans: Latitude of the location is 40.740051 Longtitude of the location is - -93.7466584

vimarsana © 2020. All Rights Reserved.

Источник: https://vimarsana.com/ampreview/great-western-bank-decatur-iowa

Description

At Great Western Bank, we empower our team members by embracing each other’s differences, distinct backgrounds and viewpoints. We know that diverse perspectives drive change, so be yourself and together we can “Make Life Great”.

General Description and Essential Functions

Accountable for individual business development activities and strategies that promote core deposit growth by attracting new business and building multiple relationships with existing customers. Promotes quality service by use of the customer constitution. Responsible for the development and servicing of consumer loan portfolios, with the goal of providing maximum profitability with minimum risk.

• Provide personalized relationship based banking services to current and prospective customers, consistently seeking to expand customer relationships and provide the highest level of customer service, through aggressive profiling of each customer and prospective customer to determine their needs and matching products/services to those needs.

• Develop and support retail business by capitalizing on business opportunities and directly or indirectly influencing the production of revenue and the control of expenses that contribute to the branch goal.

• Analyze credit and financial information for processing of loans and other bank products for customers to ensure applicable lending policies and procedures are followed. Responsible for adherence to compliance regulations.

• Drive Branch loan, deposit, income growth through business development activities, active participation in all product marketing campaigns, sales development activities, and referral programs. Use of customer relationship tracking tools, such as sales funnel, GreatLINKS, prospect tracking, and participation in branch sales huddles and weekly activity meetings

• Meet/exceed quarterly/annual sales objectives as per scorecard: checking accounts, consumer loans, sales actions, quality and customer profiling.

• Back up Teller duties 25-50% of the time depending on branch needs.

• Provide back up support in the absence of the branch manager to ensure adequate coverage, efficient service and smooth branch operations.

Qualifications/Experience

• Associates or Bachelor’s degree in Banking/Finance/Management or equivalent experience.

• One to three years banking/consumer lending experience preferred.

• Working knowledge of bank products and services with cashiering and balancing experience preferred.

• Strong analytical and customer service skills and effective selling skills

• Proficient written, verbal and interpersonal skills. • Completion of Lending training course beneficial and required within 6 months of holding position.

• Underwriting experience beneficial.

Job Expectations

• Actively participate in community organizations and activities to project and sustain a favorable bank image in the community.

• Register and obtain a unique identifier number from the Nationwide Mortgage Licensing System as a Mortgage Loan Originator. • Maintain compliance requirements of the Bank.

• Perform other job-related duties or special projects as assigned.

Competencies

• Action Oriented

• Drive for Results

• Customer Focus

• Interpersonal Savvy

• Time Management

Equal Opportunity Employer/Protected Veterans/Individuals with Disabilities

The contractor will not discharge or in any other manner discriminate against employees or applicants because they have inquired about, discussed, or disclosed their own pay or the pay of another employee or applicant. However, employees who have access to the compensation information of other employees or applicants as a part of their essential job functions cannot disclose the pay of other employees or applicants to individuals who do not otherwise have access to compensation information, unless the disclosure is (a) in response to a formal complaint or charge, (b) in furtherance of an investigation, proceeding, hearing, or action, including an investigation conducted by the employer, or (c) consistent with the contractor’s legal duty to furnish information. 41 CFR 60-1.35(c)

Apply Now

Источник: http://greatwesternbank.dejobs.org/ames-ia/personal-banker/d1800a906cf046f18d20f6be753d5f8d/job/

Great Western Bank, Ames Branch

Home > Iowa Banks > Ames Banks > Great Western Bank Ames > Great Western Bank, Ames Branch

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Name:Great Western Bank, Ames Branch
Full Service Brick and Mortar Office
Review:3 client reviews
Location:316 South Duff Avenue
Ames, IA50010
Story County
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Phone:515-232-4304
Branch Deposit:$147,183,000
FDIC Cert:#15289
Established:1996-06-30

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The Bank

Name:Great Western Bank
Concentration:Commercial Lending Specialization
Established:1935-08-05
FDIC Insurance:1935-10-11
Holden By:Great Western Bcorp Inc
Charter Class:Commercial bank, state charter and Fed nonmember, supervised by the FDIC
# of Branches:176, view all, view on map
Website:www.greatwesternbank.com
Total Assets:$13,056,151,000
Total Deposits:$11,567,803,000
Total Equity Capital:$1,232,902,000
Total Domestic Office Deposits:$11,567,803,000
Net Income:$114,134,000
Quarterly Net Income:$60,648,000
Return on Assets:2%
Quarterly Return on Assets:2%
Return on Equity:19%
Quarterly Return on Equity:20%
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Client Review

3 client reviews of Great Western Bank scored 3.5 out of 5.

Not Recommended!
Overall Rating
Interest Rate and Cost
Office Environment & Staff
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Other Services
by Mommyof4, Dec. 07, 2017

I went to close an account I had with my ex-husband and to open a new one solely in my name and the personal banker spent the entire time hitting on me, making it extremely uncomfortable.  He was the bald guy and was very unprofessional, close to the point of sexual harassment.  I would have not completed my banking there but had to close my account.

* this reviewer has be with this bank for 3 - 10 years
* this reviewer had 1 - 2 banks before.
* this review was made on Great Western Bank, 12670 L Street Office at Omaha, NE
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Friendly and professional staff.
Overall Rating
Interest Rate and Cost
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by Evan24, May. 20, 2015

They greet me by name and value me as a customer. They have an exceptional knowledgeable financial adviser on staff available for consultation to bank customers.  The branch is beautiful and comfortable. They have a customer friendly area to relax if you come in a little early for an appointment.   

* this reviewer has be with this bank for 3 - 10 years
* this reviewer had 3 - 5 banks before.
* this review was made on Great Western Bank, 1811 West 2nd Street Branch at Grand Island, NE
2 of 6 people found this review helpful. Was this review helpful to you? Yes, No  Report Abuse

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Very good experience
Overall Rating
Interest Rate and Cost
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by BigBen, Mar. 11, 2015

The bank is clean and the employee's are well dressed and friendly.   They offered me coffee upon entering.   They have Free accounts, and no hoops to jump through.  I was shocked at the interest rate they offered even on savings account it was like 5 times my other bank.   

* this reviewer has be with this bank for 6 months - 1 year
* this reviewer had 1 - 2 banks before.
* this review was made on Great Western Bank, Atlantic Branch at Atlantic, IA
7 of 7 people found this review helpful. Was this review helpful to you? Yes, No  Report Abuse

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Источник: https://www.usbanklocations.com/great-western-bank-ames-branch.html

Hlas earns $1,000 Great Western Bank Scholarship

Jake Hlas, from Tama County, was awarded the $1,000 Great Western Bank Scholarship through the Iowa 4-H Foundation at the recognition event Sunday, June 4 in Ames.

The Iowa 4-H Foundation has announced the recipients of over 70 Iowa 4-H college scholarships valued at over $100,000. Recipients accepted their awards on Sunday, June 4 at the Foundation’s Scholarship Reception held in the Scheman Building at Iowa State University. Over 500 applications were submitted and scholarships have been awarded to recipients from 48 counties across the state of Iowa with a wide variety of 4-H experiences.

Hlas will be attending Iowa State University in the fall of 2017 majoring in animal science. His goal is to attend veterinary school, and then find a career involving advanced genetics.

Hlas has been heavily involved at his high school, county and state. He has served as the student body vice-president, along with involvement in Spanish club, FFA, and student council. On the county level, he served as the Garwin Roughriders President and a member of the Tama County Council. On the state level, he is a North-East Iowa FFA district officer. Jake’s 4-H involvement has allowed him to participate in numerous project areas and grow his leadership skills.

“Growing up in and around 4-H events has without a doubt influenced my college choice and career path, as well as my personal goals,” said Hlas. “Out of everything 4-H has granted me, the ideal that means the most is the passion that was instilled into me to advocate for agriculture”

“We are thrilled this year to be able to offer over $100,000 in 4-H College Scholarships,” said Doug Den Adel, president of the Iowa 4-H Foundation Board of Trustees. “With the help of donors from across the state, we are able to recognize deserving young people who have demonstrated leadership potential, a commitment to service and a desire to succeed.”

Great Western Bank Agri Business in West Des Moines provides a $1,000 award to one male and one female who are participating members in Iowa 4-H and show promise in their career plans. Each student must major within Iowa State’s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

Murals and seed money were the main topics of discussion during the Traer Sesquicentennial Committee’s third ...

Come celebrate the two year anniversary of the North Tama Dollars for Scholars program! A free-will donation will ...

Источник: https://www.northtamatelegraph.com/opinion/letters-to-the-editor/2017/06/23/hlas-earns-1-000-great-western-bank-scholarship/
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Jesse James

American outlaw, confederate guerrilla, and train robber

For other uses, see Jesse James (disambiguation).

Jesse Woodson James (September 5, 1847 – April 3, 1882) was an American outlaw, bank and train robber, guerrilla, and leader of the James–Younger Gang. Cornerstone financial credit union rates in the "Little Dixie" area of western Missouri, James and his family maintained strong Southern sympathies.[further explanation needed] He and his brother Frank James joined pro-Confederate guerrillas known as "bushwhackers" operating in Missouri and Kansas during the American Civil War. As followers of William Quantrill and "Bloody Bill" Anderson, they were accused of committing atrocities against Union soldiers and civilian abolitionists, including the Centralia Massacre in 1864.

After the war, as members of various gangs of outlaws, Jesse and Frank robbed banks, stagecoaches, and trains across the Midwest, gaining national fame and often popular sympathy despite the brutality of their crimes. The James brothers were most active as members of their own gang from about 1866 until 1876, when as a result of their attempted robbery of a bank in Northfield, Minnesota, several members of the gang were captured or killed. They continued in crime for several years afterward, recruiting new members, but came under increasing pressure from law enforcement seeking to bring them to justice. On April 3, 1882, Jesse James was shot and killed by Robert Ford, a new recruit to the gang who hoped to collect a reward on James's head and a promised amnesty for his previous crimes. Already a celebrity in life, James became a legendary figure of the Wild West after his death.

Despite popular portrayals of James as an embodiment of Robin Hood, robbing from the rich and giving to the poor, this is a case of romantic revisionism since there is absolutely no evidence that he or his gang shared any loot from their robberies with anyone outside their network.[1] Scholars and historians have characterized James as one of many criminals inspired by the regional insurgencies of ex-Confederates following the Civil War, rather than as a manifestation of alleged economic justice or of south america map and capitals lawlessness.[2] James continues to be one of the most famous figures from the era, and his life has been dramatized and memorialized numerous times.

Early life

Jesse Woodson James was born on September 5, 1847, in Clay County, Missouri, near the site of present-day Kearney.[3] This area of Missouri was largely settled by people from the Upper South, especially Kentucky and Tennessee, and became known as Little Dixie for this reason. James had two full siblings: his elder brother, Alexander Franklin "Frank" James, and a younger sister, Susan Lavenia James. He was of English and Scottish descent. His father, Robert S. James, farmed commercial hemp in Kentucky and was a Baptist minister before coming to Missouri. After he married, he migrated to Bradford, Missouri and helped found William Jewell College in Liberty, Missouri.[2] He held six slaves and more than 100 acres (0.40 km2) of farmland.

Robert traveled to California during the Gold Rush to minister to those searching for gold;[4] he died there when James was three years old.[5] After Robert's death, his widow Zerelda remarried twice, first to Benjamin Simms in 1852 and then in 1855 to Dr. Reuben Samuel, who moved into the James family home. Jesse's mother and Samuel had four children together: Sarah Louisa, John Thomas, Fannie Quantrell, and Archie Peyton Samuel.[4][6] Zerelda and Samuel acquired a total of seven slaves, who served mainly as farmhands in tobacco cultivation.[6][7]

Historical context

The approach of the American Civil War loomed large in the James–Samuel household. Missouri was a border state, sharing characteristics of both North and South, but 75% of the population was from the South or other border states.[4] Clay County in particular was strongly influenced by the Southern culture of its rural pioneer families. Farmers raised the same crops and livestock as in the areas from which they had migrated. They brought slaves with them and purchased more according to their needs. The county counted more slaveholders and more slaves than most other regions of the state; in Missouri as a whole, slaves accounted for only 10 percent of the population, but in Clay County, they constituted 25 percent.[8] Aside from slavery, the culture of Little Dixie was Southern in other ways as well. This influenced how the population acted during and for a period of time after the war.

After the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act in 1854, Clay County became the scene of great turmoil as the question of whether slavery would be expanded into the neighboring Kansas Territory bred tension and hostility. Many people from Missouri migrated to Kansas to try to influence its future. Much of the dramatic build-up to the Civil War centered on the violence that erupted on the Kansas–Missouri border between pro- and anti-slavery militias.[7][9]

American Civil War

After a series of campaigns and battles between conventional armies in 1861, guerrilla warfare gripped Missouri, waged between secessionist "bushwhackers" and Union forces which largely consisted of local militias known as "jayhawkers". A bitter conflict ensued, resulting in an escalating cycle of atrocities committed by both sides. Confederate guerrillas murdered civilian Unionists, executed prisoners, and scalped the dead. The Union presence enforced martial law with raids on homes, arrests of civilians, summary executions, and banishment of Confederate sympathizers from the state.[10]

The James–Samuel family sided with the Confederates at the outbreak of war.[11] Frank James joined a local company recruited for the secessionist Drew Lobbs Army, and fought at the Battle of Wilson's Creek in August 1861. He fell ill and returned home soon afterward. In 1863, he was identified as a member of a guerrilla squad that operated in Clay County. In May of that year, a Union militia company raided the James–Samuel farm looking for Frank's group. They tortured Reuben Samuel by briefly hanging him from a tree. According to legend, us bank internet banking phone number lashed young Jesse.[4]

Quantrill's Raiders

Frank James eluded capture and was believed to have joined the guerrilla organization led by William C. Quantrill known as Quantrill's Raiders. It is thought that he took part in the notorious massacre of some two hundred men and boys in Lawrence, Kansas, a center of abolitionists.[12][13] Frank followed Quantrill to Sherman, Texas, over the winter of 1863–1864. In the spring he returned in a squad commanded by Fletch Taylor. After they arrived in Clay County, 16-year-old Jesse James joined his brother in Taylor's group.[4]

Taylor was severely wounded in the summer of 1864, losing his right arm to a shotgun blast. The James brothers then joined the bushwhacker group led by William "Bloody Bill" Anderson. Jesse suffered a serious wound to the chest that summer. The Clay County provost marshal reported that both Frank and Jesse James took part in the Centralia Massacre in September, in which guerrillas stopped a train carrying unarmed Union soldiers returning home from duty and killed or wounded some 22 of them; the guerrillas scalped and dismembered some of the dead. The guerrillas also ambushed and defeated a pursuing regiment of Major A. V. E. Johnson's Union troops, killing all who tried to surrender, who numbered more than 100. Frank later identified Jesse as a member of the band who had fatally shot Major Johnson.[14]

As a result of the James brothers' activities, Union military authorities forced their family to leave Clay County. Though ordered to move South beyond Union lines, they moved north across the nearby state border into Nebraska Territory.[15]

After "Bloody Bill" Anderson was killed in an ambush in October, the James brothers separated. Frank followed Quantrill into Kentucky, while Jesse went to Texas under the command of Archie Clement, one of Anderson's lieutenants. He is known to have returned to Missouri in the spring.[14] At the age of 17, Jesse suffered the second of two life-threatening chest wounds when he was shot while trying to surrender after they ran into a Union cavalry patrol near Lexington, Missouri.[16][17]

After the Civil War

Clay County Savings in Liberty, Missouri

At the end of the Civil War, Missouri remained deeply divided. The conflict split the population into three bitterly opposed factions: anti-slavery Unionists identified with the Republican Party; segregationist conservative Unionists identified with the Democratic Party; and pro-slavery, ex-Confederate secessionists, many of whom were also allied with the Democrats, especially in the southern part of the state.

The Republican-dominated Reconstruction legislature passed a new state constitution that freed Missouri's slaves. It temporarily excluded former Confederates from voting, serving on juries, becoming corporate officers, or preaching from church pulpits. The atmosphere is gmo soy bad for you volatile, with widespread clashes between individuals and between armed gangs of veterans from both sides of the war.[18][19]

Jesse recovered from his chest wound at his uncle's boardinghouse in Harlem, Missouri (north across the Missouri River from the City of Kansas's River Great western bank ames [changed to Kansas City in 1889]). He was tended to by his first cousin, Zerelda "Zee" Mimms, named after Jesse's mother.[14] Jesse and his cousin began a nine-year courtship that culminated in their marriage. Meanwhile, his former commander Archie Clement kept his bushwhacker gang together and began to harass Republican authorities.[11]

These men were the likely culprits in the first daylight armed bank robbery in the United States during peacetime,[20] the robbery of the Clay County Savings Association in the town of Liberty, Missouri, on February 13, 1866. The bank was owned by Republican former militia officers. They had recently conducted the first Republican Party rally in Clay County's history. During the gang's escape from the town, an innocent bystander, 17-year-old George C. "Jolly" Wymore, a student at William Jewell College, was shot dead on the street.[21]

It remains unclear whether Jesse and Frank took part in the Clay County robbery. After the James brothers successfully conducted other robberies and became legendary, some observers retroactively credited them with being the leaders of the robbery.[14] Others have argued that Jesse was at the time still bedridden with his wound and could not have participated. No evidence has been found that connects either brother to the crime, nor conclusively rules them out.[22] On June 13, 1866, in Jackson County, Missouri, the gang freed two jailed members of Quantrill's gang, killing the jailer in the effort.[23] Historians believe that the James brothers were involved in this crime.

Local violence continued to increase in the state; Governor Thomas Clement Fletcher had recently ordered a company of militia into Johnson County to suppress guerrilla activity.[24]Archie Clement continued his career of crime and harassment of the Republican government, to the extent of occupying the town of Lexington, Missouri, on election day in 1866. Shortly afterward, the state militia shot Clement dead. James wrote about this death with bitterness a decade later.[21][22]

The survivors of Clement's gang continued to conduct bank robberies during the next two years, though their numbers dwindled through arrests, gunfights, and lynchings. While they later tried to justify robbing the banks, most of their targets were small, local banks based on local capital, and the robberies only penalized the locals they claimed to support.[25] On May 23, 1867, for example, they robbed a bank in Richmond, Missouri, in which they killed the mayor and two others.[14][26] It remains uncertain whether either of the James brothers took part, although an eyewitness who knew the brothers told a newspaper seven years later "positively and emphatically that he recognized Jesse and Frank James . among the robbers."[27] In 1868, Frank and Jesse James allegedly joined Cole Younger in robbing a bank in Russellville, Kentucky.

Jesse James did not become well known until December 7, 1869, when he and (most likely) Frank robbed the Daviess County Savings Association in Gallatin, Missouri. The robbery netted little money. Jesse is believed to have shot and killed the cashier, Captain John Sheets, mistakenly believing him to be Samuel P. Cox, the militia officer who had killed "Bloody Bill" Anderson during the Civil War.[28]

James claimed he was taking revenge, and the daring escape he and Frank made through the middle of a posse shortly afterward attracted newspaper coverage for the first time.[29][30] An 1882 history of Daviess County said, "The history of Daviess County has no blacker crime in its pages than the murder of John W. Sheets."[31]

State of Missouri vs. Frank & Jesse James including indictment; capias to Clay & Jackson Counties; sheriff's returns; warrant to any sheriff or marshall of the Criminal Court in Missouri. Courtesy of the Missouri State Archives.

The only known civil case involving Frank and Jesse James was filed in the Common Pleas Court of Daviess County in 1870. In the case, Daniel Smoote asked for $223.50 from Frank and Jesse James to replace a horse, saddle, and bridle stolen as they fled the robbery of the Daviess County Savings Bank. The brothers denied the charges, saying they were not in Daviess County on December 7, the day the robbery occurred. Frank and Jesse failed to appear in court, and Smoote won his case against them.[32] It is unlikely that he ever collected the money due.

The 1869 robbery marked the emergence of Jesse James as the most famous survivor of the former Confederate great western bank ames. It was the first time he was publicly labeled an "outlaw"; Missouri Governor Thomas T. Crittenden set a reward for his capture.[31] This was the beginning of an alliance between James and John Newman Edwards, editor and founder of the Kansas City Times. Edwards, a former Confederate cavalryman, was campaigning to return former secessionists to power in Missouri. Six months after great western bank ames Gallatin robbery, Edwards published the first of many letters from Jesse James to the public, asserting his innocence. Over time, the letters gradually became more political in tone and James denounced the Republicans and expressed his pride in his Confederate loyalties. Together with Edwards's admiring editorials, the letters helped James become a symbol of Confederate defiance of federal Reconstruction policy. James's initiative in creating his rising public profile is debated by historians and biographers. The high tensions in politics accompanied his outlaw career and enhanced his notoriety.[30][33]

James–Younger Gang

Main article: James–Younger Gang

Meanwhile, the James brothers joined with Cole Younger and his brothers John, Jim, and Bob, as well as Clell Miller and other former Confederates, to form what came to be known as the James–Younger Gang. With Jesse James as the most public face of the gang (though with operational leadership likely shared among the group), the gang carried out a string of robberies from Iowa to Texas, and from Kansas to West Virginia.[34] They robbed banks, stagecoaches, and a fair in Kansas City, often carrying out their crimes in front of crowds, and even hamming it up for the bystanders.

On July 21, 1873, they turned to train robbery, derailing a Rock Island Line train west of Adair, Iowa, and stealing approximately $3,000 (equivalent to $65,000 in 2020). For this, they wore Ku Klux Klan masks. By this time, the Klan had been suppressed in the South by President Grant's use of the Enforcement Acts. Former rebels attacked the railroads as symbols of threatening centralization.[35]

The gang's later train robberies had a lighter touch. The gang held up passengers only twice, pay my centurylink bill over the phone in all other incidents to take only the contents of the express safe in the baggage car. John Newman Edwards made sure to highlight such techniques when creating an image of James as a kind of Robin Hood. Despite public sentiment toward the can i change my wells fargo debit card design crimes, there is no evidence that the James gang ever shared any of the robbery money outside their personal circle.[33]

Jesse and his cousin Zee married on April 24, 1874. They had two children who survived to adulthood: Jesse Edward James (b. 1875) and Mary Susan James (later Barr, b. 1879).[36] Twins Gould and Montgomery James (b. 1878) died in infancy. Jesse Jr. became a lawyer who practiced in Kansas City, Missouri, and Los Angeles, California.[37]

Pinkertons

In 1874, the Adams Express Company turned to the Pinkerton National Detective Agency to stop the James–Younger Gang. The Chicago-based agency worked primarily against can you overdraft chime card professional criminals, as well as providing industrial security, such as strike breaking. Because the gang received support by many former Confederate soldiers in Missouri, they eluded the Pinkertons. Joseph Whicher, an agent dispatched to infiltrate Zerelda Samuel's farm, was soon found killed. Two other agents, Captain Louis J. Lull and John Boyle, were sent after the Youngers; Lull was killed by two of the Youngers in a roadside gunfight on March 17, 1874. Before he died, Lull fatally shot John Younger. A deputy sheriff named Edwin Daniels also died in the skirmish.[38][39]

Allan Pinkerton, the agency's founder and leader, took on the case as a personal vendetta. He began to work with former Unionists who lived near the James family farm. On the night of January 25, 1875, he staged a raid on the homestead. Detectives threw an incendiary device into the house; it exploded, killing James's young half-brother Archie (named for Archie Clement) and blowing off one of Zerelda Samuel's arms. Afterward, Pinkerton denied that the raid's intent was arson. But biographer Ted Yeatman found a letter by Pinkerton in the Library of Congress in which Pinkerton declared his intention to "burn the house down."[40][41]

Many residents were outraged by the raid on the family home. The Missouri state legislature narrowly defeated a bill that praised the James and Younger brothers and offered them amnesty.[11] Allowed to vote and hold office again, former Confederates in the legislature voted to limit the size of rewards the governor could offer for fugitives. This extended a measure of protection over the James–Younger gang by minimizing the incentive for attempting to capture them. The governor had offered rewards higher than the new limit only on Frank and Jesse James.[42][43]

Across a creek and up a hill from the James house was the home of Daniel Askew, who is thought to have been killed by James great western bank ames his gang on April 12, 1875. They may great western bank ames suspected Askew of cooperating with the Pinkertons in the January 1875 arson of the James house.[citation needed]

Downfall of the gang

On September 7, 1876, the opening day of hunting season in Minnesota, the James–Younger gang attempted a raid on the First National Bank of Northfield, Minnesota. The robbery quickly went wrong, however, and after the robbery, only Frank and Jesse James remained alive and free.[44]

Cole and Bob Younger later said they selected the bank because they believed it was associated with the Republican politician Adelbert Ames, the governor of Mississippi during Reconstruction, and Union general Benjamin Butler, Ames's father-in-law and the Union commander of occupied New Orleans. Ames was a stockholder in the bank, but Butler had no direct connection to it.[45]

The gang attempted to rob the bank in Northfield at about 2 pm. To carry out the robbery, the gang divided into two groups. Three men entered the bank, two guarded the door outside, and three remained near a bridge across an adjacent square. The robbers inside the bank 1st person thwarted when acting cashier Joseph Lee Heywood refused to open the safe, falsely claiming that it was secured by a time lock even as they held a Bowie knife to his throat and cracked his skull with a pistol butt. Assistant cashier Alonzo Enos Bunker was wounded in the shoulder as he fled through the back door of the bank. Meanwhile, the citizens of Northfield grew suspicious of the men guarding the door and raised the alarm. The five bandits outside fired into the air to clear the streets, driving the townspeople to take cover and fire back from protected positions. They shot two bandits dead and wounded the rest in the barrage. Inside, the outlaws turned to flee. As they left, one shot the unarmed cashier Heywood in the head. Historians have speculated about the identity of the shooter but have not reached consensus.

The gang barely escaped Northfield, leaving two dead companions behind. They killed Heywood and Nicholas Gustafson, a Swedish immigrant from the Millersburg community west of Northfield. A substantial manhunt ensued. It is believed that the gang burned 14 Rice County mills shortly after the robbery.[46] The James brothers eventually split from the others and escaped to Missouri. The militia soon discovered the Youngers and one other bandit, Charlie Pitts. In a gunfight, Pitts died and the Youngers were taken prisoner. Except for Frank and Jesse James, the James–Younger Gang was destroyed.[47][48]

Later in 1876, Jesse and Frank James surfaced in the Nashville, Tennessee, area, where they went by the names of Thomas Howard and B. J. Woodson, respectively. Frank seemed to settle down, but Jesse remained restless. He recruited a new gang in 1879 and returned to crime, holding up a train at Glendale, Missouri (now part of Independence),[49] on October 8, 1879. The robbery was the first in a spree of crimes, including the hold-up of the federal paymaster of a canal project in Killen, Alabama, and two more train robberies. But the new gang was not made up of battle-hardened guerrillas; they soon turned against each other or were captured. James grew suspicious of other members; he scared away one man and some believe that he killed another gang member.

In 1879, the James gang robbed two stores in far western Mississippi, at Washington in Adams County and Fayette in Jefferson County. The gang left with $2,000 cash from the second robbery and took shelter in abandoned cabins on the Kemp Plantation south of St. Joseph, Louisiana. A law enforcement posse attacked and killed two of the outlaws but failed to capture the entire gang. Among the deputies was Jefferson B. Snyder, later a long-serving district attorney in northeastern Louisiana.[50]

By 1881, with local Tennessee authorities growing suspicious, the brothers returned to Missouri, where they felt safer. James moved his family to St. Joseph, Missouri, in November 1881, not far from where he had been born and reared. Frank, however, decided to move to safer territory and headed east to settle in Virginia. They intended to give up crime. The James gang had been reduced to the two of them.[51][52]

Death

Site at 1318 Lafayette Street, where James guaranty chevy killed. To the right is the top of Patee House, where his widow Zerelda stayed after his death. His house was subsequently moved to the Belt Highway and later to its current location on the Patee House grounds.
Jesse James's home in St. Joseph, where he was shot (currently at the grounds of the Patee House)

With his gang nearly annihilated, James trusted only the Ford brothers, Charley and Robert.[53] Although Charley had been out on raids with James, Bob Ford was an eager new great western bank ames. For protection, James asked the Ford brothers to move in with him and his family. James had often stayed with their sister Martha Bolton and, according to rumor, he was "smitten" with her.[1] By that time, Bob Ford had conducted secret negotiations with Missouri Governor Thomas T. Crittenden, planning to bring in the famous outlaw.[53] Crittenden had made capture of the James brothers his top priority; in his inaugural address he declared that no political motives could be allowed to keep them from justice. Barred by law from offering a large reward, he had turned to the railroad and express corporations to put up a $5,000 bounty for the delivery of each of them and an additional $5,000 for the conviction of either of them.[54]

A woodcutshows Robert Ford famously shooting Jesse James in the back while he hangs a picture in his house. Ford's brother Charles looks on.[55]

On April 3, 1882, after eating breakfast, the Fords and Jameses went into the living room before traveling to Platte City for a robbery. From the newspaper, James had just learned that gang member Dick Liddil had confessed to participating in Wood Hite's murder. He was suspicious that the Fords had not told him about it. Robert Ford later said he believed that James had realized they were there to betray him. Instead of confronting them, James walked across the living room and laid his revolvers on a sofa. He turned around and noticed a dusty picture above the mantle, and stood on a chair to clean it. Robert Ford drew his weapon and shot the unarmed Jesse James in the back of the head.[56][57][58] James's two previous bullet wounds and partially missing middle finger served to positively identify the body.[14]

The death of Jesse James became a national sensation. The Fords made no attempt to hide their role. Robert Ford wired the governor to claim his reward. Crowds pressed into the little house in St. Joseph to see the dead bandit. The Ford brothers surrendered to the authorities and were dismayed to be charged with first-degree murder. In the course of a single day, the Ford brothers were indicted, pleaded guilty, were sentenced to death by hanging, and were granted a full pardon by Governor Crittenden.[59] The governor's quick pardon suggested he knew the brothers intended to kill James rather than capture him. The implication that the chief executive of Missouri conspired to kill a private citizen startled the public and added to James's notoriety.[60][61][62]

After receiving a small portion of the reward, the Fords fled Missouri. Sheriff James Timberlake and Marshal Henry H. Craig, who were law enforcement officials active in the plan, were awarded the majority of the bounty.[63] Later, the Ford brothers starred in a touring stage show in which they re-enacted the shooting.[64][65] Public opinion was divided between those against the Fords for murdering Jesse, and those of the opinion that it had been time for the outlaw to be stopped. Suffering from tuberculosis (then incurable) and a morphine addiction, Charley Ford committed suicide on May 6, 1884, in Richmond, Missouri. Bob Ford operated a tent saloon in Creede, Colorado. On June 8, 1892, Edward O'Kelley went to Creede, loaded a double-barrel shotgun, entered Ford's saloon and said "Hello, Bob," before shooting Ford in the throat, killing him instantly. O'Kelley was sentenced to life in prison, but his sentence was subsequently commuted because of a 7,000-signature petition in favor of his release, as well as a medical condition. The Governor of Colorado pardoned him on October 3, 1902.[66]

Jesse James Gravestone in Kearney, Missouri.

James's original grave was on his family property, but he was later moved to a cemetery in Kearney. The original footstone is still there, although the family has replaced the headstone. James's mother Zerelda Samuel wrote the following epitaph for him: "In Loving Memory of my Beloved Son, Murdered by a Traitor and Coward Whose Name is not Worthy to Appear Here."[53] James's widow Zerelda Mimms James died alone and in poverty.

Rumors of survival

Rumors of Jesse James's survival proliferated almost as soon as the newspapers announced his death. Some said that Robert Ford killed someone other than James in an elaborate plot to allow him to escape justice.[11] These tales have received little credence, then or since. None of James's biographers accepted them as plausible. The body buried in Kearney, Missouri, marked "Jesse James" was exhumed in 1995 and subjected to mitochondrial DNA typing. The report, prepared by Anne C. Stone, Ph.D., James E. Starrs, L.L.M., and Mark Stoneking, Ph.D., confirmed the mtDNA recovered from the remains was consistent with the mtDNA of one of James's relatives in the female line.[67]

The theme of survival was featured in a 2009 documentary, Jesse James' Hidden Treasure, which aired on the History Channel. The documentary was dismissed as pseudo-history and pseudoscience by historian Nancy Samuelson in a review she wrote for the Winter 2009–2010 edition of The James-Younger Gang Journal.[68]

J. Frank Dalton claimed to be Jesse James; he died August 15, 1951, in Granbury, Texas.[69] Dalton was allegedly 101 years old at the time of his first public appearance, in May 1948. Oran Baker, Hood County Sheriff, conducted a visual post-mortem exam and found he had thirty-two bullet wounds and a rope burn around his neck. He was buried great western bank ames Granbury Cemetery, where the headstone bears the name of "Jesse Woodson James".[70] His story did not hold up to questioning from James's surviving relatives.[71]

Legacy

Further information: Social bandits and Robin Hood

James's turn to crime after the end of the Reconstruction era helped cement his place in American life and memory as a simple but remarkably effective bandit. After 1873, he was covered by the national media as part of social banditry.[72] During his lifetime, James was celebrated chiefly by former Confederates, to whom he appealed directly in his letters to the press. Displaced by Reconstruction, the antebellum political leadership mythologized the James Gang exploits. Frank Triplett wrote about James as a "progressive neo-aristocrat" with "purity of race".[73] Some historians credit James's myth as contributing to the rise of former Confederates to dominance in Missouri politics.[citation needed] In the 1880s, both U.S. Senators from the state, former Confederate military commander Francis Cockrell, and former Confederate CongressmanGeorge Graham Vest, were identified with the Confederate cause.

In the 1880s, after James's death, the James Gang became the subject of dime novels that represented the bandits as pre-industrial models of resistance.[73] During the Populist and Progressive eras, James became an icon as America's Robin Hood, standing up against corporations in defense of the small farmer, robbing from the rich and giving to the poor. There is no evidence that he shared the loot of his robberies with anyone other than his gang members; only they enjoyed the riches with him.[1]

In the 1950s, James was pictured as a psychologically troubled man rather than a social rebel. Some filmmakers portrayed the former outlaw as a revenger, replacing "social with exclusively personal motives."[74] While his "heroic outlaw" image is commonly portrayed in films, as well as in songs and folklore, since the late 20th century, historians such as Stiles have classified him as a self-aware vigilante and terrorist who used local tensions to create his own myth among the widespread insurgent guerrillas and vigilantes following the American Civil War.[2]

Jesse James remains a controversial symbol, one who can always be reinterpreted in various ways according to cultural tensions and needs. Some of the neo-Confederate movement regard him as a hero.[60][75][76] But renewed cultural battles over the place of the Civil War in American history have replaced the long-standing interpretation of James as a Western frontier hero.

Museums

Museums and sites devoted to Jesse James:

  • James Farm in Kearney, Missouri: In cricket quick bill pay, Clay County, Missouri, bought the property. The county operates the site as a house museum and historic site.[77] It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972, with a boundary increase in 1978.[78]
  • Jesse James Home Museum: The house where Jesse James was killed in south St. Joseph was moved in 1939 to the Belt Highway on St. Joseph's east side to attract tourists. In 1977, it was moved to its current location, near Patee House, which was the headquarters of the Pony Express. The house is owned and operated by the Pony Express Historical Association.[79]
  • The Jesse James Bank Museum, on the square in Liberty, Missouri, is the site of the first daylight bank robbery in the United States in peacetime. The museum is managed by Clay County along with the James Farm Home and Museum outside of Kearney.[80]
  • First National Bank of Northfield: The Northfield Historical Society in Northfield, Minnesota, has restored the building that housed the First National Bank, the scene of the 1876 raid.[81]
  • Heaton Bowman Funeral Home, 36th Street and Frederick Avenue, St. Joseph, Missouri: The funeral home's predecessor conducted the original autopsy and funeral for Jesse James. A room in the back holds the log book and other documentation.
  • The Jesse James Tavern is located in Asdee, County Kerry, Ireland. It has been claimed that James's ancestors were from that area of Ireland.[82] But documented evidence suggests that on his father's side, Jesse was a third-generation American of English descent.[83][84]
  • According to the National Park Service, Jesse James has a historical connection to Mammoth Cave National Park, having reportedly occupied some of the cave's inner areas during his escapes from the law, and having committed a stage coach robbery between Cave City and Mammoth Cave.[85][86] These claims are disputed, as, according to Katie Cielinski, a local cave expert, "If every cave that claims Jesse James had been there (was valid), Jesse James would never have been on the surface."[87] It is likely these legends are based on the ample evidence that the Kentucky cave system played host to outlaw camps in general.

Festivals

The Defeat of Jesse James Days in Northfield, Minnesota, is among the largest outdoor celebrations in the state.[88] It is held annually in September during the weekend after Labor Day. Thousands of visitors watch reenactments of the robbery, a championship rodeo, a carnival, performances of a 19th-century style melodrama musical, and a parade during the five-day event.[89]

Jesse James's boyhood home in Kearney, Missouri, is operated as a museum dedicated to the town's most famous resident. Each year a recreational fair, the Jesse James Festival, is held during the third weekend in September.[90]

The annual Victorian Festival in Jersey County, Illinois, is held on Labor Day weekend[91] at the 1866 Col. William H. Fulkerson estate Hazel Dell. Festivities include telling Jesse James's history in stories and by reenactments of stagecoach holdups. Over the three-day event, thousands of spectators learn of the documented James Gang's stopover at Hazel Dell and of their connection with ex-Confederate Fulkerson.

Russellville, Kentucky, the site of the robbery of the Southern Bank in 1868, holds a reenactment of the robbery every year as of the Logan County Tobacco and Heritage Festival.[92]

The small town of Oak Grove, Louisiana, also hosts a town-wide annual Jesse James Outlaw Roundup Festival, usually in the early to mid-autumn. This is a reference to a short time James supposedly spent near this area.[93]

Cultural depictions

Main article: Cultural depictions of Jesse James

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  84. ^"Kentucky: 225 Years on the Move". Kentucky Historical Society.
  85. ^"NPS - Page In-Progress". www.nps.gov.
  86. ^[email protected], WES SWIETEK. "Lost River has unique history, role as 'urban oasis'". Bowling Green Daily News.
  87. ^Garrison, Webb (November 3, 1998). A Treasury of Minnesota Tales: Unusual, Interesting, and Little-Known Stories of Minnesota. Thomas Nelson. p. 42. ISBN .
  88. ^"Defeat of Jesse James Days". Djjd.org. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  89. ^"Jesse James Festival." JesseJamesFestival.com.
  90. ^"Jersey County Victorian Festival."Archived October 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine GreatRiverRoad.com.
  91. ^"Logan County Tobacco & Heritage Festival 2017". Logan County Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  92. ^Jesse James Outlaw Roundup Festival on Facebook

Bibliography

  • Fellman, Michael. Inside War: The Guerrilla Conflict in Missouri onto the American Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-19-506471-2.
  • Settle, William A. Jesse James Was His Name, or, Fact and Fiction Concerning the Careers of the Notorious James Brothers of Missouri'. University of Nebraska Press, 1977. ISBN 0-8032-5860-7.
  • Stiles, T. J. Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War. Knopf Publishing, 2002. ISBN 0-375-40583-6.
  • Yeatman, Ted P. Frank and Jesse James: The Story Behind the Legend. Cumberland House Publishing, 2000. ISBN 1-58182-325-8.
  • Quist, B. Wayne, The History of the Christdala Evangelical Swedish Lutheran Church of Millersburg, Minnesota, Dundas, Minnesota, Third Edition, July 2009, page 19–23, The Murder of Nicholaus Gustafson.

Further reading

  • Dyer, Robert. "Jesse James and the Civil War in Missouri,"University of Missouri Press, 1994
  • Hobsbawm, Eric J. Bandits, Pantheon, 1981
  • Koblas, John J. Faithful Unto Death, Northfield Historical Society Press, 2001
  • Smith, Carter F. Gangs and the Military: Gangsters, Bikers, and Terrorists with Military Training. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017.
  • Thelen, David. Paths of Resistance: Tradition and Dignity in Industrializing Missouri, Oxford University Press, 1986
  • Wellman, Paul I. A Dynasty of Western Outlaws. Doubleday, 1961; 1986.
  • White, Richard. "Outlaw Gangs of the Middle Border: American Social Bandits," Western Historical Quarterly 12, no. 4 (October 1981)

External links

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesse_James

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Источник: https://yellow.place/en/great-western-bank-ames-usa

Hlas earns $1,000 Great Western Bank Scholarship

Jake Hlas, from Tama County, was awarded the $1,000 Great Western Bank Scholarship through the Iowa 4-H Foundation at the recognition event Sunday, June 4 in Ames.

The Iowa 4-H Foundation has announced the recipients of over 70 Iowa 4-H college scholarships valued at over $100,000. Recipients accepted their awards on Sunday, June 4 at the Foundation’s Scholarship Reception held in the Scheman Building at Iowa State University. Over 500 applications were submitted and scholarships have been awarded to recipients from 48 counties across the state of Iowa with a wide variety of 4-H experiences.

Hlas will be attending Iowa State University in great western bank ames fall of 2017 majoring in animal science. His goal is to attend veterinary school, and then find a career involving advanced genetics.

Hlas has been heavily involved at his high school, county and state. He has served as the student body vice-president, along with involvement in Spanish club, FFA, and student council. On the county level, he served as the Garwin Roughriders President and a member of the Tama County Council. On the state level, he is a North-East Iowa FFA district officer. Jake’s 4-H involvement has allowed him to participate in numerous project areas and grow his leadership skills.

“Growing up in and around 4-H events has without a doubt influenced my college choice and career path, as well as my personal goals,” said Hlas. “Out of everything 4-H has granted me, the ideal that means the most is the passion that was instilled into me to advocate for agriculture”

“We are thrilled this year to be able to offer over $100,000 in 4-H College Scholarships,” said Doug Den Adel, president of the Iowa 4-H Foundation Board of Trustees. “With the help of donors from across the state, we are able to recognize deserving young people who have demonstrated leadership potential, a commitment to service and a desire to succeed.”

Great Western Bank Agri Business in West Des Moines provides a $1,000 award to one male and one female who are participating members in Iowa 4-H and show promise in their career plans. Each student must major within Iowa State’s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

Murals and seed money were the main topics of discussion during the Traer Sesquicentennial Committee’s third .

Come celebrate the two year anniversary of the North Tama Dollars for Scholars program! A free-will donation will .

Источник: https://www.northtamatelegraph.com/opinion/letters-to-the-editor/2017/06/23/hlas-earns-1-000-great-western-bank-scholarship/

Great Western Bank, Ames Branch

Home > Iowa Banks > Ames Banks > Great Western Bank Ames > Great Western Bank, Ames Branch

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Name:Great Western Bank, Ames Branch
Full Service Brick and Mortar Office
Review:3 client reviews
Location:316 South Duff Avenue
Ames, IA50010
Story County
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Phone:515-232-4304
Branch Deposit:$147,183,000
FDIC Cert:#15289
Established:1996-06-30

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The Bank

Name:Great Western Bank
Concentration:Commercial Lending Specialization
Established:1935-08-05
FDIC Insurance:1935-10-11
Holden By:Great Western Bcorp Inc
Charter Class:Commercial bank, state charter and Fed nonmember, supervised by the FDIC
# of Branches:176, view all, view on map
Website:www.greatwesternbank.com
Total Assets:$13,056,151,000
Total Deposits:$11,567,803,000
Total Equity Capital:$1,232,902,000
Total Domestic Office Deposits:$11,567,803,000
Net Income:$114,134,000
Quarterly Net Income:$60,648,000
Return on Assets:2%
Quarterly Return on Assets:2%
Return on Equity:19%
Quarterly Return on Equity:20%
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Client Review

3 client reviews of Great Western Bank scored 3.5 out of 5.

Not Recommended!
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by Mommyof4, Dec. 07, 2017

I went to close an account I had with my ex-husband and to open a new one solely in my name and the personal banker spent the entire time hitting on me, making it extremely uncomfortable.  He was the bald guy and was very unprofessional, close to the point of sexual harassment.  I would have not completed my banking there but had to close my account.

* this reviewer has be with this bank for 3 - 10 years
* this reviewer had 1 - 2 banks before.
* this review was made on Great Western Bank, 12670 L Street Office at Omaha, NE
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Friendly and professional staff.
Overall Rating
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by Evan24, May. 20, 2015

They greet me by name and value me as a customer. They have an exceptional knowledgeable financial adviser on staff available for consultation to bank customers.  The branch is beautiful and comfortable. They have a customer friendly area to relax if you come in a little early for an appointment.   

* this reviewer has be with this bank for 3 - 10 years
* this reviewer had 3 - 5 banks before.
* this review was made on Great Western Bank, 1811 West 2nd Street Branch at Grand Island, NE
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Very good experience
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great western bank ames Services
by BigBen, Mar. 11, 2015

The bank is clean and the employee's are well dressed and friendly.   They offered me coffee upon entering.   They have Free accounts, and no hoops to jump through.  I was shocked at the interest rate they offered even on savings account it was like 5 times my other bank.   

* this reviewer has be with this bank for 6 months - 1 year
* this reviewer had 1 - 2 banks before.
* this review was made on Great Western Bank, Atlantic Branch at Atlantic, IA
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Источник: https://www.usbanklocations.com/great-western-bank-ames-branch.html


               



Another GAAR in the books! Congrats to the 2021 participants and thank you to our many volunteers, sponsors and supporters! Race results can be found on Webscorer at www.webscorer.com/gaar and as pdfs here (by Category) and here (Overall). Event photos can be found on the Great Ames Adventure Race Facebook Page.

Since 2007 the Great Ames Adventure Race (The GAAR) has called people of all ages and abilities to test their mettle at a triathlon of events. Participants compete in solo, tandem or relay divisions on a course that starts and ends at Ada Hayden Heritage Park, 5205 Grand Avenue in North Ames. The race begins with waves of six on a 2.5 mile race around the lake. Participants then exit the lake to a transition area where the 15 mile bike race and the 5K run begin.

The Bike Route (modified in 2016) is entirely on paved roads south, west and north of the park. The 5K is on asphalt and cinder trails within the park. PFDs (life jackets) and bike helmets are required!

New in 2021, we've added an Adult-Youth Relay Category! As with Adult-Youth Tandem Teams, the adult and child (age 12 or under) must stay together during each leg of the race.

Come and challenge yourself, or challenge family, friends, and coworkers in a fun paddle-bike-run event that keeps people coming back, year after year.

Check us out on FACEBOOK!


REGISTRATION:
(Register early to ensure that you'll get an event t-shirt!)

    Advance Registration Fees

    • SOLO and SOLO MASTERS - $40.00

    • TANDEM and ADULT/YOUTH TANDEM - $80.00

    • Two, three and four person Relay Teams - $30.00 per particpant

    ONLINE REGISTRATION will be available through September 9th at GetMeRegistered.com/GAAR.

    Day-of-event Registrations will be $50 per participant.

    To register by mail print and complete the Registration Form and Waiver page (or pdf) and mail with payment to:

        GAAR
        2908 White Oak Drive
        Ames, IA 50014

        Please make checks payable to "GAAR" and note "Registration" in the memo.

    GAAR reserves the right to use your photo, including video, for promotional purposes.


Prizes and AWARDS will be presented at the Moose Lodge
(1/4 mile north of the park at Hwy 69 and 190th Street) following the race. A pancake breakfast will be served at the Moose Lodge from 8:00 a.m. until noon. The breakfast is included with each registration and is available to family, friends and the general public at $4/person ($2/child).



FAQ's

    Are there restrictions or regulations on what kind of canoe/kayak, bike, or paddle I can use?
    No, you may use any type of bike, paddle, canoe or kayak

    Do I have to wear a helmet while on my bike?
    Yes, all participants on the bike portion of the race will be required to wear CPSC/ANSI approved helmets.

    Do I have to wear a life jacket while I am in my boat?
    Yes, all participants will be required to wear a US Coast Guard approved personal flotation device while on the lake.

    COMPLETE EVENT RULES can be found here.

    How do the categories work?

    • SOLO participants compete in the entire course.
      Solo Masters participants are aged 50 and over.

    • TANDEM participants compete together over the entire course, paddling and/or biking tandem. The finish times of Adult - Tandem particpants are averaged; Adult - Youth participants must race together. (Eligible youth are aged 12 and under.)

    • RELAY participants compete in sections of the race as assigned by their team. Two, three and four - person Relay Teams will compete together as one category.

    Can I rent a boat?
    You are responsible for providing your own boat. Canoe and kayak rentals can be arranged IN ADVANCE with:

    • JAX Outdoor Gear, (515) 292-2276

    • Seven Oaks Recreation, (515) 432-9457

    • ISU Outdoor Recreation, (515) 294-8200 (for ISU students, staff, affiliates)

    Be sure to tell them you are renting for the GAAR and work out arrangements for transport with them!

    Where do the proceeds from this race go?
    The GAAR is a joint, volunteer effort between members of the Ames Area Running Club, Ames Velo, Friends of Central Iowa Biking (2008-2017), and the Skunk River Paddlers. Proceeds have helped support the Lincoln Way Chapter of the American Red Cross, Food at First, the Friends of Ada Hayden Heritage Park, the Ames Emergency Residence Project, Friendship Ark Homes, the Story County Sheriff's Dive Team, the Story County Amateur Radio Club the Gilbert Trail Project, the Ames Miracle League Field/Playground and WeCycle.

    2019 proceeds went to Iowa Able, to Story County Conservation (for the  HOINT), to the Let's Connect Woodward to Perry Trail project and to the paddler's Access Ada Hayden accessible dock and launch project.

    How can I volunteer to help?
    Many volunteers are needed for the GAAR. Please email [email protected] and indicate how you or your group might like to help.




2019 GAAR


    Congrats to our 2019 participants and thank you to our many volunteers, sponsors and supporters! Race results can be found on Webscorer at www.webscorer.com/gaar and in a pdf here. Event photos can be found on the Great Ames Adventure Race Facebook Page.

    The GAAR planning committee has distributed 2019 race proceeds to Iowa Able, to Story County Conservation (for the  HOINT), to the Let's Connect Woodward to Perry Trail project and to the paddler's Access Ada Hayden accessible dock and launch project. Be sure to thank our sponsors for making these gifts possible!


2018 GAAR


2017 GAAR


2016 GAAR


    Thanks, EVERYONE, for another Great Race! Results are HERE and photos are on our Facebook Page.

    The Story County Sheriff's Dive Team and the Story County Amateur Radio Club have supported the GAAR each year since the inaugural event in 2007. In recognition of their support, and in support of the services that they provide to the community, a portion of the 2016 GAAR proceeds has been donated to each organization. A donation has also been made to the Friends of Ada Hayden Heritage Park.

    Please be sure to thank our sponsors, Skunk River Cycles, JAX Outdoor Gear, FOX Engineering and Bike World Ames.


2015 GAAR


2014 GAAR


2013 GAAR

    THANK YOU ALL FOR ANOTHER FINE RACE!   Many thanks to our sponsors, supporters and prize donors, and to the many volunteers that make the GAAR what it is. Race results are at www.greatamesadventurerace.org/files/2013Results.pdf and we have over 500 event photos on our FACEBOOK PAGE.

    After expenses were paid the GAAR Committee donated $800 each to Food at First and to Friends of Ada Hayden Heritage Park. The contributions represent the net proceeds from the 2013 race.


2012 GAAR

    CONGRATULATIONS EVERYONE and a big thank you to all of the 2012 sponsors, supporters and volunteers - especially Skunk River Cycles, JAX, Bike World and Fox Engineering. RACE RESULTS are HERE. PHOTOS are on Facebook. After expenses were paid, the Provident bank freehold nj hours Committee presented a check in the amount of $1000 to Food at First, in Ames.


2011 GAAR

    THE 2011 GAAR: THANK YOU ALL FOR ANOTHER GREAT RACE! Many thanks to our sponsors, supporters, prize donors and volunteers, and congratulations to each and every participant. We hope you all enjoyed the race and we encourage you to express your appreciation to our sponsors and supporters.

    After expenses were paid, the GAAR Committee presented a check in the amount of $1000 to Kim Linduska, Chair of the Lincoln Way Chapter, Red Cross of Iowa.

    The 2011 results are by category: Solo, Tandem, and Relay
    First Place Winners are in the September 16 News Release
    Photos are on Picasa and on our Facebook Page
    We have one GAAR leftover: a water bottle     Email info @ greatamesadventurace.org to claim


2010 GAAR

    Great Ames Adventure Race committee donates $1,000 to American Red Cross (Ames Tribune 12/8/2010) The Great Ames Adventure Race committee recently presented the Lincoln Way Chapter of the American Red Cross with a check for $1,000, representing proceeds from the 2010 Great Ames Adventure Race. A donation from the Moose Lodge was presented by members Chuck Clatt and Art Barton.

    CONGRATULATIONS to the 2010 GAAR Athletes and Volunteers for yet another fantastic event, and MANY THANKS to our sponsors and prize donors!

    RACE RESULTS are available by category at gaar10_solo_relay_results.xls,   gaar10_tandem_results.xls,   gaar10_solo_relay_results.pdf,   gaar10_tandem_results.pdf & gaar10_top35.pdf.

    Hundreds of photographs were taken of the great western bank ames by Jeff White and Diane Lowry. This year the "Around the GAAR" images are presented in Windows Media Video (wmv) format, and if there's a particular photo that you might like to have in high resolution please let us know at photo(~at~) greatamesadventurerace.org.   PHOTOS: gaar2010paddle, gaar2010bike1, bike2, gaar2010run1, run2, & around_the_gaar.wmv.

    Great Ames Adventure Race set for Sunday (Ames Tribune 9/7/2010)

    GAAR Committee member issues Challenge (Ames Tribune 7/30/2010)

    GAAR gift to Red Cross (Ames Tribune 7/7/2010)

2009 GAAR

    THANK YOU, and CONGRATULATIONS, to the 2009 GAAR Participants and Volunteers for another fantastic event!   RACE RESULTS are available by category at gaar09_results.xls and gaar09_results.pdf.  The top 25 are listed at gaar09_top25.pdf. Also, thanks to Jeff White, Diane Lowry and Lydia Lowry, we have over 400 PHOTOS of the event. See paddle, bike, run, and around_the_gaar!

    Letter to the Ames Tribune (9/23/2009)

    2009 AMES ADVENTURE RACE SET FOR LABOR DAY WEEKEND!   (Press Release, 7/20/09)

2008 GAAR

    Congratulations to the 2008 GAAR what education is needed to become an investment banker and THANK YOU to the GAAR Volunteers for a fantastic event! Race results are available by category at gaar08_results.pdf and we have nearly 750 PHOTOS of the event - see prerace, paddle, bike, run, and the_GAAR!

    9/15/2008 - GAAR Committee presents gift to Red Cross - Members of the Skunk River Paddlers, Friends of Central Iowa Biking and Ames Running Club presented a gift of $500 to Kirk Brocker, the new Executive Director of the Lincoln Way Chapter of the American Red Cross. The '07 event was a joint effort with the Red Cross so we were pleased to have the opportunity to extend the relationship!

    The Great Ames Adventure Race returns to Ada Hayden Park   (Press Release, 7/31/08)

2007 GAAR

    The inaugural, 2007 Great Ames Adventure Race was a joint effort of the Lincoln Way Chapter of the American Red Cross and the Skunk River Paddlers, a local paddling group. Doug Yetman, Director of the Ames Chapter at that time, and David Kraemer, a Chapter Board Member, paddler and then - editor of sbi internet banking contact number Ames Tribune, imagined a local event as a Red Cross fundraiser after participating together in a similar event on the Maquoketa River.

    Great Ames Adventure Race draws 136 participants   (Ames Tribune, 6/12/07)

    The 2007 GAAR results originally from www.lincolnwayarc.org/GAAR/index.html
    Photos from 2007: Prerace, Paddle, BikeRun, MooseLodge
       

The information provided on the GAAR website is provided as a service to the event organizers.

Источник: http://www.greatamesadventurerace.org/

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