what is the new capital of israel

President Trump's decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital and relocate the embassy there could set back the Israeli-Palestinian. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu pushed back against what he said is mounting pressure to halt Jewish construction in the city. Like New York, Israel's cultural and economic capital is considered a world of its own: Israelis will frequently lament Tel Avivians' decadent.

What is the new capital of israel -

U.S. President Donald Trump’s recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel has sparked protests, isolated the United States internationally, challenged the legitimacy of its sponsorship of Palestinian–Israeli negotiations and hampered its declared strategic goals in the Middle East.

Protests against the position of US President Donald Trump from Jerusalem [Getty Images]

Introduction

On Wednesday, 6 December, President Trump declared Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and announced plans to move the US Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Not only did this move break away with the U.S. foreign policy tradition, which has for many decades avoided declaring Jerusalem as the capital of Israel in the absence of an Israeli–Palestinian peace agreement. Trump’s decision will break the international consensus on Jerusalem and contribute to prejudging an issue that was supposed to be addressed in the final negotiations between the two sides, with the potential of  fueling more tension in the region.

The Dispute over Jerusalem

After the 1948 war, Israel controlled the western part of Jerusalem, while the eastern part was under the Jordanian control,including  the Old City, Al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock. After its victory in the Six-Day War in 1967, Israel annexed East Jerusalem and declared both parts, east and west, as its ‘united and eternal capital’. When Israel  adopted the Jerusalem Law in 1980, which declared Jerusalem ‘complete and united’ as the capital of Israel. However, the UN Security Council rejected this law and adopted Resolution 478, which categorized the Israeli move as a violation of international law and called on member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from the city. In 2006, Costa Rica and El Salvador were the last two countries to move their embassy from Jerusalem to Tel Aviv. Before the U.S. decision, no other country had an embassy in Jerusalem.

After signing the Oslo Accords in 1993, the Palestinians hoped that the eastern part of the city would be their future capital. However, in 1995, the U.S. Congress passed a law to move the American Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem and recognised ‘Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Israel’. Since then, U.S. presidents (Bill Clinton, George W Bush, and Barack Obama) have refused to implement the resolution, signing presidential decisions to postpone its implementation every six months. Past U.S. administrations have argued that this delay was  to ‘protect the national security interests of the United States’ on the one hand; and on the other  to  pursue some balance as a tactic in dealing with the strained and fragile relations between the Palestinians and the Israelis.

Context of the Jerusalem Decision

Trump’s move has been expected since his presidential victory at the end of 2016.. His electoral platform included a key promise to move the U.S. Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. After his winning the election , he did not conceal his resolve to keep his promise. He declared more than once that it was just a matter of time. In June 2017, Trump, like his predecessors, postponed the transfer of the embassy for six months, but last week the six-month deadline expired, and instead of renewing it, Trump decided to fulfil his promise and move the embassy.

A combination of complex factors played an important role in shaping Trump’s decision. Domestically, the investigations into the alleged Russian intervention in the U.S. elections were slowly approaching Trump’s team and some members of his administration. Recently, former national security adviser, Michael Flynn, was indicted for making a false statement to the FBI about Russia’s intervention in the 2016 presidential election. Investigations could also extend to Trump’s son-in-law , Jared Kushner, who is close to Israel as well as some of his cabinet members. This means that Trump is in an increasingly precarious situation and may try to push suspicions away from him or delay the debate over the issue. Under these circumstances, Trump is likely to seek the support of some influential Zionist lobbies in Washington. Another important factor is Trump’s desire of gratifying the wish of the Republican Party, especially the conservatives, and the evangelicals who  support the embassy’s transfer.. In addition, various individuals supported him, financially, politically and in the media as well, to win the presidency. Forn instance, billionaire Sheldon Adelson, donated $20 million to a pro-Trump political acrion committee with the objective of influencing the United States’s recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. Moving the embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem is likely to boost  Trump’s popularity among these circles.

The internal situation in the United States was not the only factor that shaped Trump’s decision on Jerusalem. The current Arab and regional situation, which has undergone fragmentation, civil wars and collapse of the national state system. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which has maintained a relatively stable political and economic position for a long time, especially after the siege of Qatar, has long been divided. Under these conditions, Trump and his administration were counting on absorbing the anger of his major Arab allies, especially Egypt and Saudi Arabia, which need U.S. support amidst their respective internal tensions. While Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman needs U.S. support to contain his internal opponents and inaugurate his leadership in the kingdom, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi seeks to renew his legitimacy and leadership next year by winning a second term. However, challenging Trump’s decision does not seem to be among the cards that these regimes can use.

Unrest and division are not limited to the Arab context, but extend also to regional powers, namely Turkey and Iran, thus reducing their options in confronting Trump’s decision. Iran is fighting alongside Bashar Asad’s forces  in the Syrian civil war.  It is also in a fragile negotiating position opposite the U.S. administration in maneuvering its nuclear program. Trump has threatened  to cancel the nuclear deal – a move supported by Saudi Arabia and UAE. Turkey is not in a better position  while facing several internal challenges, the most important of which is the Kurds’ aspirations to create an independent state on their southern border (Kurdistan) that could strengthen the Kurdish separatist forces in south-eastern Turkey.

Israel’s Gain

Israel welcomed Trump’s decision and called on other countries to follow the United States in moving their embassies to Jerusalem. The Israeli government also announced plans to build thousands of new housing units in settlements. Most likely, Israel will seek to legalise about 200 000 settlers living in East Jerusalem settlements, although their presence is illegal under international law. Consequently, Israel aims to strengthen its actions by imposing new facts that prove its sovereignty over the city, and make it difficult to overcome the reality on the ground in any future attempt to reach a settlement.

Of course, Israel’s policies will escalate to judaize the city and expel its Arab population, a pattern that has been ongoing since its occupation in 1967. Israel was able to isolate the city from its Palestinian natural environment  and impose racist judaizing Jewish policies on its own Arab population in order to force them to leave. Arab Jerusalemites live in overcrowded neighbourhoods, face difficulties in obtaining building permits, and suffer from systemic discrimination; three-quarters of them live below the poverty line. In 2015, Palestinians constituted 37 per cent of 850 000 people in Jerusalem, most of whom live in neighbourhoods in East Jerusalem. Israel seeks to reduce this number to a minimum by removing overcrowded neighbourhoods from the borders of Jerusalem and annexing them to other urban communities.

As Israel seeks to transform the city into a purely Jewish status, the city and its Arab residents suffer from the Palestinian Authority’s extreme neglect. Numerous Palestinian groups are responsible for maintaining the City ; however, they have frequent disputes.  The significance of Jerusalem has become a fading priority of the Palestinian Authority.

 America’s Isolation Trump’s decision  prevents the U.S. from playing an active role in the Palestinian–Israeli conflict, whereas , it has united almost the entire world, including some of its closest allies in the region, against the U.S. president.

Arab and Islamic countries have rejected the U.S. decision to varying degrees., The Arab League cautioned that any recognition of Jerusalem would be a blatant attack on the Arab nation. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) met in Istanbul December 13, 2017  in a special session to coordinate an adequate response to Trump’s decision.

Apart from the United States, fourteen countries out of fifteen total members of the UN Security Council have confirmed their commitment to international law and relevant Security Council resolutions. The overwhelming majority of influential countries rejected Trump’s actions as detrimental to the peace process and to stability in the region. The most prominent position was highlighted by the Quartet, which consists of the United Nations, the European Union, Russia, besides the U.S. and was formed in 2002 to oversee the Middle East peace process. A few hours after the Trump speech, the UN secretary-general, Antonio Guterres,  argued against any unilateral actions that would threaten  the chances of reaching peace between Israelis and Palestinians. The EU also strongly rejected the U.S. decision in a statement issued by Federica Mogherini, High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.. both  German and French positions are apparent. French president, Emmanuel Macron, was the first Western president to reject Trump’s decision,  asserting that the final status of Jerusalem ought to be settled through negotiations. German chancellor, Angela Merkel, and British  Prime Minister, Theresa May, also opposed Trump’s decision. Similarly, Russia expressed concern that it would complicate the  regional situation in the Middle East.

Implications

Trump’s decision will have profound impact most likely on two overlapping levels.

The peace process and the internal Palestinian situation

The fate of the city of Jerusalem has been a vital and sensitive issue in the Palestinian–Israeli peace talks; its discussion has been postponed to the final-status negotiations due to its religious and political  significance of the various parties to the conflict. The change in the status quo, after Trump’s decision, will have a deep symbolic interpretation and will be considered a boost to Israeli sovereignty at the expense of Palestinian rights in the city.

With the exception of the United States, The international community has embraced a unified position that underscores the fate of Jerusalem to be determined by a final agreement between the Palestinians and the Israelis. However, it seems that reaching consensus, or even initiating  serious negotiations, is now out of the question. Since former US Secretary of State John Kerry’s efforts to revive bilateral negotiations between Palestinians and Israelis in 2014, no serious attempts have been made to reach a settlement. Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas’s position and  legitimacy are at stake. To accept the negotiations under current conditionswould  undermine significantly the legitimacy of  Fatah and the Palestine Liberation Organisation, . Such legitimacy was based on more than twenty years of successive promises to establish a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital. It is now more difficult to convince the Palestinian people with the possibility of a future solution that does not guarantee Jerusalem as the capital of  a Palestinian state. In the forseen future, Abbas will have to decide his options: either to continue the pursuit of the peace process or to exit. Mike Pence, U.S. vice president, is expected  to visit the region and meet with the Palestinian leadership. But Palestinian officials said he would not be welcomed. In the event he is not received, the U.S. administration will react negatively and possibly punish the PA. Thus, Abbas will most likely try to avoid this scenario by seeking to strike a balance between addressing Trump’s decision and maintaining  communication channels with his administration.

With the  contentious Palestinian street and  ongoing demonstrations since the Trump announced his decision, the internal Palestinian strategic calculations remains incredibly complex in light of the shifting balance of power between the two strongest movements in the Palestinian street: Fatah and Hamas. All Palestinian  factions , including Fatah and Hamas, have called on taking to the streets and protesting against the U.S. decision. Current and former politburo chief of Hamas Ismail Haniyeh and Khaled Mashal  have called for a new Palestinian uprising and  and end to the Oslo process by the Palestinian Authority’s withdrawal from the peace process. If Fatah agrees to lead ‘controlled’ popular protests against Trump’s decision, it is unlikely to develop into a popular uprising that could threaten the status and survival of the Palestinian Authority.  The the  pursuit of reconciliation between Fatah and Hamas remains an open-ended challenge.

Palestinians have  suffered from severe political, security and social divisions for more than ten years. Their negative effects have impacted all aspects of life, especially in the Gaza Strip, which has been subjected to fierce siege. Despite the efforts to of reunification of the West Bank and Gaza,  in the aftermath of the U.S. decision, it seems unlikely that the recent developments  will resolve this critical issue.

If the Palestinian president is controlled by the sensitive local, regional and international political calculations, ordinanry Palestinians have other options. Jerusalem remains  the heart of the Palestinian Muslim and Christian identity. The City was the direct cause of the Tunnel Riots in 1996, after the Israeli government opened a tunnel under the Al-Aqsa Mosque, as well as the year 2000 uprising that broke out after former Israeli prime minister, Ariel Sharon, visited Al-Aqsa Mosque compound, in addition to the Jerusalem Intifada (2015–2016), known as  ‘Knife Intifada’. In July 2017, Israeli plans to install security cameras at Al-Aqsa Mosque led to weeks-long unrest and confrontation. Palestinian demonstrations in Jerusalem mobilized the Arab and Israeli public opinion, which ultimately pressured the Israelis authorities to remove the cameras. The popular protests that followed Trump’s decision are likely to escalate in the coming days and weeks in the Palestinian villages cities, and refugee camps. Most likely, Hamas will push for a full-scale uprising, while the Palestinian Authority will try to keep it under control.

Regional and Internations Dynamics

Trump’s decision has directly linked   the regional and international dynamics on several levels.

The polarized Arab reality,  internal conflicts, and Arab-on-Arab wars have reduced both public and official reactions. As division in the Arab region increases and Arab populations focus on their immediate tragedies, the question of Palestine and Jerusalem becomes secondary. Therefore, it is impossible for the Arab states to put any effective pressure on the United States to withdraw the Jerusalem decision. .

With the declining Arab unified politics, , Thhe door remains open for other international actors to expand their influence in the region. The EU is currently afraid of re-igniting the Palestinian internal situation or increasing the polarisation and conflict in the Middle East, which may threaten the fragile status of many Arab countries, especially those adjacent to Israel: Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, and Syria. The political environment in these countries is characterised by fragility and instability. Thus, European countries fear that the collapse of the status quo may trigger another influx of refugees into Europe. and may reinforce the collapse the European Union, which is witnessing sharp disagreements among member states  on the issue of receiving refugees, especially Muslims. The EU is likely to absorb the shock of the U.S. decision and address its consequences, while avoidimg the possibility of  another factor of instability in the region.

According to most estimates, Trump’s decision will gradually isolate the U.S. role in the peace process. This is a good point of entry into understanding Russia’s strong position vis-a-via Trump’s new policy. Russia may seek to market itself in the region at the expense of the interests of the U.S. , its traditional rival, by taking a more sympathetic position toward  the Palestinian/Arab aspirations in order to increase its influence and expansion in the region Its re-emergence on the international arena as a parallel power to the United States would be another part of the Russian strategy.  The visit of Russian President Vladimir Putin to Turkey and his talks with President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has apparently addressed the US decision in this context.

Similarly, one can interpret Iran’s position against Trump’s decision. As articulated by the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Tehran’s position can be interpreted as a deliberate move to reconstruct its public image that has been damaged by the Iranian role in the Syrian civil war. Jerusalem presents an ideal opportunity for Iran and its allies (Hizbullah and the Syrian regime) to mobilise against the United States and improve their image in the eyes of the Sunni Muslim world . However, the escalation of Iran and its allies does not seem to go beyond the level of fiery statements because of Iran’s desire to maintain the nuclear deal with the United States, .

New Prospects

It seems that the Trump’s decision pre-phase and post-phase differ from each other.  The pre-phase was betting on a US-sponsored settlement option. The post-phase will diverge if the   the Palestinian people decide to build up their efforts to nullify the decision by activating popular resistance.

Trump’s decision and plans to change the status quo of Jerusalem will most likely be counterproductive. Any future role of the United States as a neutral mediator in the peace process will weaken further.   The strategic objectives set by the Trump administration in the Middle East will be compromised – namely, reaching a settlement that ends the Arab–Israeli conflict, fighting armed Islamist groups and controlling  the Iranian influence.

Источник: https://studies.aljazeera.net/en/positionpapers/2017/12/trumps-recognition-jerusalem-israels-capital-background-ramifications-171225072045602.html
During a fourth economic mission trip to Israel this month, Choose New Jersey announced that New Jersey City University (NJCU)and the Port of Ashdod in Israel signed a letter of intent (LOI) that will help strengthen the economic relationship between the State of New Jersey and Israel, as well as between the Port of Ashdod and the NJCU community. NJCU and the Port of Ashdod will explore opportunities to collaborate on projects that will advance innovation, economic development and international education.

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“The signing of the LOI with the Port of Ashdod further expands our international footprint by formalizing collaboration with our institution, the State of New Jersey and the nation of Israel at a time where critical conversations are being had on issues related to sustainability, climate change, and supply management,” saidSue Henderson, Ph.D., President of NJCU. “I am delighted that this unique partnership will further innovation with our NJCU School of Business and the Guarini Institute for International Education and Economic Mobility. This is yet another milestone in the continuation of our successful global initiative projects.”

The LOI was signed at the Port of Ashdod in Israel on Monday, November 15 by the following: Orna Hozman-Bechor, Ashdod Port Chairwoman; Shiko Zana, CEO of Ashdod Port; and Dr. Sue Henderson, President, NJCU. The LOI signing was attended by: Roy Avrahami, Chief Innovation Officer at Ashdod Port Company;  Dr. Bernard McSherry, Founding Dean of NJCU’s School of Business; Dr. Adrian Franco, inaugural Executive Director of the Guarini Institute at NJCU; and Andrew H. Gross, Executive Director of the New Jersey-Israel Commission, New Jersey Department of State.

“Ashdod Port is happy and excited about the collaboration between New Jersey City University, the Port of Newark and Ashdod Port. This is a unique opportunity for startups in Israel to work with Ashdod Port and the International Port of Newark,” said Shiko Zana, CEO of Ashdod Port. “In addition, the establishment of the first innovation embassy in the world is a unique move for Ashdod Port and we anticipate many pilots and collaborations between the various startups, the port and the embassy in New Jersey. The operational continuity of Ashdod Port is essential for the country's economy, and Ashdod Port has set itself the goal of promoting innovation as part of the port's ongoing activities.”

As the largest port in Israel, Ashdod Port has a program for maritime startup companies. The LOI signing will help bring these startup companies to NJCU for potential pilot programs and other opportunities at ports in New Jersey.

“The Guarini Institute at NJCU aims to advance economic mobility via innovative programs with international companies and entities,” said Dr. Adrian Franco, Executive Director Guarini Institute for International Education and Economic Mobility, NJCU. “The agreement with the Port of Ashdod is a compelling example of how we can build on the distinctive bond between Israel and New Jersey to advance our common goals. The Guarini Institute, the School of Business and the entire NJCU community is looking forward to implementing the objectives of the LOI and generating world-renowned innovations in port management in Ashdod and New Jersey.

Dr. Bernard McSherry, Founding Dean of NJCU’s School of Business, added “Recent disruptions to the global supply chain have focused attention on the need to modernize and strengthen the logistics of global trade. By drawing upon the NJCU School of Business’ expertise in Supply Chain, Logistics and Maritime Port Management and our Guarini Institute’s skill in fostering international exchanges, this groundbreaking agreement with the Port of Ashdod will facilitate the creation of academic programs, economic development, and “smart port” initiatives that will support businesses and job creation both in the State of New Jersey and in the State of Israel.”

NJCU and the Port of Ashdod will encourage collaboration between the Port of Ashdod and port-related businesses in the New York-New Jersey metro area. NJCU will also work with the Port of Ashdod and utilize academic resources to develop educational and workforce development opportunities for NJCU students and the broader NJCU community.

"The historic LOI signed is a real seal of approval for the innovative capabilities of Ashdod Port,” said Ashdod Port Board Chairwoman Orna Hozman-Bechor. “We take pride in this step and look forward to more collaborations in the near future. The delegation from New Jersey is the first delegation from the United States to arrive at Ashdod Port, and we hope for many more in the near future. The event is a significant milestone for Ashdod Port and for the entire State of Israel."

Located near Tel Aviv, the Port of Ashdod is considered the leading economic gateway to the State of Israel and is Israel's largest sea port in terms of cargo volume.

“Israel and New Jersey may be separated by an ocean, but this agreement brings us closer than ever by connecting two critical and global ports and taking them into the future together,” said Mark Levenson, Co-Chair, New Jersey-Israel Commission.

“I congratulate the Port of Ashdod and New Jersey City University on this historic moment which is another major achievement in New Jersey’s economic partnership with Israel,” said Karin Elkis, Co-Chair, New Jersey-Israel Commission.

“I am so proud to see this agreement moving ahead following close coordination with Choose New Jersey and the Port of Ashdod, which will drive even more Israeli innovation to our state,” said Andrew Gross, Executive Director of the New Jersey-Israel Commission.

NJCU is among New Jersey’s leading public universities and an anchor institution in Jersey City, offering an affordable, high-quality, diverse learning environment for students located just minutes away from one of the most concentrated and affluent consumer markets in the world. NJCU is working to establish partnerships that will not only accelerate the area’s growth, but will ensure those partnerships benefit its students, faculty and community members.

“NJCU is providing a world-class education that is preparing the next generation for the jobs of the future,” said Jose Lozano, President & CEO, Choose New Jersey. “The LOI signing between NJCU and the Port of Ashdod will help create an exciting new partnership that will create workforce development opportunities that will benefit our students and the region.”

The LOI was signed during an economic mission trip to Israel with the New Jersey delegation from November 15-17. Led by Choose New Jersey, the delegation comprised 17 members from the New Jersey-Israel Commission, New Jersey Innovation Institute (NJII), New Jersey City University (NJCU) and Rutgers University. New Jersey is the first state to bring a delegation to Israel since the COVID-19 pandemic.

To learn more about Choose New Jersey’s economic mission trip, you can view their activity onFacebook,Twitter,LinkedIn andInstagram with the hashtag #NJIsraelMission.

About Choose New Jersey:
Choose New Jersey is a privately funded 501 (c)(3) economic development organization with a mission to stimulate job creation and attract capital investment to New Jersey. Choose New Jersey markets New Jersey both domestically and internationally as the best place to grow a business in the United States. Knowledgeable, experienced staff, supported by a network of State agencies and private partners, provide free, confidential assistance to guide companies in establishing operations in New Jersey. By harnessing the power of business, labor, academic and government leaders, Choose New Jersey enables growth across all sectors of the State’s economy, aspiring to build a stronger and more prosperous New Jersey for all. To learn more, visit www.choosenj.com.

About NJCU:
New Jersey City University is an institution of higher learning with an audacious goal: the development of our students, our city, our communities, our state, and the world beyond. We are a game-changing force for our students and their families. Whether our students are enrolled in one of our 50 undergraduate, 28 graduate or three doctoral programs, NJCU provides an affordable, diverse environment, and an exceptionally supportive faculty—all of which prepares them to be critical thinkers in a global landscape.

We’re also changing the game for our city, our communities, and our state. As the educational anchor institution in Jersey City, we’ve established partnerships to ensure the area’s growth directly benefits our students and community members. We seek to improve the lives of everyone in the Garden State, whether creating a home for the arts, bringing educational programs to K-12 students, offering bachelor’s degrees in partnership with community colleges, or providing professional development opportunities for adults.

At NJCU, we’re not just educating minds, we’re nourishing souls and lifting communities. We’re changing the game.

—www.NJCU.edu—


Contact:
Ira Thor
, Senior Director of University Communications and Media Relations

Israel backs off housing project at Jerusalem’s Atarot airport site amid US pressure

Israel informed Biden administration officials on Thursday that it has shelved a controversial plan to advance a massive housing project in the East Jerusalem neighborhood of Atarot following pushback from Washington, a senior Israeli official confirmed to The Times of Israel.

The project, which received preliminary approval from Jerusalem’s local municipal planning committee earlier this week, would see 9,000 housing units for ultra-Orthodox Jews built on the abandoned site of the former Atarot Airport. The area was annexed by Israel as part of the post-1967 expanded Jerusalem, but lies beyond the Green Line.

The plan was removed from the agenda of a December 6 meeting of the District Committee for Planning and Building, under the auspices of the Finance Ministry, the official said.

Following the Atarot plan’s approval by the local Jerusalem committee on Wednesday, US State Department officials reached out to Jerusalem to express their disapproval. Israeli officials sought to explain that the advancement was a preliminary step and that final approval would take months, if not years, but Washington was not convinced, the Israeli official said.

The abandoned Atarot Airport lies directly south of the East Jerusalem Palestinian neighborhood of Kafr Aqab. Although Kafr Aqab is beyond the security barrier, it too is part of Israeli-annexed Jerusalem.

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The project at Atarot had been frozen for over a decade, and even the Trump administration had pushed back against Israel’s efforts to advance it. A plan by the previous Netanyahu government to build 4,000 homes in the area was opposed by the Trump administration, the Walla news site reported Thursday.

Related: The dizzy rise, swift fall, and planned radical repurposing of Jerusalem Airport

Kafr Aqab was specified in the Trump “Peace to Prosperity” plan as one of the East Jerusalem areas to be included in the “sovereign capital of the State of Palestine.” The European Union recently voiced objections to the plan, in the context of its wider opposition to the coalition’s latest settlement expansion announcements.

The abandoned Atarot Airport, north of Jerusalem, on November 25, 2021. (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90)

Opponents of the project argue that it would hamper dwindling efforts to advance a two-state solution, by bisecting a large part of East Jerusalem, which Palestinians view as the capital of their future state.

The possible revival of the Atarot project came as Israel is advancing controversial construction projects in and around Jerusalem without making major announcements that could anger the Biden administration.

Last month, a local planning committee in Jerusalem approved the expropriation of public land for the controversial Givat HaMatos neighborhood, which critics say would largely cut Palestinian parts of East Jerusalem off from the southern West Bank.

The same committee advanced plans for the construction of 470 homes in the existing East Jerusalem neighborhood of Pisgat Zeev.

A military body, meanwhile, scheduled meetings to discuss a planned settlement of 3,400 homes on a barren hillside outside Jerusalem known as E1. Critics say building in the area would effectively separate the northern and southern parts of the West Bank, making it impossible to establish a viable Palestinian state alongside Israel.

Israel regards all of East Jerusalem as part of its undivided capital and says it should be able to build there at its own discretion. But most of the international community has never recognized Israel’s annexation of East Jerusalem and regards Jewish neighborhoods there as settlements.

Every Israeli government since 1967 has expanded Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem and settlements in the West Bank, territories that Israel captured in the Six Day War War that year and that the Palestinians want for their future state. The Palestinians view the settlements and the Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem — now housing some 700,000 people — as a prime obstacle to peace, and most of the international community considers them illegal.

US President Joe Biden’s administration has criticized settlement construction as an obstacle to eventually reviving the long-moribund peace process, but has not demanded a freeze. In 2010, an announcement of approval for some 1,600 homes for ultra-Orthodox Jews in another part of East Jerusalem during a visit by Biden, then the vice president, aggravated a diplomatic rift that festered throughout Barack Obama’s presidency.

Israel’s political system is dominated by pro-settlement parties and the new prime minister, Naftali Bennett, is opposed to a Palestinian state. But he heads an unwieldy coalition of parties from across the political spectrum — some opposed to settlements — and appears to be seeking a middle ground that would sideline the issue at home and abroad.

The Associated Press contributed to this report.

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Источник: https://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-backs-off-controversial-east-jerusalem-housing-project-amid-us-pressure/
201-200-3301

Источник: https://www.njcu.edu/about/news/2021/11/choose-new-jersey-announces-letter-intent-signing-between-port-ashdod-israel-and-new-jersey-city-university

Three years after US recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, its status remains contentious. Here’s why

It has been three years since US President Donald Trump recognised Jerusalem as the Israeli capital and ordered to move the American embassy from Tel Aviv to the holy city, upending decades of the country’s foreign policy in favour of the Jewish nation. US State Secretary Mike Pompeo on Sunday said that the decision strengthened the diplomacy efforts and partnership between the two countries, calling it the “greatest hope for peace.”

 

The Trump administration has been aggressive about its foreign policy for Israel, by taking several decisions that have been seen as against Palestinian interests. The United States recognised Israel’s sovereignty over the Golan Heights, a disputed region occupied by Israel since 1967, and announced a reversal of its decades-long policy on Israeli settlements in the West Bank, calling the occupation not necessarily a violation of international law.

“Basing policy on reality, we recognised Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, and we recognised Israel’s sovereignty over the Golan Heights,” Pompeo told a Senate committee in 2019.

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U.S. President Donald Trump’s recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel has sparked protests, isolated the United States internationally, challenged the legitimacy of its sponsorship of Palestinian–Israeli negotiations and hampered its declared strategic goals in the Middle East.

Protests against the position of US President Donald Trump from Jerusalem [Getty Images]

Introduction

On Wednesday, 6 December, President Trump declared Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and announced plans to move the US Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Not only did this move break away with the U.S. foreign policy tradition, which has for many decades avoided declaring Jerusalem as the capital of Israel in the absence of an Israeli–Palestinian peace agreement. Trump’s decision will break the international consensus on Jerusalem and contribute to prejudging an issue that was supposed to be addressed in the final negotiations between the two sides, with the potential of  fueling more tension in the region.

The Dispute over Jerusalem

After the 1948 war, Israel controlled the western part of Jerusalem, while the eastern part was under the Jordanian control,including  the Old City, Al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock. After its victory in the Six-Day War in 1967, Israel annexed East Jerusalem and declared both parts, east and west, as its ‘united and eternal capital’. When Israel  adopted the Jerusalem Law in 1980, which declared Jerusalem ‘complete and united’ as the capital of Israel. However, the UN Security Council rejected this law and adopted Resolution 478, which categorized the Israeli move as a violation of international law and called on member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from the city. In 2006, Costa Rica and El Salvador were the last two countries to move their embassy from Jerusalem to Tel Aviv. Before the U.S. decision, no other country had an embassy in Jerusalem.

After signing the Oslo Accords in 1993, the Palestinians hoped that the eastern part of the city would be their future capital. However, in 1995, the U.S. Congress passed a law to move the American Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem and recognised ‘Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Israel’. Since then, U.S. presidents (Bill Clinton, George W Bush, and Barack Obama) have refused to implement the resolution, signing presidential decisions to postpone its implementation every six months. Past U.S. administrations have argued that this delay was  to ‘protect the national security interests of the United States’ on the one hand; and on the other  to  pursue some balance as a tactic in dealing with the strained and fragile relations between the Palestinians and the Israelis.

Context of the Jerusalem Decision

Trump’s move has been expected since his presidential victory at the end of 2016. His electoral platform included a key promise to move the U.S. Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. After his winning the electionhe did not conceal his resolve to keep his promise. He declared more than once that it was just a matter of time. In June 2017, Trump, like his predecessors, postponed the transfer of the embassy for six months, but last week the six-month deadline expired, and instead of renewing it, Trump decided to fulfil his promise and move the embassy.

A combination of complex factors played an important role in shaping Trump’s decision. Domestically, the investigations into the alleged Russian intervention in the U.S. elections were slowly approaching Trump’s team and some members of his administration. Recently, former national security adviser, Michael Flynn, was indicted for making a false statement to the FBI about Russia’s intervention in the 2016 presidential election. Investigations could also extend to Trump’s son-in-lawJared Kushner, who is close to Israel as well as some of his cabinet members. This means that Trump is in an increasingly precarious situation and may try to push suspicions away from him or delay the debate over the issue. Under these circumstances, Trump is likely to seek the support of some influential Zionist lobbies in Washington. Another important factor is Trump’s desire of gratifying the wish of the Republican Party, especially the conservatives, and the evangelicals who  support the embassy’s transfer. In addition, various individuals supported him, financially, politically and in the media as well, to win the presidency. Forn instance, billionaire Sheldon Adelson, donated $20 million to a pro-Trump political acrion committee with what is the new capital of israel objective of influencing the United States’s recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. Moving the embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem is likely to boost  Trump’s popularity among these circles.

The internal situation in the United States was not the only factor that shaped Trump’s decision on Jerusalem. The current Arab and regional situation, which has undergone fragmentation, civil wars and collapse of the national state system. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which has maintained a relatively stable political and economic position for a long time, especially after the siege of Qatar, has long been divided. Under these conditions, Trump and his administration were counting on absorbing the anger of his major Arab allies, especially Egypt and Saudi Arabia, which need U.S. support amidst their respective internal tensions. While Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman needs U.S. support to contain his internal opponents and inaugurate his leadership in the kingdom, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi seeks to renew his legitimacy and leadership next year by winning a second term. However, challenging Trump’s decision does not seem to be among the cards that these regimes can use.

Unrest and division are not limited to the Arab context, but extend also to regional powers, namely Turkey and Iran, thus reducing their options in confronting Trump’s decision. Iran is fighting alongside Bashar Asad’s forces  in the Syrian civil war.  It is also in a fragile negotiating position opposite the U.S. administration in maneuvering its nuclear program. Trump has threatened  to cancel the nuclear deal – a move supported by Saudi Arabia and UAE. Turkey is not in a better position  while facing several internal challenges, the most important of which is the Kurds’ aspirations to create an independent state on their southern border baptist health fort smith ar that could strengthen the Kurdish separatist forces in south-eastern Turkey.

Israel’s Gain

Israel welcomed Trump’s decision tiny homes for sale indiana called on other countries to follow the United States in moving their what is the new capital of israel to Jerusalem. The Israeli government also announced plans to build thousands of new housing units in settlements. Most likely, Israel will seek to legalise about 200 000 settlers living in El21 key card Jerusalem settlements, although their presence is illegal under international law. Consequently, Israel aims to strengthen its actions by imposing new facts that prove its sovereignty over the city, and make it difficult to overcome the reality on the ground in any future attempt to reach a settlement.

Of course, Israel’s policies will escalate to judaize the city and expel its Arab population, a pattern that has been ongoing since its occupation in 1967. Israel was able to isolate the city from its Palestinian natural environment  and impose racist judaizing Jewish policies on its own Arab population in order to force them to leave. Arab Jerusalemites live in overcrowded neighbourhoods, face difficulties in obtaining building permits, and suffer from systemic discrimination; three-quarters of them live below the poverty line. In 2015, Palestinians constituted 37 per cent of 850 000 people in Jerusalem, most of whom live in neighbourhoods in East Jerusalem. Israel seeks to reduce this number to a minimum by removing overcrowded neighbourhoods from the borders of Jerusalem and annexing them to other urban communities.

As Israel seeks to transform the city into a purely Jewish status, the city and its Arab residents suffer from the Palestinian Authority’s extreme neglect. Numerous Palestinian groups are responsible for maintaining the City ; however, they have frequent disputes.  The significance of Jerusalem has become a fading priority of the Palestinian Authority.

 America’s Isolation Trump’s decision  prevents the U.S. from playing an active role in the Palestinian–Israeli conflict, whereasit has united almost the entire world, including some of its closest allies in the region, against the U.S. president.

Arab and Islamic countries have rejected the U.S. decision to varying degrees., The Arab League cautioned that any recognition of Jerusalem would be a blatant attack on the Arab nation. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) met in Istanbul December 13, 2017  in a special session to coordinate an adequate response to Trump’s decision.

Apart from the United States, fourteen countries out of fifteen total members of the UN Security Council have confirmed their commitment to international law and relevant Security Council resolutions. The overwhelming majority of influential countries rejected Trump’s actions as detrimental to the peace process and to stability in the region. The most prominent position was highlighted by the Quartet, which consists of the United Nations, the European Union, Russia, besides the U.S. and was formed in 2002 to oversee the Middle East peace process. A few hours after the Trump speech, the UN secretary-general, Antonio Guterres,  argued against any unilateral actions that would threaten  the chances of reaching peace between Israelis and Palestinians. The EU also strongly rejected the U.S. decision in a statement issued by Federica Mogherini, High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. both  German and French positions are apparent. French president, Emmanuel Macron, was the first Western president to reject Trump’s decision,  asserting that the final status of Jerusalem ought to be settled through negotiations. German chancellor, Angela Merkel, and British  Prime Minister, Theresa May, also opposed Trump’s decision. Similarly, Russia expressed concern that it would complicate the  regional situation in the Middle East.

Implications

Trump’s decision will have profound impact most likely on two overlapping levels.

The peace process and the internal Palestinian situation

The fate of the city of Jerusalem has been a vital and sensitive issue in the Palestinian–Israeli peace talks; its discussion has been postponed to the final-status negotiations due to its religious and political  significance of the various parties to the conflict. The change in the status quo, after Trump’s decision, will have a deep symbolic interpretation and will be considered a boost to Israeli sovereignty at the expense of Palestinian rights in the city.

With the exception of the United States, The international community has embraced a unified position that underscores the fate of Jerusalem to be determined by a final agreement between the Palestinians and the Israelis. However, it seems that reaching consensus, or even initiating  serious negotiations, is now out of the question. Since former US Secretary of State John Kerry’s efforts to revive bilateral negotiations between Palestinians and Israelis in 2014, no serious attempts have been made to reach a settlement. Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas’s position and  legitimacy are at what is the new capital of israel. To accept the negotiations under current conditionswould  undermine significantly the legitimacy of  Fatah and the Palestine Liberation Organisation. Such legitimacy was based on more than twenty years of successive promises to establish a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital. It is now more difficult to convince the Palestinian people with the possibility of a future solution that does not guarantee Jerusalem as the capital of  a Palestinian state. In the forseen future, Abbas will have to decide his options: either to continue the pursuit of the peace process or to exit. Mike Pence, U.S. vice president, is expected  to visit the region and meet with the Palestinian leadership. But Palestinian officials said he would not be welcomed. In the event he is not received, what is the new capital of israel U.S. administration will react negatively and possibly punish the PA. Thus, Abbas will most likely try to avoid this scenario by seeking to strike a balance between addressing Trump’s decision and maintaining  communication channels with his administration.

With the  contentious Palestinian street and  ongoing demonstrations since the Trump announced his decision, the internal Palestinian strategic calculations remains incredibly complex in light of the shifting balance of power between the two strongest movements in the Palestinian street: Fatah and Hamas. All Palestinian  factionsincluding Fatah and Hamas, have called on taking to the streets and protesting against the U.S. decision. Current and former politburo chief of Hamas Ismail Haniyeh and Khaled Mashal  have called for a new Palestinian uprising and  and end to the Oslo process by the Palestinian Authority’s withdrawal from the peace process. If Fatah agrees to lead ‘controlled’ popular protests against Trump’s decision, it is unlikely to develop into a popular uprising that could threaten the status and survival of the Palestinian Authority.  The the  pursuit of reconciliation between Fatah and Hamas remains an open-ended challenge.

Palestinians have  suffered from severe political, security and social divisions for more than ten years. Their negative effects have impacted all aspects of life, especially in the Gaza Strip, which has been subjected to fierce siege. Despite the efforts to of reunification of the West Bank and Gaza,  in the aftermath of the U.S. decision, it seems unlikely that the recent developments  will resolve this critical issue.

If the Palestinian president is controlled by the sensitive local, regional and international political calculations, ordinanry Palestinians have other options. Jerusalem remains  the heart of the Palestinian Muslim and Christian identity. The City was the direct cause of the Tunnel Riots in 1996, after the Israeli government opened a tunnel under the Al-Aqsa Mosque, as well as the year 2000 uprising that broke out after former Israeli prime minister, Ariel Sharon, visited Al-Aqsa Mosque compound, in addition to the Jerusalem Intifada (2015–2016), known as  ‘Knife Intifada’. In July 2017, Israeli plans to install security cameras at Al-Aqsa Mosque led to weeks-long unrest and confrontation. Palestinian demonstrations in Jerusalem mobilized the Arab and Israeli public opinion, which ultimately pressured the Israelis authorities to remove the cameras. The popular protests that followed Trump’s decision are likely to escalate in the coming days and weeks in the Palestinian villages cities, and refugee camps. Most likely, Hamas will push for a full-scale uprising, while the Palestinian Authority will try to keep it under control.

Regional and Internations Dynamics

Trump’s decision has directly linked   the regional and international dynamics on several levels.

The polarized Arab reality,  internal conflicts, and Arab-on-Arab wars have reduced both public and official reactions. As division in the Arab region increases and Arab populations focus on their immediate tragedies, the question of Palestine and Jerusalem becomes what is the new capital of israel. Therefore, it is impossible for the Arab states to put any effective pressure on the United States to withdraw the Jerusalem decision. .

With the declining Arab unified politics,Thhe door remains open for other international actors to expand their influence in the region. The EU is currently afraid of re-igniting the Palestinian internal situation or increasing the polarisation and conflict in the Middle East, which may threaten the fragile status of many Arab countries, especially those adjacent to Israel: Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, and Syria. The political environment in these countries is characterised by fragility and instability. Thus, European countries fear that the collapse of the status quo may trigger another influx of refugees into Europe. and may reinforce the collapse is columbus day a holiday in new hampshire European Union, which is witnessing sharp disagreements among member states  on the issue of receiving refugees, especially Muslims. The EU is likely to absorb the shock of the U.S. decision and address its consequences, while avoidimg the possibility of  another factor of instability in the region.

According to most estimates, Trump’s decision will gradually isolate the U.S. role in the peace process. This is a good point of entry into understanding Russia’s strong position vis-a-via Trump’s new policy. Russia may seek to market itself in the region at the expense of the interests of the U.S.its traditional rival, by taking a more sympathetic position toward  the Palestinian/Arab aspirations in order to increase its influence and expansion in the region Its re-emergence on the international arena as a parallel power to the United States would be another part of the Russian strategy.  The visit of Russian President Vladimir Putin to Turkey and his talks with President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has apparently addressed the US decision in this context.

Similarly, one can interpret Iran’s position against Trump’s decision. As articulated by the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Tehran’s position can be interpreted as a deliberate move to reconstruct its public image that has been damaged by the Iranian role in the Syrian civil war. Jerusalem presents an ideal opportunity for Iran and its allies (Hizbullah and the Syrian regime) to mobilise against the United States and improve their image in the eyes of the Sunni Muslim world. However, the escalation of Iran and its allies does not seem to go beyond the level of fiery statements because of Iran’s desire to maintain the nuclear deal with the United States.

New Prospects

It seems that the Trump’s decision pre-phase and post-phase differ from each other.  The pre-phase was betting on a US-sponsored settlement option. The post-phase will diverge if the   the Palestinian people decide to build up their efforts to nullify the decision by activating popular resistance.

Trump’s decision and plans to change the status quo of Jerusalem will most likely be counterproductive. Any future role of the United States as a neutral mediator in the peace process will weaken further.   The strategic objectives set by the Trump administration in the Middle East will be compromised – namely, reaching a settlement that ends the Arab–Israeli conflict, fighting armed Islamist groups and controlling  the Iranian influence.

Источник: https://studies.aljazeera.net/en/positionpapers/2017/12/trumps-recognition-jerusalem-israels-capital-background-ramifications-171225072045602.html
201-200-3301

Источник: https://www.njcu.edu/about/news/2021/11/choose-new-jersey-announces-letter-intent-signing-between-port-ashdod-israel-and-new-jersey-city-university

Is Jerusalem the capital of Israel and when did Donald Trump move the US embassy to there from Tel Aviv?

WHEN the United States moved its embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem it reignited one of the most holliday lake state park appomattox virginia disputed subjects at the heart of the Israel-Palestine conflict.

Here's what you need to know about Donald Trump's decision which was welcomed by the Jewish state but condemned by other countries.

 Trump described the recognition of Jerusalem as 'long overdue'

4

What is the capital of Israel?

Israel, which gained independence as a modern country in 1948, claims Jerusalem as its capital.

But this is not internationally recognised because the ancient city is also the proclaimed capital of the State of Palestine.

Jerusalem's unresolved status is one of the core questions at the heart of the Israel-Palestine conflict.

A 1949 treaty following the Arab-Israeli war divided Jerusalem into two sections with the western half controlled by Israel, and the eastern half controlled by Jordan.

Although Israel captured and annexed the entire city during the 1967 Six Day War, East Jerusalem – containing the famous Old City – is still claimed by Palestine.

With many in the international community acknowledging East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state, Israeli sovereignty over the whole city has not been recognised.

The holy city has been at the heart of violent conflicts throughout history because it is home to key religious sites sacred to Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

The population of Jerusalem is roughly 850,000, with two-thirds Jewish and a third Arab. Most neighbourhoods are divided on religious lines.

While Israel's government and parliament are based in Jerusalem, the nation's economic and business centre is in Tel Aviv.

Tel Aviv is also home to many foreign embassies including the UK's and, until May 2018, the USA's.

 Jerusalem has been at the heart of violent conflicts throughout history

4

Why was there a UN vote and which countries voted against the UN resolution?

The UN General Assembly held a rare emergency special session at the request of Arab and Muslim states, after Trump's shock decision heightened tensions in the Middle East.

The resolution effectively called on the US to withdraw its recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and was backed by the overwhelming majority of members.

A total of 128 countries voted for the resolution on December 21, 2017.

Just nine voted no: the US and Israel, plus Guatemala, Honduras, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau and Togo.

Thirty-five nations abstained, including Canada, Mexico and Australia, and 21 countries didn't turn up for the vote.

The vote came after US Ambassador to the UN Nikki Haley issued a direct threat, saying that the US will think twice about funding the world body if it voted to condemn Trump's decision.

She said: "The United States will remember this day in which it was singled out for attack in this assembly."

Haley said the US will put its embassy in Jerusalem regardless of the vote.

 Palestinians are burning pictures of Donald Trump in Bethlehem

4

Why did Trump move the embassy and why is it so controversial?

The new US embassy in Jerusalem opened with great fanfare on May 14, 2018.

President Trump did not attend but sent a delegation to the ceremony including his daughter Ivanka Trump, her husband Jared Kushner, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin and Deputy Secretary of State John Sullivan.

In December 2017, announcing his "long overdue" decision, Trump said he was acting "in the best interest of the US and the pursuit of peace" in the region.

The US is the first major country to recognise Jerusalem as Israel's capital since the Jewish state was created in 1948.

The President slammed the stance of his predecessors, saying: "We cannot solve our problems by repeating the same failed strategies of the past.

"After more than two decades of wavers, we are no closer to a lasting peace agreement."

However, many world leaders condemned the move, with fears it could could spark further bloodshed in the region and disrupt attempts to reach a two-state solution.

Theresa May reiterated the UK's support for continued negotiation, saying that she wants the two countries to have the city as a "shared capital".

She said: "We continue to support a two-state solution. We recognise the importance of Jerusalem."

Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas said Jerusalem was the "eternal capital of the State of Palestine".

In a scathing rebuke, he described Trump’s speech as "a declaration of withdrawal from the role the US has played in the peace process."

France's Emmanuel Macron called on the White House to step back from the announcement, while Pope Francis defended the "status quo" of the city as he prayed that "wisdom and prudence prevail".

UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said: "From day one I have consistently spoken out against any unilateral measures that would jeopardise the prospect of peace for Israelis and Palestinians."

The announcement sparked scenes of protest and flag-burning in Palestinian territories and across the Middle East.

 Prince William at the Western or Wailing Wall in Jerusalem

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Why is Prince William caught up in a diplomatic row over Jerusalem's bank of america home loans contact phone number William made the first ever official visit to the Holy Land by a member of the Royal Family in June 2018.

He met dignitaries in Israel and Palestine during his goodwill mission.

But a description of his itinerary prompted a diplomatic storm.

Kensington Palace said a day "in the Occupied Palestinian Territories will begin with a short briefing on the history and geography of Jerusalem's Old City from a viewing point at holiday gifts for employees 2020 Mount of Olives".

Israel's Jerusalem Affairs Minister Ze'ev Elki accused Britain of "politicising" the royal visit.

He said: "United Jerusalem has been the capital of Israel for 3,000 years and no distortion in the tour itinerary can change that reality."

Kensington Palace declined to comment.

Prince William met Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, President of Israel Reuven Rivlin and Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu.

US President Donald Trump says, 'it is time to officially recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel'

Topics

Источник: https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/5082438/capital-israel-jerusalem-donald-trump-un-vote-prince-william/

What’s the capital of Israel? Not Jerusalem, says an Italian Court

Game show host gets into legal hot water over Israel’s capital city.

A popular Italian television quiz, L'Eredita, sparked controversy when in May of this year, a question about Israel surfaced on the show. The competitor said ‘Tel Aviv' when asked to give the name of the capital city. The talk show host, Flavio Insinna, did not accept this as the correct answer, and went on to correct the contestant by saying it was Jerusalem. 

The Palestinian Association in Italy, and the Association of Solidarity with the Palestinian People, however, were not happy.

The Italian courts - where the matter ended up - agreed. The subsequent court ruling stated that "International law does not recognise Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Israel."

On June 5, Insinna tried to end the controversy by reading out a clarification. “We can involuntarily find ourselves at the centre of a controversy that calls into question events that certainly do not belong to a program like ours to intervene. On the issue, however, there are different positions. In view of this, we must not enter into such a delicate dispute, and we apologise for having raised it involuntarily.”

The case, which was settled in the Court of Rome’s Human Rights and Immigration division, found that "it is the Italian state that does not recognise Jerusalem as the capital."

The court went on to clarify itself.

“It is known that on December 21, 2017, Italy voted in favour of the United Nations General Assembly resolution that rejected the United States' decision to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. As it is known, the United Nations itself has repeatedly talked about the issue, condemning the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories and East Jerusalem, and denying any legal validity to Israel's decisions to make it its capital.”

The court concluded that UN resolutions "constitute conventional law directly applicable in our legal system. Taking for granted that the city of Jerusalem is the capital of the State of Israel is the dissemination of incorrect information. Defining the issue as a 'dispute', as was done by RAI [the Italian television station], is not enough to correct what happened&rdquo.

Italy’s national broadcaster, RAI, was ordered to pay all costs.

Source: TRTWorld and agencies

Источник: https://www.trtworld.com/magazine/what-s-the-capital-of-israel-not-jerusalem-says-an-italian-court-38726

EXPLAINER: What’s behind the clashes in Jerusalem?

JERUSALEM (AP) — For weeks now, Palestinian protesters and Israeli police have clashed on a daily basis in and around Jerusalem’s Old City, home to major religious sites sacred to Jews, Christians and Muslims and the emotional epicenter of the Middle East conflict.

Jerusalem has been the scene of violent confrontations between Jews and Arabs for 100 years and remains one of the most bitterly contested cities on earth. The latest clashes began a month ago with an Israeli move to block some Palestinian gatherings at the beginning of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, already a time of heightened religious sensitivities. After those restrictions eased, tensions over a plan to evict dozens of Palestinians from an east Jerusalem neighborhood continued to fuel confrontations.

On Monday, stun grenades echoed across a holy hilltop compound, and hundreds of Palestinians were hurt in clashes between stone-throwing protesters and police firing tear gas and rubber bullets. Police were also injured.

Here’s a look at why Jerusalem always seems to be on edge — and what set off the latest round of violence.

CAPITAL OF TWO PEOPLES

Israel views Jerusalem as its “unified, eternal” capital. It had captured east Jerusalem, which includes the Old City, in the 1967 Mideast war, along with the West Bank and Gaza. Palestinians want those territories for their future state, with east Jerusalem serving as their eventual capital. But Israel annexed the eastern part of the city in a move not recognized internationally.

The fate of east Jerusalem has been one of the thorniest issues in the peace process, which ground to a halt more than a decade ago.

Israelis on Monday were set to mark Jerusalem Day, a national holiday celebrating the annexation. In past years, thousands of Israelis — mainly religious nationalists — have marched through the Old City, including the densely populated Muslim Quarter, in a display considered provocative by many Palestinians.

In recent days, hard-line Israelis have staged other events in east Jerusalem, leading to scattered, violent altercations with Palestinians.

___

THE HOLY HILLTOP

Monday’s clashes took place in and around the Al-Aqsa Mosque in the Old City. The mosque is the third-holiest site in Islam and sits on a sprawling plateau that is also home to the iconic golden Dome of the Rock. Muslims refer to the compound as the Noble Sanctuary.

The walled plateau is also the holiest site for Jews, who refer to it as the Temple Mount, because it was the location of biblical temples. Romans destroyed the Second Temple in 70 A.D., with only the Western Wall remaining. The mosques were built centuries later.

Neighboring Jordan serves as the custodian of the site, which is operated by an Islamic endowment known as the Waqf. The site is open to tourists during certain times but only Muslims are allowed to pray there. The Western Wall is the holiest site where Jews can pray.

In recent years, groups of religious and nationalist Jews escorted by police have been visiting the compound in greater numbers and holding prayers in defiance of rules established after 1967 by Israel, Jordan and Muslim religious authorities. The Palestinians view the frequent visits and attempted prayers by Jews as a provocation, and it often ignites scuffles or more serious violence.

Some Israelis say the site should be open to all worshippers. The Palestinians refuse, fearing that Israel will eventually take over the site or partition it. Israeli officials say they have no intention of changing the status quo.

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DISCRIMINATORY POLICIES

Jews born in east Jerusalem are Israeli citizens, while Palestinians from east Jerusalem are granted a form of permanent residency that can be revoked if they live outside the city for an extended period. They can apply for citizenship, but it’s a long and uncertain process and most choose not to because they don’t recognize Israeli control.

Israel has built Jewish settlements in east Jerusalem that are home to some 220,000 people. It has severely limited the growth of Palestinian neighborhoods, leading what is the new capital of israel overcrowding and the unauthorized construction of thousands of homes that are at risk of demolition.

The Israeli rights group B’Tselem and what is the new capital of israel New York-based Human Rights Watch cited the discriminatory policies in east Jerusalem in recent reports arguing that Israel is guilty of the crime of apartheid. Israel rejects those allegations, saying Jerusalem residents are treated equally.

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THREATENED EVICTIONS

The recent nightly clashes began at the start of Ramadan, when Israeli police placed barriers outside the Old City’s Damascus Gate, a popular gathering place after the evening prayers during the holy month when Muslims fast from dawn to dusk. They later removed the barriers, but then protests escalated over the threatened eviction of dozens of Palestinian families from the east Jerusalem neighborhood of Sheikh Jarrah.

The families have been embroiled in a long legal battle with ideological Jewish settlers who seek to acquire property in crowded Palestinian neighborhoods just outside the Old City. Israel portrays it as a private real-estate dispute, but the families’ plight has attracted global attention.

___

WIDER UNREST

Clashes in Jerusalem, and particularly in Al-Aqsa, often reverberate across the region.

The Palestinian militant group Hamas, which rules Gaza, has called for a new intifada, or uprising, like the one triggered by an Israeli politician’s visit to Al-Aqsa in 2000. Gaza militants have fired rockets and balloons with incendiary devices attached to them in support of the protesters as an informal cease-fire with Israel has started to fray.

Protests have been held in the occupied West Bank and in Arab communities inside Israel. A series of deadly shootings in what is the new capital of israel West Bank last week has also heightened tensions.

Jordan and other Arab nations that have friendly ties with Israel have condemned its crackdown on the protests, while Israel’s archenemy Iran has encouraged Palestinian attacks. The U.S. and the EU have condemned the violence and expressed concern about the evictions.

Источник: https://apnews.com/article/jerusalem-middle-east-lifestyle-government-and-politics-43d4cab031c28da0abf98d694dd169ac

Three years after US recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, its status remains contentious. Here’s why

It has been three years since US President Donald Trump recognised Jerusalem as the Israeli capital and ordered to move the I m still here joaquin embassy from Tel Aviv to the holy city, upending decades of the country’s foreign policy in favour of the Jewish nation. US State Secretary Mike Pompeo on Sunday said that the decision strengthened the diplomacy efforts and partnership between the two countries, calling it the “greatest hope for peace.”

 

The Trump administration has been aggressive about its foreign policy for Israel, by taking several decisions that have been seen as against Palestinian interests. The United States recognised Israel’s sovereignty over the Golan Heights, a disputed region occupied by Israel since 1967, and announced a reversal of its decades-long policy on Israeli settlements in the West Bank, calling everything i do i do it for you audio occupation not necessarily a violation of international law.

“Basing policy on reality, we recognised Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, and we recognised Israel’s sovereignty over the Golan Heights,” Pompeo told a Senate committee in 2019.

Also Read

Israel launches new attack on Gaza as PM Netanyahu says airstrikes will continue

Israel pounded Gaza on Saturday, destroying a tower block that housed news media organizations, while Palestinian rocket salvoes hit Tel Aviv.

It came on a sixth day of hostilities in which Palestinians say at least 145 people, including 41 children, have been killed in Gaza since the conflict began. Israel has reported 10 dead, including two children.

For the latest headlines, follow our Google News channel online or via the app.

The 12-storey block in Gaza City brought down by Israeli air strikes housed the US Associated Press and Qatar-based Al Jazeera media operations.

However, the Israel military said it was a legitimate military target, containing Hamas military offices, and that it had given warnings to civilians to get out of the building before the attack.

Combination picture shows a tower building housing AP, Al Jazeera offices collapsing after it was destroyed by Israeli air strikes in Gaza. (Reuters)

Combination picture shows a tower building housing AP, Al Jazeera offices collapsing after it was destroyed by Israeli air strikes in Gaza. (Reuters)

The strike was condemned by the AP and Al Jazeera, and the US told Israel “that ensuring the safety and security of journalists and independent media is a paramount responsibility,” White House Press Secretary Jen Psaki said.

Israel bombed the home of Khalil al-Hayeh, a senior figure in Hamas’ political branch, saying the building served as part of the group’s “terrorist infrastructure.” There was no immediate report on al-Hayeh’s fate or on any casualties.

The bombing of al-Hayeh's home showed Israel was expanding its campaign beyond just the group’s military commanders. Israel says it has killed dozens in Hamas’ military branch, though Hamas and the smaller group Islamic Jihad have only acknowledged 20 dead members.

US President Joe Biden later spoke to both Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas in an effort to restore calm.

But both Israel and Hamas insisted they would pursue their campaigns, leaving no end to the hostilities in sight despite a UN Security Council meeting scheduled for Sunday to discuss the worse outbreak of Israel-Palestinian violence in years.

Smoke and flame rise during Israeli air strikes, as cross-border violence between the Israeli military and Palestinian militants continues, in Gaza City, May 14, 2021. (Reuters)

Smoke and flame rise during Israeli air strikes, as cross-border violence between the Israeli military and Palestinian militants continues, in Gaza City, May 14, 2021. (Reuters)

“The party that bears the guilt for this confrontation is not us, it’s those attacking us,” Netanyahu said in a televised speech.

“We are still in the midst of this operation, it is still not over and this operation will continue as long as necessary.”

Netanyahu said Israel’s air and artillery barrage had eliminated dozens of Hamas militants and taken out “hundreds” of the Islamist militant group’s sites including missile launchers and a vast tunnel network.

Hamas began its rocket assault on Monday after weeks of tensions over a court case to evict several Palestinian families in East Jerusalem, and in retaliation for Israeli police clashes with Palestinians near the city’s Al-Aqsa Mosque, Islam’s third holiest site, during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan.

A firefighter walks at a site where a rocket fired from Gaza has landed in Ramat Gan, near Tel Aviv, Israel May 15, 2021. (Reuters)

A firefighter walks at a site where a rocket fired from Gaza has landed in Ramat Gan, near Tel Aviv, Israel May 15, 2021. (Reuters)

Speaking to crowds of protesters in the Qatari capital of Doha, Hamas chief Ismail Haniyeh said on Saturday the fighting was primarily about Jerusalem.

“The Zionists thought . they could demolish Al-Aqsa mosque. They thought they could displace our people in Sheikh Jarrah,” said Haniyeh.

“I say to Netanyahu: do not play with fire,” he continued, amid cheers from the crowd. “The title of this battle today, the title of the war, and the title of the intifada, is Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Jerusalem,” using the Arabic word for ‘uprising’.

Air war

On Saturday, the Israeli military said around 2,300 rockets had been fired from Gaza since Monday, with about 1,000 intercepted by missile defenses and 380 falling into the Gaza Strip.

Israel has launched more than 1,000 air and artillery strikes into the densely populated coastal strip, saying they were aimed at Hamas and other militant targets.

A streak of light is seen as Israel's Iron Dome anti-missile system intercepts rockets launched from the Gaza Strip towards Israel, as seen from Ashkelon, What is the new capital of israel May 15, 2021. (Reuters)

A what is the new capital of israel of light is seen as Israel's Iron Dome anti-missile system intercepts rockets launched from the Gaza Strip towards Israel, as seen from Ashkelon, Israel May 15, 2021. (Reuters)

The bombardments have sent columns of smoke above Gaza City and lit up the enclave’s night sky.

Earlier this week the International Criminal Court’s chief prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda, told Reuters the court was “monitoring very closely” the latest escalation of hostilities, amid an investigation now under way into alleged war crimes in earlier bouts of the conflict.

Netanyahu accused Hamas of “committing a double war crime” by targeting civilians, and using Palestinian civilians as “human shields.”

The New York-based rights group Human Rights Watch said on Saturday it had “serious concerns that the attacks caused disproportionate destruction of civilian property” in Gaza.

Failed diplomacy

Biden’s envoy, Hady Amr, arrived in Israel on Friday, before a meeting on Sunday of the UN Security Council.

But diplomacy has so far failed to quell the worst escalation in fighting between Israel and Palestinians since 2014.

The White House said Biden updated Netanyahu on allied bank car loan calculator pakistan 2019 contacts with regional partners to restore calm, and raised concerns about the safety of journalists.

Biden also spoke with Abbas, for the first time since the US leader took office in January.

Both sides said Biden reaffirmed his support for a two-state solution to the conflict, and the White House said Biden was committed to “strengthening the US-Palestinian partnership”, which reached a nadir under the Trump administration.

But diplomatic efforts are complicated by the fact the

US and most western powers do not talk to Hamas, which they regard as a terrorist organization. And Abbas, whose power base is in the occupied West Bank, exerts little influence over Hamas in Gaza.

Israeli Border police officers <b>what is the new capital of israel</b> with Palestinian protesters in East Jerusalem May 15, 2021. (Reuters)

Israeli Border police officers scuffle with Palestinian protesters in East Jerusalem May 15, 2021. (Reuters)

In Israel, the conflict has been accompanied by violence among the country’s mixed communities of Jews and Arabs. Synagogues have been attacked, Arab-owned shops vandalized and street fights have broken out. Israel’s president has warned of civil war.

Rachel El-Gazar walks inside her house that was damaged following a rocket fire from Gaza towards Israel in the city of Sderot, southern Israel May 15, 2021. (Reuters)

Rachel El-Gazar walks inside her house that was damaged following a rocket fire from Gaza towards Israel in the city of Sderot, southern Israel May 15, 2021. (Reuters)

Hamas said the latest strikes on Tel Aviv were in response to Israel’s overnight strikes on Gaza’s Beach refugee camp, where a woman and four of her children were killed in their house.

Five others died, medics said. Israel said it targeted an apartment used by Hamas.

Read more:

Israel says high voltage power lines supplying Gaza Strip with electricity damaged

US President Biden urges Gaza-Israel calm in first call with President Abbas

Watch: Israeli airstrike flattens building housing AP, other media offices in Gaza

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Источник: https://english.alarabiya.net/News/middle-east/2021/05/16/Israeli-Palestinian-conflict-rages-as-PM-Netanyahu-says-air-strikes-will-continue
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