southeast financial credit union epal

Generous gifts from donors like you provide the financial and moral support needed to continue Southeast's programs and meet our mission. Posted 8:32:50 PM. Position SummaryPen Air Federal Credit Union is searching for a talented executive to join the See this and similar jobs on LinkedIn. and Security Fund programmes in the South and Southeast Asia region. Fund (CSSF) programmes at beginning of each financial year. southeast financial credit union epal

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Hongkong, September 22, 2021 -- UnionPay International ("UPI"), a leading global payment services provider, marked its third year of launching the Hong Kong and Macao version of UnionPay App. The 30 million UnionPay cards that have been issued in Hong Kong and Macao demonstrate the degree to which the cards have become widely accepted and a preferred choice when making payments. The launch of the localized version of UnionPay App in Hong Kong and Macao three years ago has driven the speedy growth of the local mobile payment industry, with approximately one in every four residents use UnionPay mobile payment services, based on population. 

One of the key projects built into the roadmap released earlier this month for the development of the Hengqin and Qianhai Cooperation Zones was to make the integration of people's livelihood a priority in a move to further accelerate economic growth within the GBA. Taking into account the fact that three currencies are in use across the GBA and that each one has its own set of characteristics and abides by its own set of rules, UPI continues to facilitate the implementation of payment networks by providing a variety of banking cards and mobile payment solutions. 

The payment solutions provider further supports the integration of the region's payment services by leveraging the existing cross-border infrastructure to deliver convenient payment solutions to individuals who commute or travel between Hong Kong, Macao and/or mainland China to study, live, look for work or run a business.   

Promoting the build-out of interconnected networks  

As the new semester started, many students in Hong Kong’s and Macao’s institutions of higher learning have chosen to settle their tuition fees with the easy-to-use UnionPay App. In August 2021, several leading universities and colleges in the two regions became connected to UnionPay App, including nearly 100 institutions across the GBA, eliminating the need to exchange currencies or for students coming to the schools from outside the region to have to deal with wire transfers. 

This move is in line with UPI’s strategy of accelerating the build-out of interconnected networks within the GBA to serve the payment needs of local residents. Currently, nearly all merchants in Hong Kong and Macao have been set up to process UnionPay cards and UnionPay mobile QuickPass, with a large number of e-commerce platforms connected to the UnionPay online payment network and 80,000 merchants accepting UnionPay QR code payments. According to Hong Kong-based online media outlet, "With UnionPay products, you can already travel around the GBA smoothly".   

Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link, Shenzhen-Hong Kong cross-border buses and ferries and most other border crossings, as well Hong Kong Long Win Bus, New City Bus, Macao LRT and other local transport accept UnionPay cards or UnionPay App. Residents in Hong Kong and Macao can also use UnionPay mobile QuickPass to top up their rechargeable stored value smartcards such as Yang Cheng Tong, Shenzhen Tong, and Hong Kong Octopus, maximizing convenience when taking the metro or bus.

Offering comprehensive payment product options 

Many new and upgraded UnionPay payment products have been launched in Hong Kong and Macao. Bank of China (Hong Kong) launched a GBA Youth card with meaningful benefits for locals who study or work in mainland China or plan to do so. Huawei Pay in Macao has been optimized to meet the needs of local ICBC UnionPay cardholders for QR code-based and contactless payments, with the number of consumers signing up surging nearly tenfold compared to one year prior. 

The UnionPay brand has become a household name in Hong Kong and Macao largely due to its growing product portfolio, with 36 local financial institutions having issued its cards. Debit cards are the preferred products, representing more than 90% of the selected solutions. Ten local banks have collectively issued over one million GBA-themed cards. In 2018, UPI launched the Hong Kong and Macao version of UnionPay App in the two regions, which has to date been picked up by virtually every card issuer and has driven 19 local e-wallets in this region to support the UnionPay card. Over two million cards have been bound to e-wallets, nearly double the number from a year ago. 

Improving services capabilities during COVID-19

In the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, UnionPay International enhanced its localized version of UnionPay App in Hong Kong and Macao by rolling out a series of services that made it more convenient to pay taxes and other social security obligations, handle local payments, arrange for household cleaning and book taxis, all of which satisfied the growing demand among the local populace for access to contactless payments. With Macao reopening the border to mainland visitors and Hong Kong launching its Come2hk Scheme, the localized version of UnionPay App in the two regions has been accepted as a booking vehicle for nucleic acid testing, as well as an access point to Health Code International Edition, Macao Health Code and mainland China’s Communication Big Data Travel Card among other value-added services during the pandemic, providing convenience to people traveling to and from the GBA. 

Looking at the larger picture, UnionPay International makes full use of its brand integration to work closely with all stakeholders in a move to boost consumption in Hong Kong and Macao. In Hong Kong, UnionPay International responded to the consumption voucher program launched by the local government by providing a variety of payment solutions and applications for local residents in collaboration with HKT Payment Limited’s Tap & Go payment service. In Macao, UnionPay International rolled out a wide array of special offers, which raised the number of UnionPay card transactions during this year’s May 1 holiday to back to where it was prior to the pandemic. 

In the upcoming National Day holiday from October 1, UPI will tie up with more than 100 well-known brands to provide cardholders with a full range of offers and promotions, including a discount of up to 20% at local hotels, duty-free shops and restaurants.

Источник: http://www.unionpayintl.com/en/

About

The Global Findex database is the world’s most comprehensive data set on how adults save, borrow, make payments, and manage risk. Launched with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the database has been published every three years since 2011. The data are collected in partnership with Gallup, Inc., through nationally representative surveys of more than 150,000 adults in over 140 economies. The 2017 edition includes updated indicators on access to and use of formal and informal financial services. And it adds new data on the use of financial technology (fintech), including the use of mobile phones and the internet to conduct financial transactions.

Financial inclusion is on the rise globally. The 2017 Global Findex database shows that 1.2 billion adults have obtained an account since 2011, including 515 million since 2014. Between 2014 and 2017, the share of adults who have an account with a financial institution or through a mobile money service rose globally from 62 percent to 69 percent. In developing economies, the share rose from 54 percent to 63 percent. Yet, women in developing economies remain 9 percentage points less likely than men to have a bank account. This third edition of the database points to advances in digital technology that are key to achieving the World Bank goal of Universal Financial Access by 2020.

Report

Download

 

This overview distills key findings from each of the six chapters of the main report on the 2017 Global Findex database

Account ownership

Globally, 69 percent of adults have an account, up from 62 percent in 2014 and 51 percent in 2011. Account ownership varies among economies and by individual characteristics like gender and income.

The unbanked

About 1.7 billion adults remain unbanked—without an account at a financial institution or through a mobile money provider. In 2014 that number was 2 billion.

Payments

The 2017 Global Findex survey asked people what kinds of payments they make and receive and how they carry out these transactions—whether using an account or in cash.

Use of accounts

Once people have an account, the next step is to ensure that they can transact in safe and convenient ways. This chapter explores how people use technology to access and use their accounts.

Data

Download Data

The Global Findex database provides more than 200 indicators on topics such as account ownership, payments, saving, credit, and financial resilience. Global Findex data is reported for all indicators by country, region, and income group. Available indicators are reported for 2017, 2014, and 2011.

Country-level dataSTATAEXCELDATABANK

Individual-level dataMICRODATA

Источник: https://globalfindex.worldbank.org/

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When Johnson & Johnson (J&J) vaccines first arrived in Nepal in mid-July, the Nepalese government decided to prioritise people with disability for vaccination. This consignment of J&J vaccines was the first batch of single-dose vaccines Nepal had received.

“To facilitate vaccination for people with disability, Nepal allocates J&J vaccines for them so they don’t have to come twice to be fully vaccinated,” explains Dr Vinod Bura, WHO Nepal’s team lead for immunisation.

When Nepal’s vaccination campaign kicked off in late January 2021, the government first prioritised frontline workers and the elderly for vaccination. Later, in mid-July, Nepal received over 1.5 million doses of J&J vaccine from the US, donated through the COVAX Facility, which eased the severe shortage of vaccines.

It was at this point that the Nepalese government decided to prioritise people who are more vulnerable to the pandemic due to underlying societal or biomedical factors for vaccination. This included people with disability, workers in risky positions, migrants, refugees and prisoners.

Recalling the first day of the J&J vaccine launch at an orthopaedic hospital in Kathmandu, where many patients had a disability, Dr Vinod became emotional. “Many of them were alone in the hospital without family support. They were extremely worried about their own health and safety when COVID-19 hit the country.”

While lockdown, isolation, COVID-19 containment measures and the resource crunch have caused anxiety and stress across all populations, this situation is further amplified among people with disability.

Preventive measures such as social distancing and self-isolation could be challenging for these populations, especially for those with high support needs who rely on carers for daily activities. The COVID-19 situation has weakened the already fragile socio-economic status of people with disability.

“Nepal’s COVID-19 vaccine prioritisation plan for people with disability is providing them relief and hope,” says Dr Vinod. “I met this patient in his 50s in the vaccination site who used to be a writer. With his whole body paralysed, he is fully dependent on a carer. He told me he was surprised and very grateful when he learned that the government has prioritised them for vaccination.”

Photo credit: MoHP Nepal

Nepal is one of the few countries that has strictly followed the WHO SAGE prioritisation framework, prioritising COVID-19 vaccines for people with disability. Although the SAGE framework advises countries to prioritise people with disabilities and other disadvantaged populations in order to achieve vaccine equity, according to a Leonard Cheshire report very few countries did so.

Likewise, a recommendation report authored by the International Disability Alliance warned that people with disability will in practice be among the last groups accessing vaccination without specific prioritisation due to societal barriers, including inaccessible information on registration systems and inaccessible health services.

To overcome such barriers, the Nepalese government has been making a special effort to disseminate public information effectively. As well as audio, visual, print, and social media platforms, the government has involved telecommunication companies to help circulate COVID-19 messages to more than 90 percent of telephone subscribers in Nepal. In addition, television announcements were developed in sign language for the deaf, and braille was embossed on COVID-19 prevention flyers for the visually impaired.

Along with NGOs and health workers who work closely with people with disability, trained female community health volunteers, rural health workers, Nepal scouts and religious leaders were engaged and mobilised to reach communities and hidden marginalised populations. “The Nepalese government has demonstrated that well-designed policies have to go hand-in-hand with transparent and effective communication in order to be successful,” Dr Vinod adds.

Photo credit: MoHP Nepal

Yet, Nepal’s road to vaccine equity is not without some hitches. As in other countries, the lack of disability-disaggregated data caused a barrier in assessing the total number of people with disability in the country, as well as where and in what conditions they are living.

Because of this, the Nepalese government organised vaccination campaigns in hospitals and centres for people with disability. Standard messages and guidelines were also disseminated to all health workers at vaccination sites – whenever a person with visible disability or with a disability ID card comes to the site, they are eligible to receive COVID-19 vaccines.

According to Dr Vinod, while it is difficult to precisely measure what percentage of the population with disability are vaccinated due to a lack of good data, around eight to ten thousand people with disability have benefited from the prioritisation plan. To better understand progress, WHO and the Nepalese government are planning to carry out a rapid assessment in the near future.

“Leave no one behind” has been one of the core pledges of the SDG 2030 agenda. In light of the COVID-19 situation, it is vital to consider the plight faced by people with disability. More than ever, this pandemic and the resulting health resource crunch has highlighted the need to not leave anyone behind and reach the furthest behind first, particularly people with disability who are already facing severe barriers and marginalisation. Nepal has lessons for us all.

Источник: https://www.gavi.org/vaccineswork/covid-19-vaccines-nepal-leaves-no-people-disability-behind

Rotating savings and credit association

Form of peer-to-peer banking

A rotating savings and credit association (ROSCA) is a group of individuals who agree to meet for a defined period in order to save and borrow together, a form of combined peer-to-peer banking and peer-to-peer lending.

The first academic description of ROSCAs was by Shirley Ardener in 1964.[1] F. J. A. Bouman described ROSCAs as "the poor man's bank, where money is not idle for long but changes hands rapidly, satisfying both consumption and production needs."[2] They are also known as tandas (Latin America), chama (Swahili-speaking East Africa), Kameti کمیٹی (Pakistan), visi (Gujaratis, India), ekub (Ethiopia), partnerhand (West Indies), cundinas (Mexico), Hagbad (Somalia), stokvel (South Africa), susu (West Africa and the Caribbean), hui (會) (Chinese communities in East and Southeast Asia), hội/hụi (Vietnam), paluwagan (Philippines), Gam'eya جمعية (Egypt), gye (계) (South Korea), tanomoshiko (頼母子講) (Japan), Chit Fund (India), pandeiros (Brazil), cuchubál (Guatemala), juntas,quiniela or panderos (Peru), C.A.R. Țigănesc/Roata (România), arisan (Indonesia), lenshare (เล่นแชร์) (Thai), dhukuti or dhikuti (Nepal), and menage or menodge (Scotland[3])

Structure[edit]

Meetings can be regular or tied to seasonal cash flow cycles in rural communities. These usually coincide with the crop harvest for farmers and pay dates for the employed members where people have sure funds on hand. A slot is equivalent to one periodic money withdrawal. To determine the order of money distribution among members, a drawing of slot is done and agreed prior to the start of periodic fund accumulation. Depending on the intended purpose, a member can swap his slot with another through mutual agreement. Such switching of slots is allowed prior to the fund accumulation or before the periodic money withdrawal. A member who availed more than one slot may have the reserved right to choose the other slot pay date. Nevertheless, the organizer should be informed of the changes prior to the pay process to avoid confusion. Each member contributes the same amount at each meeting, and one member takes the whole sum once. As a result, each member is able to access a larger sum of money during the life of the ROSCA, and use it for whatever purpose she or he wishes. This method of saving is a popular alternative to the risks of saving at home, where family and relatives may demand access to savings.[4]

Every transaction is seen by every member during the meetings. Since no money has to be retained inside the group, no records have to be kept. Though some maintain a crude list of slots. These characteristics make the system a model of transparency and simplicity that is well adapted to communities with low levels of literacy and weak systems for protecting collective property rights.

The system further reduces the risk to members because it is time limited—typically lasting no more than 6 months. Each member receives at least once the amount collected. This reduces the size of the loss, should someone take funds early and not pay back.

In addition to their simplicity of structure, ROSCAs compensate when two key conditions exist, which make them competitive alternative financial products, even in relatively sophisticated economies:[5]

  1. Erosion of buying power of accumulated savings over long savings horizons in inflationary conditions
  2. Failure of the normal financing market to provide credit to credit worthy borrowers, often due to opportunity cost, regulation, or operational expense

Diversity and distribution[edit]

Variously called "committee" in India and Pakistan, Ekub in Ethiopia, Susus in Western Africa and the Caribbean, "Seettuva" in Sri Lanka, tontines in West Africa, tanomoshiko or mujin in pre-1945 Japan, wichin gye in Korea, arisan in Indonesia, likelembas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, xitique in Mozambique and djanggis in Cameroon, ROSCAs are informal or 'pre-co-operative' microfinance groups that have been documented around the developing world. A famous early study by anthropologist Clifford Geertz documented the arisans of Modjokuto in Eastern Java. He described them as "an "intermediate" institution growing up within peasant social structure, to harmonize agrarian economic patterns with commercial ones, to act as a bridge between peasant and trader attitudes toward money and its uses."[6]

The individuals in the ROSCA select each other, which ensures that participation is based on trust and social forces (social capital), and a genuine commitment to participate. In Brazilian consorcios, groups of strangers are assembled into a ROSCA unit by an agent or intermediary, whose role in facilitating the group formation and on-going administration is remunerated. As at 2015, over five million active ROSCA users were reported in Brazil.[7] As the consorcio runs its term, many of the same features of social capital and compliance manifest, as members of the group develop personal contact and trust.

Rotating or accumulating?[edit]

ROSCAs can be compared and contrasted with accumulating savings and credit associations (ASCAs). Documented extensively in South Asia by Rutherford, ASCAs are also time-limited, informal microfinance groups. Unlike ROSCAs however, they appoint one of their members to manage an internal fund. Records are kept and surplus lent out. After a pre-agreed period (often 6–12 months) all the loans are called back and the fund, plus accumulated profit, is distributed to the members.

International development practitioners have been intrigued for years by the potential benefits of attempting to link ROSCAs and ASCAs to formal financial systems. But such linkages tend to defeat the voluntary purpose of these groups and distort member incentives towards securing access to external funds. CARE, an American NGO, has spread standardized ASCAs to reach 2 million people in Africa.[8] These standardized ASCAs are called village savings and loan associations (VSLAs), and they usually comprise 10 to 20 participants who conduct saving and loan activities for a fixed period, usually 12 months. Unlike informal ASCAs, these use a triple-locked box to secure the funds, have standardized election procedures and maintain a careful separation of various duties, such as record-keeping, money-counting, meeting facilitation etc. Interest rates on loans typically vary from 5–10% a month, while cycle-end pay-outs in most groups range from 30 to 60% of invested capital.[9]

As of the end of June 2012 development agencies (including CARE, Oxfam, CRS and PLAN) were carrying out projects reaching 1.8 million members in 23 countries, mostly in Africa. The Savings Group Information Exchange, a project of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, provides researchers with an on-line database where indicators like savings and loans per member, country, return on assets and percentage of female members can be compared.

Another interesting variant on this theme are the terminating deposits that formed part of product line of building societies in the last half of the nineteenth century. These provided many workers with the funds required to finance their own homes.

Online ROSCAs[edit]

Carlos Veléz-Ibáñez, an anthropology professor at Arizona State University, stated that "technology has added a new twist to the savings pools, with 'electronic cundinas[ROSCAs]' being organized on Web sites that can bring together people from across the United States".[10] A few of the existing products include eMoneyPool, created by two brothers living in Phoenix, Arizona; Monk, founded by ex-googler and ex-intel employees in Silicon Valley; Puddle, a google-venture backed startups, Moneyfellows UK & African based online mobile and web platform digitizing the ROSCA model; ROSCA Finance, a patent pending startup creating a global, autonomous money sharing platform founded by former Santander bankers; Esusu, founded by ex-Goldman Sachs, PwC and LinkedIn employees in New York and Partnerhand,[11] a patent pending[12] UK based organisation facilitating online 'Pardner's'[13] between verified individuals, founded in 2010.

StepLadder, founded in 2016[14] by finance professionals with distinguished academic work on Consorcios in Brazil[15] is joining the UK market for ROSCA-based collaborative finance by serving prospective first-time UK home buyers.[16] In October 2017 Finlok platform launched a digital ROSCA product in India leveraging NPCI's Unified Payment Interface.

Another company which has taken ROSCA online is AZ Fundchain, they are the first team to make ROSCA available on the Ethereum blockchain through a simple mobile app. They were founded in 2018 and launched their app to the public in mid 2019.

Aturi Africa has automated and digitized Chama financial services with a goal of offering these services to millions of people in Africa and around the world.The FinTechStartUp is founded by ex-Safaricom employee from Kenya and it launched in late 2020.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Ardener, Shirley (1964). "The Comparative Study of Rotating Credit Associations". The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 94 (2): 201–229. doi:10.2307/2844382. JSTOR 2844382.
  2. ^F. J. A. Bouman, Indigenous savings & credit societies in the developing world in Von Pischke, Adams & Donald (eds.) Rural Financial Markets in the Developing World, World Bank, Washington, 1983
  3. ^Speitel, Pauline Cairns. "Scots Word of the Week: Menage, menodge". The Herald. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  4. ^Stuart Rutherford. The Poor & Their Money Oxford University Press, Delhi, 2000
  5. ^"Consorcios and Brazils Consumer Credit Innovation"(PDF).
  6. ^Geertz, Clifford (1956). The Rotating Credit Association: a middle rung in development. Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for International Studies.
  7. ^"Relatorio de Inclusao Financiera No.3, 2015"(PDF). Banco Central do Brasil.
  8. ^Grant, William J.; Allen, Hugh (Fall 2002). "CARE's Mata Matsu Dubara (Women on the Move) Program in Niger". Journal of Microfinance. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young School of Business.
  9. ^Allen, Hugh; Staehle, Mark (2007). Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLAs) Programme Guide, Field Operations Manual. Solingen: VSL Associates.
  10. ^"Traditional Mexican Savings System's Popularity Grows".
  11. ^"partnerhand.com".
  12. ^"System, Method and computer program for operating web-based collective e-money lending/borrowing circles between members and non-members of social networking websites".
  13. ^"Pardner in Financial Progress".
  14. ^"Companies House".
  15. ^"Consorcios and Brazils Consumer Credit Innovation"(PDF).
  16. ^"joinstepladder.com".

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ardener, Shirley and Sandra Burman. "Money-Go-Rounds: The Importance of Rotating Savings and Credit Associations for Women". Oxford: Berg, 1995.
  • Arnaldo, Mauri, "Economia sommersa, finanza informale e microcredito nei paesi emergenti", A: Mauri & C. Conti (eds.), Finanza informale, finanza etica e finanza internazionale nelle piccole e medie imprese, Milano 2000.
  • Besley, Timothy, Stephen Coate, and Glenn Loury. "The economics of rotating savings and credit associations." The American Economic Review (1993): 792–810.
  • Geertz, Clifford. The Rotating Credit Association: a middle rung in development. Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for International Studies, 1956.
  • Grant, William J. & Hugh Allen. CARE's Mata Matsu Dubara (Women on the Move) Program in Niger. Journal of Microfinance, Brigham Young School of Business, Provo, Utah, Fall, 2002.
  • Rutherford, Stuart, The Poor and Their Money Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • van den Brink, Rogier and Jean-Paul Chavas, "The Microeconomics of an Indigenous African Institution: The Rotating Savings and Credit Association." Economic Development and Cultural Change, Volume 45, No. 4, July 1997.
  • Von Pischke, J. D., Dale W. Adams & Gordon Donald. Rural Financial Markets in Developing Countries. EDI Series in Economic Development, World Bank, Washington, 1983.
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotating_savings_and_credit_association

GTFP Issuing Banks

For a complete list of GTFP issuing banks at a glance, please see our downloadable PDF file.

 

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ALBANIA 

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AZERBAIJAN

 BANGLADESH

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BHUTAN

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BOSNIA

BRAZIL

BULGARIA

BURKINA FASO

 CAMBODIA

CAMEROON

CAPE VERDE

CHILE

CHINA

COLOMBIA

COSTA RICA

COTE D'IVOIRE

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

ECUADOR

EGYPT

EL SALVADOR

GEORGIA

GHANA

 GUATEMALA

HAITI

HONDURAS

INDIA 

IRAQ

JORDAN

KENYA

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LIBERIA

MACEDONIA

MADAGASCAR

MALAWI

MALDIVES

MALTA

MOLDOVA

MONGOLIA

MOZAMBIQUE

NEPAL

 

NICARAGUA

NIGERIA

OMAN

PAKISTAN

PANAMA

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

PARAGUAY

PERU

ROMANIA

SERBIA

SIERRA LEONE

SOUTH AFRICA

SRI LANKA

TAJIKISTAN

TANZANIA

THAILAND

TURKEY

UGANDA

UKRAINE

UZBEKISTAN

VIETNAM

WEST BANK AND GAZA

Источник: https://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/industry_ext_content/ifc_external_corporate_site/financial+institutions/priorities/global+trade/gtfp-banks

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Africa—Building Regional Resilience through Strengthened Meteorological, Hydrological, and Climate Services in the Indian Ocean Commission Member Countries

DAI provided technical expertise to design the Building Regional Resilience through Strengthened Meteorological, Hydrological, and Climate Services in the Indian Ocean Commission Member Countries project for consideration to the Green Climate Fund as part of the Adapt’Action framework contract.

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Africa—Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP)

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Africa—Tackling Deadly Diseases in Africa (TDDA) programme

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The U.S. Africa Command’s Operation Enduring Freedom—Trans-Sahara and DAI conducted this innovative civil-military operations/relations education program to support the interagency Trans-Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership.

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The Albanian Agriculture Competitiveness (AAC) program worked with producers, suppliers, and processors along promising value chains to increase productivity, improve quality, and access better markets in Albania.

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Albania—Integrated Policy Management Groups (IPMGs) for Policy Dialogue and Coordination

DAI is providing technical assistance to the Integrated Policy Management Groups (IPMGs) for policy dialogue and coordination in Albania to improve institutional mechanisms, capacities, and procedures for strategic and integrated planning at central and sector levels.

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Angola—Fiscal Reform Project (AFRP)

The Fiscal Reform Project in Angola was based on DAI’s earlier work under the Fiscal Reform in Support of Trade Liberalization project, which designed and launched the Fiscal Programming Unit in the Angola Ministry of Finance.

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Angola—Regional Trade Project (ProAgro)

The Regional Trade Project (ProAgro) was designed to test ways to use regional trade as a stimulus to rebuilding the agricultural sector in Angola.

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Armenia—Agribusiness Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Market Development Program (ASME)

The U.S. Agency for International Development-funded Agribusiness Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Market Development Program sought to increase market opportunities for small and medium-sized businesses.

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Armenia—Multi Bank Framework

DAI was contracted by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development to support Armenian partner banks in establishing adequate lending practices and supporting them in loan appraisal and credit approval processes.

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Armenia—Technical Assistance for MSE Agri-Lending Products for Araratbank

DAI designed sustainable lending schemes for small agribusinesses in Armenia.

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Asia—Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate (GCoM) and Energy

Our team supports the Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy in East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.

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Azerbaijan—Parliamentary Program in Azerbaijan (PPA)

The Parliamentary Program in Azerbaijan project assisted the Parliament, called the Milli Majlis, in improving its government oversight and representation functions, with an emphasis on internal institutional reform and training of new constituency-based staff.

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Bangladesh—Agricultural Value Chains (AVC) Program

Funded under the Feed the Future initiative, this project improved food security by strengthening agricultural value chains and ultimately benefitted 307, 419 households.

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Bangladesh—Fleming Fund

DAI’s Fleming Fund programme in Bangladesh is a collaboration with the Bangladesh government to strengthen systems using a “One Health” approach—a multisectoral approach to complex health problems that reaches across human health, animal health, and environment sectors.

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Bangladesh—Promoting Governance, Accountability, Transparency, and Integrity (PROGATI)

In Bangladesh, we worked with government and citizens, with media and watchdog organizations, and with public officials and elected representatives to foster partnerships and new incentives for anticorruption reform.

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Bangladesh—Strengthening Public Financial Management for Social Protection (SPFMSP)

DAI managed the final year of the Strengthening Public Financial Management for Social Protection project implementation and provided information technology, adaptive social protection, policy, and project management expertise to support this Bangladesh program.

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Belarus—Bank for Reconversion and Development–Institution Building Plan

DAI led a consortium that provided technical assistance in parallel to an equity investment by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development for the Reconversion and Development Bank of Belarus of $3.36 million in 2008, followed by a further increase in 2010.

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Belarus—Support to Effective Air Emissions, Radiation Monitoring, and Improved Environmental Management

This project supports investments in natural capital and cleaner technologies to encourage low-carbon development and reduce adverse impacts on public health in Belarus.

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Belize—IDB EcoMicro Project

Funded by the Inter-American Development Bank, DAI’s Sustainable Business Group is working with the Belize Credit Union League to help Belizean small and medium enterprises grow through innovative green finance products.

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Benin—Assistance Technique au Programme d’Appui à la Mise en Oeuvre du Programme d’Appui au Développement Durable du Secteur Agricole (PADDSA)

The project provides technical assistance to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Fisheries for the implementation of the Programme d’Appui au Développement Durable du Secteur Agricole, a €70 million initiative to reform Benin’s agricultural sector.

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Bhutan—Decentralisation and Renewable Natural Resource Management

This project supports the implementation of the European Union (EU)-bilateral development cooperation strategy in Bhutan, with particular focus on the two ongoing EU budget support programs: 1) Rural Development and Climate Change, and 2) Local Governance and Fiscal Decentralization.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina—Education for Employment

The Education for Employment project supports the Government of BiH to increase the responsiveness of its education sector to labor market needs and works to increase institutional capacities and coordination within the education sector at all levels.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina—Further Support to Public Finance Management

The Further Support to Public Finance Management project enables authorities in BiH to improve public finance management by increasing expenditure effectiveness and the budget planning process.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina—Governance Accountability Project (GAP)

Since the Dayton Peace Accords of 1995, Bosnia and Herzegovina has been consolidating its emerging multiethnic and representative government. To improve the chances for political success and sustainability, GAP built the capacity of 41 “partner municipalities” to serve their citizens within a policy and fiscal framework of good governance.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina—Support to Public Administration Reform Process

Bosnia and Herzegovina has been implementing public administration reform since 2006. This project supported the Public Administration Reform Coordinator’s Office at all government levels to efficiently coordinate the process of reform.

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Botswana—Technical Assistance to Support the Implementation of the Education Sector Plan

DAI supported the Government of Botswana, and especially the Ministry of Education and Skills Development, to implement the Education and Training Strategic Sector Plan and to undertake key system reforms, including improvements in public finance management.

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Botswana—Technical Assistance to the SADC Secretariat: Institutional Capacity Development Programme

DAI built the institutional capacity of the SADC Secretariat, helping the regional governing body to modernize and enhance its internal administrative and management processes.

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Brazil—Micro and Small Enterprise Trade-Led Growth Program (MSE)

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Brazil Micro and Small Enterprise Trade-Led Growth Program was a pilot project, aimed at enhancing job and income creation through trade-led growth of micro and small enterprises.

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British Virgin Islands—Support to Recovery

DAI supported labour policy reforms and providing vocational training to help the local workforce participate in reconstruction efforts following the hurricanes of 2017.

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Bulgaria—Allianz Bank Bulgaria AD

DAI was contracted by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, under its Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) Finance Facility Special Fund, to support Allianz Find student loan account number for irs ability to downscale its lending activities to the SME sector in Bulgaria.

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Bulgaria—Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line Support – Rational Energy Utilisation and Financing Plans

In partnership with Encon Services, DAI implemented a European Bank for Reconstruction and Development-funded project intended to develop Rational Energy Utilization Plans with small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Bulgaria.

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Bulgaria—Eurobank EFG

Eurobank EFG Bulgaria AD (EFGB) is the fifth-largest bank in Bulgaria, operating 272 network locations and employing 2,649 staff. In 2008, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development selected EFGB to receive a credit line of €25 million under its lending window facility for on-lending to Bulgarian small and medium enterprises (SME).

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Bulgaria—Société Générale Expressbank

DAI assisted Société Générale Expressbank, one of Bulgaria’s leading banks in the consumer finance market, in expanding its small and medium enterprise southeast financial credit union epal portfolio.

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Burma—Responsible Investment and Trade Activity (RITA)

The Burma Responsible Investment and Trade Activity increases responsible trade and private sector investment by improving corporate governance, business transparency, and competitiveness in Myanmar.

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Burundi—Agribusiness Program (BAP)

DAI supported Burundi’s efforts to respond to changes in the world agricultural market that occurred in the 1990s, when Burundi was mired in crisis, and to revitalize the country’s agricultural sector.

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Burundi—Assistance Technique et Appui à la Communication et Visibilité du Programme d'Appui à la Société Civile au Burundi (ASCB)

The Assistance Technique et Appui à la Communication et Visibilité du Programme d’Appui à la Société Civile au Burundi (ASCB) project supports civil society in Burundi.

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Burundi—Post-Conflict Transition Assistance Program (PCTAP)

Established to assist Burundi’s post-transition national government and civil society organizations, PCTAP increased the government’s ability to develop policies and deliver essential services in a transparent, inclusive, and conflict-sensitive manner.

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Cabo Verde—Land

The Cabo Verde Land project provided direct support for public outreach, adjudication, parcel mapping, data capture, processing of information and records for the purpose of land registration.

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Cambodia—Development Innovations

The Development Innovations project connected Cambodia’s civil society and technology communities to design and use information and communication technology solutions to address development challenges.

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Cambodia—Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Strengthening 2 Project (MSME 1 and 2)

The Cambodia MSME 1 and 2 Project built upon the success of DAI-led employing a market-driven, grassroots strategy aimed at alleviating poverty and fostering economic growth in 17 rural provinces.

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Cambodia—Public Financial Management Reform Programme

The Royal Government of Cambodia successfully designed and implemented a comprehensive four-stage public financial reform plan supported by 10 development partners, including the European Union, the U.K. Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO), and AusAID.

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Canada—Energy Education Assessment

On behalf of a Canadian association, DAI’s Sustainable Business Group (SBG) analyzed the technical and vocational education and training institutions and tertiary educational southeast financial credit union epal providers in the energy sector across Nova Scotia to establish a series of recommendations to promote these activities regionally and internationally.

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Canada—Industrial Baseline Study

The Newfoundland and Labrador Oil and Gas Industries Association commissioned DAI’s Sustainable Business Group (SBG) to conduct a local content forecasting study in Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Canada—Marine Renewables Supply Chain Assessment

Marine Renewables Canada commissioned a study to further assess how to expand its small and medium enterprise members’ access to domestic and international markets.

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Canada—Offshore Growth Strategy

DAI’s Sustainable Business Group (SBG) undertook extensive analysis of legal, regulatory, policy, and contractual documents to identify new opportunities to improve the policy framework for local benefits to drive greater local economic growth vis-à-vis employment and small firm participation in the energy supply chain.

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Canada—Supply Chain Assessment

Nova Scotia Department of Energy and Mines and the Offshore Energy Research Association contracted DAI’s Sustainable Business Group (SBG) to carry out a pilot offshore energy and technology sector supply chain assessment.

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Central America and the Dominican Republic—CULTIVAR

Supported by the U.S. Department of Labor, CULTIVAR raised labor standard compliance and increased the competitiveness of targeted agricultural sectors in the Dominican Republic, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

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Central America—Continuous Improvement in the Central American Workplace (CIMCAW)

Funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and multinational apparel companies, DAI worked with international and local nongovernmental organizations recognized for their workplace training approaches, and with unions and local governments to achieve sustainable change in workplace conditions.

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Central America—Regional Climate Change Program (RCCP) (Programa Regional de Cambio Climatico—PRCC)

This regional initiative identified solutions and action plans to permit the countries and territories of Central America and the Dominican Republic to respond to the effects of climate change.

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Central Asia—Competitiveness, Trade, and Jobs Activity (CTJ); Trade Central Asia (TCA)

DAI is working in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to improve regional trade—which will grow exports and employment.

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Colombia—Design and Implementation of Microsavings Products for Financial Intermediaries (MICROAHORRO)

DAI worked to expand the frontier of quality banking services to benefit geographically isolated poor people and micro-entrepreneurs in Colombia.

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Colombia—Partners for Transparency (PfT)

The Partners for Transparency program supports locally driven solutions that increase transparency and accountability and reduce corruption in Colombia.

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Colombia—Responsive Governance (RG) Activity

With Colombian partner organizations Transparencia por Colombia, Pastoral Social, and Corpovisionarios, the Responsive Governance Activity builds on the decentralization efforts supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Government of Colombia to emphasize visible and sustainable improvements in service delivery and implementation of the Peace Accords.

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Croatia—Agribusiness Competitiveness Enhancement Project (ACE)

By developing effective support systems for producers and strengthening the linkages between producers and agricultural markets, the Agribusiness Competitiveness Enhancement Project enabled agribusiness enterprises to determine and meet market demand by producing more profitable goods in Croatia.

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Croatia—Enhancing Small and Medium Enterprise Performance (ESP)

In 2003, with an unemployment rate as high as 20 percent, job growth was a primary imperative for Croatia. The ESP project worked to create lasting private sector jobs in economic sectors where Croatia is internationally competitive—leading to higher levels of investment and sustainable economic growth.

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Croatia—Raiffeisen Croatia

The overall objective of the European Union/European Bank for Reconstruction and Development SME Finance Facility for EU Accession countries was to deepen the credit markets for small and medium enterprises by building the confidence and capacity of participating banks in SME lending, and by providing credit to SMEs through participating banks.

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Croatia—Raising Incomes in Economically Distressed Areas (RIEDA)

RIEDA was a demand-driven agricultural project that extended the reach of the Croatia Agribusiness Competitiveness Enhancement project to bring small and part-time farmers in the Area of Special State Concern into the mainstream.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo—Building Recovery and Reform through Democratic Governance in the DRC (BRDG-DRC)

Working at national and provincial levels, the Building Recovery and Reform through Democratic Governance in the DRC (BRDG-DRC) project provided long- and short-term consulting and technical assistance, training services, applied research, workshops, conference organization and hosting, logistical support, and commodities to advance the DRC’s political transition.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo—Capacity Building at Rawbank

Complementing other International Finance Corporation interventions to improve the enabling environment for private sector growth and investment, the capacity building delivered to Rawbank in the Democratic Republic of the Congo fell under the Africa MSME Finance Program, which seeks to significantly increase support to African micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSME).

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Democratic Republic of the Congo—Essor: For an Environment Conducive to Investment

Essor acted at meso (business associations) and macro (government) levels to improve the incomes of the poor through the development of micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs), including women- and youth-owned and ones in rural areas, through reforms to the country’s investment climate and policies.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo—Food Production, Processing, and Marketing (FPPM) Project

The Food Production, Processing, and Marketing (FPPM) Project in the Democratic Republic of the Congo rehabilitated smallholder access to inputs, services, and markets so that even smallholder farms were able to become income-generating businesses.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo—Integrated Governance Activity (IGA)

The Integrated Governance Activity is helping local governments to improve public services and establish trust with their citizens, as well as training civil society groups to better advocate their needs to elected officials.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo—Programme De Bonne Gouvernance (PBG)

The Programme de Bonne Gouvernance (PBG), or Good Governance Program, improved the management capacity and accountability of select legislatures and local governments by working closely with civil society and community-based organizations, parliamentary institutions at the central and provincial levels, and public institutions with a stake and role in decentralization.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo—Security Sector Accountability and Police Reform Programme (SSAPR)

The Security Sector Accountability and Police Reform Programme worked to improve the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s capacity to provide security, safety, and justice for all.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo—Strengthening Livelihoods and Resilience (SLR) Activity

The DRC Strengthening Livelihoods and Resilience Activity assists the Government to improve the resilience capacities in vulnerable households and communities and supports the Congolese people, households, and communities in their efforts to sustainably escape poverty and chronic vulnerability.

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Dominican Republic—Climate Change Adaptation

DAI is developing a feasibility study and final designs for a climate change adaptation programme for the Yaque del Sur River Basin in the Dominican Republic.

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Dominican Republic—Climate Change Vulnerability Analysis of Coastal Zones

DAI and local partner Fundacion Plenitud are developing a state-of-the art assessment of the vulnerability and potential impacts of climate change on the coastal systems of the Dominican Republic.

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Dominican Republic—Proyecto de Justicia de USAID

Through Proyecto de Justicia de USAID, DAI helped the Dominican Republic’s justice institutions implement the new code by providing assistance in policy making, administration, and operations management.

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East Africa—Roads to a Healthy Future Program (ROADS II)

The project increased access to multisectoral HIV/AIDS, health, and related services for mobile populations and vulnerable communities along major transport corridors.

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East Africa—Trade and Investment Hub

The Southeast financial credit union epal Africa Trade and Investment Hub was the U.S. Government’s flagship project under the presidential Trade Africa initiative, which works to increase U.S.-Africa trade and investment, regional integration, and competitiveness.

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East and Southern Africa—FoodTrade ESA

From 2013 to 2018, FoodTrade worked at improving the functioning of national and regional staple food market systems for beans, maize, rice, and soybeans—crops that are critical for low-income consumers and smallholder farmers—across nine countries in East Africa.

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Eastern Europe and Central Asia—BIZPRO

BIZPRO supported businesses in the contiguous countries of Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova. In Belarus, we organized professional accounting programs and engaged a local think tank to provide economic analysis.

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Ecuador—Strengthening Access to Microfinance and Economic Liberalization (SALTO)

The SALTO project was the central implementing mechanism for the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Ecuador’s Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy.

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Egypt—Business Egypt

Business Egypt is building a robust ecosystem of market-led institutions—incubators, accelerators, business service providers, financial institutions, youth and women’s networks, business associations, public-private forums, one-stop shops—working in harmony to create long-term jobs and a more-resilient private sector.

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Egypt—Economic Governance Activity (EGA)

The Egypt Economic Governance Activity (EGA) works with the Government of Egypt to support the country’s investment climate by strengthening inclusive governance and supporting the Government’s structural reform program.

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Egypt—Macro-Economic Stabilization and Reform (MESR)

The Macro-Economic Stabilization and Reform (MESR) project is addressing Egypt’s macroeconomic challenges and assisting with implementing reforms expected by the International Monetary Fund.

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Egypt—National Bank of Egypt: MSME Lending Capacity Building

With a nationwide network of more than 300 banking units and dedicated small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) department with nearly 1,000 employees, the bank is a national leader in SME finance. DAI assisted the bank to increase its microfinance and broader SME portfolio.

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Egypt—Technical Assistance Improving Access to Finance by Facilitating Business Expansion of Promising and Growing Small and Medium Enterprises

DAI works to increase the access to capital and financial resources for currently underserved groups of small firms by working with the Bank of Alexandria in enhancing understanding of the issues specific to small firm lending, introducing the best lending and advisory practices, helping to design and roll out a programme that includes nonfinancial services aiming to improve financial literacy among final beneficiaries.

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Egypt—Technical Assistance for Policy Reform II (TAPR II)

TAPR II’s objective was to provide a comprehensive and integrated source of technical assistance to Egyptian reformers to help them define and implement their vision for economic policy and institutional reforms.

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Egypt—Technical and Financial Sustainability of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Sectors

DAI is creating the Cairo Energy Efficiency Centre to promote the use of renewable energy and spread awareness of energy saving. The team also supports ongoing reform in the energy sector by assisting Egypt to achieve sustainable energy and security of energy supplies.

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El Salvador—Domestic Resource Mobilization Program

By working with national and local governments to improve their systems for collecting and spending revenue, the El Salvador Domestic Resource Mobilization Program increases public funding to support social programs, generate employment, and reduce inequality.

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El Salvador—Fiscal Policy and Expenditure Management Program (FPEMP)

The FPEMP project helped the Government of El Salvador increase tax revenue, without raising rates, and achieve greater transparency and accountability, and more efficiently use public resources.

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El Salvador—Improved Management and Conservation of Critical Watersheds (IMCCW)

To improve the economic situation in rural areas, the Government of El Salvador’s development strategy focused on enlisting local support for improved natural resources and generating better economic opportunities through higher-value agriculture and sustainable tourism, linked to improved management of El Salvador’s water, land, and biological resources.

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El Salvador—Puentes para el Empleo (Bridges to Employment Project)

Through Puentes para el Empleo, DAI supported the U.S. Agency for International Development in El Salvador to link young people—including women and vulnerable populations—to basic social resources of work, knowledge, security, and social capital to foster inclusion through employment opportunities.

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Equatorial Guinea—Technical Support Program to the Government of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (EGTSP)

Through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)’s Technical Support Program, DAI assisted the Government of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea to achieve its goals by improving efficiency, transparency, and accountability in social planning and investments.

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Ethiopia—BRIDGES

DAI provides capacity-building services, such as support in financial management, to ensure that First Consult is operating with compliant, effective processes conducive to good management on the BRIDGES programme in Ethiopia.

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Ethiopia—Enterprise Partners/Private Enterprise Programme Ethiopia (PEPE)

Enterprise Partners was the major component of the Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO)’s Private Enterprise Programme Ethiopia (PEPE). It was launched to facilitate market systems development to create jobs and raise incomes of Ethiopians, especially women, living in poverty.

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Ethiopia—GCCA+/Climate Smart Mainstreaming into the Productive Safety Net Program (Climate-Smart PSNP)

The Climate-Smart PSNP project is enhancing the design and planning capacities of Ethiopia’s Public Works Coordination Unit and Food Security Coordination Directorate.

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Ethiopia—Land Investment for Transformation (LIFT)

The Land Investment for Transformation programme raised incomes for the rural poor and vulnerable populations in Ethiopia and enhanced economic growth through second-level land certification and improved rural land administration.

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Ethiopia—Responsible and Innovative Land Administration Project II (REILA II)

DAI is supporting NIRAS to promote sustainable land management policies and practices that will improve the economic well-being of rural Ethiopians and combat land degradation resulting from climate change.

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Ethiopia—Strengthening Host and Refugee Populations (SHARPE)

The Strengthening Host and Refugees Populations in Ethiopia program works to strengthen the economies of target populations in three regions in Ethiopia; Dollo Ado, Gambella, and Jijiga.

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Ethiopia—Tax, Audit, and Transparency Programme (TAUT)

The Tax, Audit, and Transparency Programme supported the Government of Ethiopia in progressively expanding the tax base and ensuring more effective tax administration.

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Ethiopia—Technical Assistance Programme to Support Lending Operations to the Women’s Entrepreneurship Development Project (WEDP)

The Technical Assistance Programme to Support Lending Operations to the Women’s Entrepreneurship Development Project (WEDP) works to reduce unemployment in Ethiopia by offering women improved access to a diverse and responsible range of financial products aimed at encouraging income generation and business growth.

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Ethiopia—Technical Assistance to Support EU-Coffee Action for Ethiopia (EU-CAFE)

EU-CAFE works to sustainably improve Ethiopian farmers’ access to inputs including coffee seed and seedlings, appropriate coffee production techniques, and extension and advisory services.

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Ethiopia—Urban Gardens Program for HIV-Affected Women and Children (UGP)

As part of an effort to provide healthier, more empowered lifestyles for people with HIV/AIDS and their families, we were tasked with increasing access to fresh, nutritious food, while giving vulnerable Ethiopians an increasing number of ways to earn a living.

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European Neighbourhood Policy East Countries—Clima East: Support to Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

The Clima East programme helped integrate the countries’ climate change strategies, greenhouse gases mitigation plans, and adaptation approaches. The programme was part of a larger Clima East package, supporting the development of ecosystems-based approaches to climate change.

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Feed the Future Southern Africa Seed Trade Project (Seed Trade Project)

This project provides technical assistance to help harmonize seed regulations in the Southern African Development Community (SADC), which will allow seed trade across the region, thereby integrating smaller and isolated national markets into one larger SADC market for seeds.

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Georgia—JSC BasisBank Institution-Building Programme

DAI supported BasisBank in the implementation of a comprehensive institution-building programme. The objective of the programme was to strengthen the bank to allow it to compete effectively in Georgia and the region and thereby contribute to increased competition and a more balanced distribution of financial power.

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Georgia—Support the Fight Against Organized Crime

We support the Georgia Ministry of Internal Affairs, and its relevant departments, law enforcement, and State Security Services in the fight against organized crime.

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Georgia—Support to the Independence, Accountability, and Efficiency of the Judiciary

The project Support to the Independence, Accountability, and Efficiency of the Judiciary assisted with ensuring the impartiality and professionalism of the judiciary towards being free from political or any other undue interference in Georgia.

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Georgia—USAID Economic Security Program

The USAID Economic Security Program assists Georgian firms to take advantage of the country’s market access and location to exploit regional economic opportunities and compete with international competitors for Georgia’s domestic market.

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Ghana—Kosmos Innovation Center (KIC)

DAI helped Kosmos Energy to design, launch, and implement the Kosmos Innovation Southeast financial credit union epal (KIC) program as part of the oil and gas company’s corporate social investment strategy in Ghana.

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Ghana—Market Development (MADE) in Northern Ghana

This project was part of DAI’s framework contract with the Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) and was implemented by Nathan Associates UK. DAI consulted the project on aspects of climate resilience.

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Ghana—Political Economy Analysis

In service to its evaluation of migrating a logistics base to a port in Ghana, an international oil and gas company contracted DAI’s Sustainable Business Group (SBG) to conduct a political economy analysis to identify the risks and opportunities associated with the venture.

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Ghana—Western Region Coastal Foundation (WRCF)

The Western Region Coastal Foundation promotes inclusive economic growth for communities affected by Ghana’s burgeoning oil and gas industry by helping to build up local supply chains, in addition to providing a multi-stakeholder dialogue platform for government agencies, oil companies, and coastal communities to better share challenges and solutions.

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Guatemala—Fiscal and Procurement Reform Project (FPRP)

FPRP supported Guatemala to increase domestic resource mobilization, enhance transparency and accountability, and support public procurement reform.

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Guatemala—Nexos Locales

Nexos Locales works with municipalities in Guatemala’s Western Highlands to foster more responsive, inclusive, and effective socio-economic development while reducing local vulnerabilities such as food insecurity and natural disasters. To achieve this goal, the project works at the intersection—or nexos—of good governance.

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Guinea—Assessing Sector Capacity for Foreign Direct Investment Linkages

Using DAI’s Local Content Optimization Model, the SBG team assessed 10 commercial sectors in Guinea, including construction services, equipment manufacturing, logistics, machine maintenance and repair, and food catering.

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Guinea—Workforce Assessment

DAI’s Sustainable Business Group provided high-level analysis of the labor force in Guinea, with some observations of regional actors including Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, and Sierra Leone.

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Guyana—Centre for Local Business Development

The Sustainable Business Group designed a Centre for Local Business Development in Guyana to provide business training, mentorship, embedded technical advisors, industry information, and analysis to help link local suppliers with oil and gas supply chain opportunities.

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Guyana—Corporate Social Investment Strategy

DAI’s Sustainable Business Group (SBG) was contracted by an international energy company to design its internal strategy for corporate social investment (CSI) in Guyana.

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Guyana—EcoMicro Guyana

DAI’s Sustainable Business Group is working with the Guyana Institute for Private Enterprise Development to help Guyanese small and medium enterprises grow through innovative green finance products.

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Guyana—Trade Mission

The DAI Sustainable Business Group (SBG) was commissioned to support the Newfoundland and Labrador Oil and Gas Industry Association (Noia)’s trade mission to Guyana for two consecutive years.

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Haiti—Appui a la Valorisation du potentiel Agricole du Nord, pour la Securite Economique et Environnementale (AVANSE)

Feed the Future AVANSE worked with farmers and vendors to address key constraints within production and value chains, from improved watershed stability and irrigation infrastructure, to increased access to financial products and produce buyers.

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Haiti—Economic Development for a Sustainable Environment (DEED)

Environmental degradation in Haiti is the worst in the Western Hemisphere—a cause and result of the country’s economic decline. DEED focused on promoting environmentally sustainable development in two of the country’s watersheds through commercial agriculture, alternative livelihood development, and natural resource management.

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Haiti—Feed the Future Resilience and Agriculture Sector Advancement (HRASA) Activity

The Haiti Resilience and Agriculture Sector Advancement Activity improves the efficiency and effectiveness of existing market system actors; stimulates and expands private sector engagement and investment in agricultural market systems; and strengthens the capacity of subsistence farming households to participate in opportunities.

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Haiti—Finance Inclusive

The Haiti Finance Inclusive project supported the development of the enabling environment to increase the usage of basic financial services by undeserved and unserved households and micro, small, and medium enterprises in rural and agricultural areas in Haiti.

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Haiti—Hillside Agricultural Program (HAP)

A shortage of land drives many farmers to till on Haiti’s hillsides. But to be sustainable, hillside farming requires suitable crops and special techniques. DAI staff worked with hillside farmers to build this understanding.

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Haiti—Hurricane Jeanne Reconstruction Program (HJRP)

The floods that ravaged Haiti in the aftermath of Hurricane Jeanne in September 2004 had their origins in the upper watersheds of major river systems that empty at Gonaives and Port de Paix.

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Haiti—Parliamentary Strengthening Program (PSP)

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Parliamentary Strengthening Program (PSP) program helped to develop Haiti’s parliamentary institutional capacity, promoted transparency in legislative processes, and facilitated representation through technical assistance, training, staffing, and materials.

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Haiti—Recovery Initiative (HRI)

The January 2010 earthquake shattered Haiti’s teeming capital of Port-au-Prince, killing and maiming hundreds of thousands of people, rendering homeless hundreds of thousands more, and leaving the city in ruins with miles of buildings and homes collapsed and infrastructure broken.

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Haiti—Strategic Health Information System Program (HIS)

The Haiti Strategic Health Information System Program team is consolidating and integrating Haiti’s disconnected health information assets to create a comprehensive national system.

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Haiti—Support to Haiti’s Microfinance, Small and Medium Enterprises Sector (Haiti MSME)

Haiti MSME was launched by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to improve livelihoods and create employment through broader access to financial services.

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Haiti—USAID Water and Sanitation project

The USAID Water and Sanitation project works with private-sector partners and national and local government institutions in Haiti to help 250,000 people gain access to basic water services and 75,000 Haitians gain access to basic sanitation services.

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Honduras—Asegurando la Educación (Securing Education)

Asegurando la Educación works to improve schools’ ability to prevent violence, strengthening local networks that increase school safety, and building the capacity of the Ministry of Education and social service agencies to respond to school-based violence.

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Honduras—Banco Ficohsa Phase I

Working with Banco Ficohsa in Honduras, DAI studied the segmentation of the enterprise and residential mortgage markets, and assessed Banco Ficohsa’s capacity to better serve these segments.

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Honduras—Justice, Human Rights, and Security Strengthening Activity (Unidos por la Justicia)

The Justice, Human Rights, and Security Strengthening Activity (Unidos por la Justicia) works with local partners to improve citizen engagement with the security and justice sectors; enhance the efficiency of the judicial system; and increase the effectiveness of community police.

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Honduras—Local Governance Activity (HLG)

HLG works in 80 municipalities in six departments in western Honduras to address entrenched socioeconomic challenges related to food insecurity, climate vulnerability, gender disparity, and local governance to sustainably improve the lives of the Honduran people.

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Honduras—ProParque; Gobernanza en Ecosistemas, Medios de Vida, y Agua (GEMA)

GEMA worked in western Honduras to further improve natural conservation policies; developed opportunities for inclusive, environmentally sustainable economic growth; and promoted a more climate-informed and resilient civil society in Honduras.

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Honduras—Technical Assistance to Food Security, Nutrition, and Climate Resilience in the Dry Corridor (EUROSAN)

The work of EUROSAN is focused on the dry corridor in Honduras, home to some of the country’s most marginalised citizens. DAI provided technical assistance under this five-year food security and nutrition project, which was led by Belgium-based Agriconsulting and supported by DAI and Nicaragua-based Simbiosis.

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Honduras—Youth Employment southeast financial credit union epal Migration Prevention (YEMP) Activity

The Youth Employment for Migration Prevention Activity in Honduras works to increase the employment of young people at risk of irregular migration to the United States by increasing their educational and income-generating opportunities.

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Hungary—Deutsche Leasing

DAI was contracted by EBRD to assist Deutsche Leasing Hungary, certain aspects of which were also applied to Deutsche Leasing’s operations in Czech Republic and Poland, to expand its leasing operations for the SME segment.

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Hungary—Unicredit (HVB) Leasing Hungary

DAI supported Unicredit Leasing Hungary to strengthen its small and medium enterprise leasing practices.

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India—Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Financing and Development Program

In line with the Indian government’s strategy to strengthen economic growth and employment by developing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), DAI facilitated linkages between SMEs and business development and finance service providers.

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India—Water Analysis, Innovations, and Systems Program (WAISP)

DAI was contracted by the U.S. Agency for International Development to analyze its comparative advantage for delivering innovative solutions to India’s water challenges.

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Indonesia—Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim dan Ketangguhan, or Climate Change Adaption and Resilience (APIK)

The U.S. Agency for International Development’s first project focused exclusively on climate change adaptation in Indonesia helped 8,000 community members and 334 government staff prepare for risks associated with climate change.

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Indonesia—Agribusiness Market and Support Activity (AMARTA)

AMARTA focused on improving productivity and quality, the keys to upgrading agribusiness value chains in Indonesia.

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Indonesia—Community-Based Avian Influenza Control (CBAIC) Project

CBAIC worked with the Government of Indonesia and local partners to expand community-level capacity in animal and human surveillance and response to 27,000 villages across the western half of the country with the goal of reducing the risk of AI transmission to animals and humans, and ultimately, reduce the risk of pandemic influenza developing from deadly bird flu.

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Indonesia—Environmental Services Program (ESP)

In Indonesia, 100 million people lack access to clean water, and many households in densely populated areas are not served by existing piped water. This project developed an innovative “ridge to reef” approach that leveraged the inextricable connection between health and the environment.

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Indonesia—Fleming Fund

DAI’s Fleming Fund programme in Indonesia is a collaboration with the Indonesian government to strengthen systems using a “One Health” approach—a multisectoral approach to complex health problems that reaches across human health, animal health, and environment sectors.

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Indonesia—Jalin

The U.S. Agency for International Development’s Jalin program assisted the Indonesian government as it promoted solutions for preventing maternal and newborn deaths and extending health services.

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Indonesia—Mitra Kunci Initiative

The Mitra Kunci Initiative is providing Indonesia’s poorest and most vulnerable with skills needed to be productive members of Indonesia’s workforce through training, information, and resources to prepare them to meet the needs of the private sector.

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Indonesia—Orangutan Conservation Services Program (OCSP)

OCSP addressed the major threats driving orangutan extinction: forest conversion, unsustainable logging, and wildlife trafficking. To do so, the project formed and strengthened partnerships with 40 international and local organizations, private sector partners, government institutions, and communities, which together supported the design and establishment of best management practices for key habitat conservation of wild orangutan populations.

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Indonesia—SENADA Indonesia Competitiveness Program

SENADA, a four-year project financed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), generated growth, jobs, and income by increasing the competitiveness of Indonesia’s labor-intensive manufacturing industries, including footwear, furniture, garments, auto parts, and information and communications technology.

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Indonesia—Strategies Against Flu Emergence (SAFE)

In recent years, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and DAI have helped Indonesia—the country that has suffered the most human deaths from H5N1 avian influenza—make great strides in reducing its vulnerability to the virus.

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Indonesia—Support for Peaceful Democratization (SPD)

Indonesia has experienced tremendous political, economic, and social change since the end of authoritarian rule in 1998. The country now enjoys one of Asia’s most pluralist and critical media, and has held internationally accepted general elections.

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Indonesia—Urban Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (IUWASH, IUWASH PLUS)

Despite positive economic growth in recent years, urban Indonesia still suffers from one of the lowest rates of access to safe water and improved sanitation in the region. USAID’s IUWASH Penyehatan Lingkungan untuk Semua, or Environmental Health for All (IUWASH PLUS), is working to expand access to water and sanitation services to hundreds of thousands of low-income urban households.

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Iraq—Agriculture Reconstruction and Development Program for Iraq (ARDI)

For 8,000 years, the fertile land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers yielded agricultural goods. But after years of war and neglect, Iraq’s farming system was in a dire state.

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Iraq—Governance and Performance Accountability (IGPA)/Takamul

The Iraq Governance and Performance Accountability (IGPA)/Takamul project supports the Iraqi Government to shore up fiscal stability while rapidly and visibly improving service delivery.

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Iraq—Marshlands Restoration Project (IMRP)

The marshlands of southern Iraq were once a major flyway for billions of birds, a source of fish and dairy products for much of Iraq, and a natural filter for the waters of the Persian Gulf. But the wetlands were heavily drained as retaliation for their inhabitants’ uprising against Saddam Hussein following the Gulf War.

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Iraq—Rapid Assistance Program (IRAP); Quick Response Fund (IQRF)

Provincial Reconstruction Teams were the civilian-military teams established in 2005 to provide direct assistance to local Iraqi governments and communities. Most teams did not have the capacity to rapidly develop and deliver this assistance.

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Iraq—Support to Iraq’s Federal Board of Supreme Audit’s Strategic Development Plan

DAI managed this grant in Iraq, implemented by a team of expert advisors in financial and performance audit, petroleum accounting, fraud detection and prevention, and institutional relationship strengthening.

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Jamaica—Local Content Analysis

In 2018 DAI’s Sustainable Business Group was hired by an international oil and gas company and on behalf of the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica (PCJ) to conduct a half-day Local Content Workshop.

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Jordan, Egypt, and Palestine—Arab Women’s Enterprise Fund (AWEF)

The Arab Women’s Enterprise Fund (AWEF) focused on market system change and women’s economic empowerment in Egypt, Jordan, and until March 2018, the occupied Palestinian Territories.

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Jordan—Competitiveness Program (JCP)

JCP stimulated about $70 million in new Jordanian exports, facilitated more than $100 million in investment opportunities, contributed to the creation of nearly 1,000 jobs, and assisted in securing new or better work opportunities for nearly 30,000 individuals.

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Jordan—Fiscal Reform Project II and Bridge Activity (FRP II, FRP Bridge)

By 2009, years of organic and poorly planned growth in the Kingdom of Jordan had produced a large and unwieldy government bureaucracy accounting for 13 percent of the national workforce.

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Jordan—Instituting Water Demand Management (IDARA)

The Instituting Water Demand Management (IDARA) project helped Jordan manage its water demand to more effectively use the current water supply, and embrace water-use efficiency throughout the country.

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Jordan—Public Financial Management and Administration (PFMA)

The Public Financial Management and Administration (PFMA) project is a five-year initiative to improve the Jordanian revenue system and enhance the budget management process.

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Jordan—Strengthening of Institutional Capacities for Micro and Small Enterprises Lending (FINCA Jordan)

As part of a European Reconstruction and Development Bank-funded project, DAI supported FINCA Jordan in achieving its long-term goal of becoming a leading MSME lender by implementing a specialized lending methodology, training bank staff in MSME lending, strengthening internal audit and control procedures, developing a credit scoring model, and improving performance measurement.

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Jordan—Sustainable Achievement of Business Expansion and Quality (SABEQ)

Improving Jordan’s productivity will be the key to sustainable economic growth, job creation, increased wages, and improved standards of living. While the private sector is key to stimulating and sustaining growth, it cannot do so alone. SABEQ worked with both the public and private sectors to increase the number of jobs available to Jordanians, and enhance the competitiveness of Jordanian firms.

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Jordan—Workforce Development (WFD) Project

The Jordan Workforce Development Project worked to create a competitive, demand-driven workforce development system that leads to increased private sector employment, especially for women, youth, and those living at or below the poverty line.

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Kazakhstan—Development of Standards for the Civil Service Provision (KCSP)

DAI worked with the government of Kazakhstan to develop performance standards and indicators for the civil service in pilot ministries and oblasts; the standards and indicators were later extended across the whole public administration.

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Kazakhstan—Local Content Planning and Reporting

DAI’s Sustainable Business Group (SBG) is providing a software as a service solution to enable efficient reporting of local workforce, procurement, and capacity development data for 114 of their active suppliers, in line with local content compliance requirements set by the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

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Kenya—Deepening Democracy Programme (DDP)

The Kenya Deepening Democracy Programme addressed recurring political instability and non-inclusive institutions in Kenya by improving electoral processes and government accountability.

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Kenya—Drivers of Accountability Programme (DAP)

The Drivers of Accountability Programme worked to address the issues of impunity and lack of accountability that fed into the post-election violence of 2007–2008 in Kenya.

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Kenya—Financial Inclusion for Rural Microenterprises (FIRM)

Kenya FIRM built the capacity of the commercial sector to deliver customized financial products and services for entrepreneurs and busi­nesses—primarily in rural areas.

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Kenya—Hunger Safety Net Programme Phase 2 (HSNP2)

Through the Hunger Safety Net Programme (HSNP), more than 600,000 of Kenya’s most vulnerable people had access to cash transfers on a regular basis and up to 2,100,000 people were reached with emergency cash transfers in times of drought or flood.

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Kenya—Integrated Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Project (KIWASH)

The Kenya Integrated Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Project (KIWASH) project combined nutrition programming with improved access to water, sanitation, and hygiene.

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Kenya—Local Content Exchanges

DAI’s Sustainable Business Group was contracted by the World Bank to develop, plan, and deliver The Kenya Local Content Exchanges project, an initiative of the Petroleum Business Opportunities project.

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Kenya—Microfinance Capacity Building Project (KEMCAP)

The Microfinance Capacity Building Project’s principal objective was to build and strengthen the Association of Microfinance Institutions so that it could become a permanent fixture in the Kenyan financial services marketplace, improving much-needed industry infrastructure for microfinance institutions while helping to increase client outreach and business performance.

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Kenya—NiWajibu Wetu (NIWETU)

The Kenya Ni Wajibu Wetu (NIWETU) program, funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, worked to reduce violent extremism among at-risk individuals and communities in hotspots in Kenya.

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Kenya—Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change in Kenya Plus (StARCK+)

StARCK+ achieved transformational change by helping Kenya to scale up private sector innovation and investment in low carbon and adaptation products, services, and assets such as clean energy, sustainable agriculture, water management, and weather forecasting.

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Kenya—Technical Assistance to the Public Accountability and Service Delivery Programme (PASEDE)

Our technical assistance supports the Public Finance Management (PFM) Reform Secretariat to successfully implement the PFM Reform Strategy (2018–2023).

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Kenya—Transition Initiative Program (KTI)

Through assistance in reducing tensions and by enabling economic, political, and social recovery, the Kenya Transition Initiative Program (KTI) helped to renew the nation’s confidence and capacity in addressing instability, political marginalization, and violence.

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Kosovo—Ministry home remedies for yeast infection rash Foreign Affairs Support (KMFAS)

The U.S. Agency for International Development-funded Ministry of Foreign Affairs Support program in Kosovo helped conduct a situational analysis that identified the most immediate issues facing the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) and collaborated with MFA personnel to address legal and policy issues, along with the procedural and operational aspects of building a new institution.

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Kosovo—Strengthening Public Procurement (KSPP)

The Kosovo Strengthening Public Procurement (KSPP) project works to strengthen the public procurement system to reduce incidents of malfeasance and corruption.

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Kosovo—Support to Improve Quality of Pre-university Education

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Kosovo—Support to the Ombudsperson Institution

We support the Ombudsperson Institution of Kosovo to effectively protect and promote the rights and fundamental freedoms of citizens by enforcement of institutional capacities and the introduction of new tools and methods.

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Kosovo—Transparent, Effective, and Accountable Municipalities (TEAM)

The Transparent, Effective, and Accountable Municipalities (USAID TEAM) activity assists the Government of Kosovo in strengthening systems and limiting opportunities for fraud, waste, or abuse in public procurement.

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Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan—Enterprise and Innovation Programme (EIP)

The Enterprise and Innovation Programme increases innovation and growth in startups and small firms, providing support and training through the establishment of business innovation centres in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan—Policy Innovation Facility (The Facility)

The Facility provides flexible, short-term, demand-driven support for policy development and capacity building to the governments of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Kyrgyzstan—Community and Municipal Governance Initiative icici infinity login personal banking improved service delivery and strengthened government legitimacy across 50 local municipalities in Kyrgyzstan, which resulted in 15,636 residents with improved access to clean drinking water, 53,245 citizens benefitting from improved garbage collection, and 590 public dialogue sessions.

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Kyrgyzstan—Parliamentary Strengthening Program (KPSP)

To effect reform and stability, the Kyrgyzstan Parliament must work toward three intertwined objectives: being a more constructive actor in the Kyrgyz state system, a responsive and representative body, and a well-managed institution. DAI supported the Parliament (Jogorku Kenesh) in that effort.

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Latin America and the Caribbean—Technologies for Financial Inclusion (Tec-In)

The Tec-In project worked to identify and develop innovations in the use of information and communications technology to expand access to financial services throughout Latin America and the Caribbean.

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Lebanon—Economic Reform and Infrastructure Investment Programme (LERII)

LERII assists the Lebanese government in implementing key economic reforms, reaches agreement on the construction of key donor-financed infrastructure projects, and ensures that such projects are successfully built and operated.

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Lebanon—Industry Value Chain Development (LIVCD)

The Lebanon Industry Value Chain Development (LIVCD) project improved Lebanon’s economic stability and provided income-generating opportunities for small business while creating jobs for the rural population, in particular women and youth.

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Lebanon—Social Enterprise Pilot Project (SEPP)

The Lebanon Social Enterprise Pilot Project used an evidence-based approach to demonstrate the potential of the private sector-led social enterprise model to deliver economic growth and improve social cohesion in Lebanon.

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Lebanon—Technical Assistance Facility for the Private Sector

The Technical Assistance Facility for the Lebanese Private Sector contributes to the expansion and diversification of Lebanon’s economy through the modernization of the private sector and the promotion of trade, entrepreneurship, and innovation.

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Lebanon—Trade and Investment Facilitation (TIF) Activity

The Trade and Investment Facilitation Activity works to boost the exports of Lebanese goods and services, facilitate investment in Lebanese enterprises, and improve the business and investment enabling environment in Lebanon.

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Lebanon—Water Policy Program (LWPP)

Under the LWPP, DAI supported the Ministry of Energy and Water and the Water Establishments in Lebanon, guiding Lebanese ministry and water establishments’ officials through the complicated process of identifying and implementing sustainable financing and privatization techniques.

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Lebanon—Water Project (LWP)

The Lebanon Water Project (LWP) increased reliable and sustainable access to water for Lebanese citizens, improved water management practices, enhanced the efficiency and sustainability of the public water utilities, and responded to water issues arising from the influx of Syrian refugees.

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Lebanon—Water and Wastewater Sector Support (LWWSS)

The Lebanon Water and Wastewater Sector Support project partnered with Lebanon’s four water establishments and the Ministry of Energy and Water. The project provided training and technical assistance related to improving operational and management efficiency, customer service and outreach, financial viability and cost recovery, and capital investment planning.

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Lebanon—Water, Sanitation, and Conservation (WSC) Project

WSC is increasing the volumes of wastewater treated, reducing the pollution and water losses that harm water sources, improving service delivery to citizens, and facilitating partnerships between public water utilities, municipalities, the private sector, civil society organizations, and citizen groups to introduce innovative solutions and improve governance in the water and wastewater sector across Lebanon.

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Lesotho—Apparel Lesotho Alliance to Fight Aids (ALAFA) Project

The Apparel Lesotho Alliance to Fight AIDS (ALAFA) project was tasked with designing a strategy to address HIV/AIDS in the apparel industry and found that not only was an intervention was feasible, but also that it was vital to the sustainability of the apparel industry, to save an estimated 1,850 lives per year in the industry and increase productivity.

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Liberia—Accountability and Voice Initiative (LAVI)

The Liberia Accountability and Voice Initiative improved the citizen-state relationship in Liberia by supporting coalitions and advocacy campaigns that promote public sector accountability.

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Liberia—Building Recovery and Reform Through Democratic Governance (BRDG-Liberia)

The DAI team worked with Liberia’s new government to increase legitimacy, strengthen public sector management, and promote policy and institutional reforms. In addition, DAI built concrete and positive communication channels and relationships between the citizens and their state institutions.

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Liberia—Civil Society Activity (CSA)

The Liberia Civil Society Activity (CSA) is a five-year initiative to strengthen Liberians’ ability to advocate for policy reforms, policy implementation, and service delivery improvements through multistakeholder coalitions that build feedback loops among the Government of Liberia, civil society organizations, and Liberian citizens.

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Liberia—Community Infrastructure Project II (LCIP I, II)

After the second civil war in Liberia ended, DAI was active in the country on behalf of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), supporting social reconciliation, community infrastructure reconstruction, economic development, and democratic governance and civil society strengthening.

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Liberia—Food and Enterprise Development Program (FED)

The Food and Enterprise Development Program helped Liberia achieve increased food security—in terms of food availability, utilization, and affordability—by building incentive structures that assisted local stakeholders to adopt a commercial approach.

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Liberia—Inventory of Medical Equipment in All Governmental Hospitals

DAI Global Health implemented a countrywide inventory of medical equipment in 20 hospitals, funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, to assess the health care technology management and maintenance requirements of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in Liberia.

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Liberia—Liberian Bank for Development and Investment (LBDI)

DAI assisted LBDI in expanding its business, particularly to the micro, small, and medium-sized enterprise (MSME) segment. The banking sector in Liberia is extremely small, comprising only a handful of operational banks.

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Liberia—Local Empowerment for Government Inclusion and Transparency (LEGIT)

The Local Empowerment for Government Inclusion and Transparency program helped solidify decentralization reforms by facilitating the transfer of authority from the national government to counties and cities, enhancing citizen participation in governance, and building capacity for government officials.

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Liberia—Long-Term Technical Assistance for the Implementation of the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (FLEGT-VPA)

This project increases the value of traded timber products, strengthen forest law enforcement and governance, and share forest benefits more equitably through implementation of the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance, and Trade Voluntary Partnership Agreement between Liberia and the European Union.

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Liberia—Revenue Generation for Governance and Growth (RG3)

The Revenue Generation for Governance and Growth project helped the Liberia Revenue Authority to improve its tax collection system and cultivate accountability among taxpayers.

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Liberia—Support Unit for Liberia FLEGT Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA)

In 2011, the European Union and the Government of Liberia concluded a Voluntary Partnership Agreement under the European Union’s Forest Law Enforcement, Governance, and Trade Action Plan. The agreement commits the Liberian Government to developing and implementing systems to ensure that its timber exports to the European Union come from legal sources.

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Libya—Taqarib

The Libya “Taqarib” project strengthens the foundation of a more unified Libyan state by empowering local governments, reinforcing community bonds, and improving people’s standard of living.

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Libya—World Bank Needs and Security Assessment

The goal of this assessment was to update World Bank understanding in Libya, increase the specificity of its knowledge about critical institutions and themes, and broaden the base of Libyan sources for future use by the bank.

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Macedonia—Make Decentralization Work Project (MDW)

Decentralization is an important component of lasting democratic development in countries such as Macedonia that are accustomed to a centralized autocracy. The MDW project increased the capacity of municipal governments to assume new powers under the decentralization that commenced in 2005.

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Macedonia—Municipal Management of Macedonian Schools (MMMS)

The Republic of Macedonia has made decentralization and the promotion of democratic local governance a principal part of its commitment to restore, revitalize, and expand democratic practices. The goal of MMMS was to provide technical assistance and training to local governments to improve their ability to undertake their new responsibilities in school management.

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Macedonia—Ohridska Banka Société Générale (OBSG)

Ohridska Banka Société Générale (OBSG) became an affiliate of Société Générale in 2007. One of 10 companies in the Macedonian Stock Exchange Index, OBSG signed an agreement with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development for a €5 million Loan Facility.

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Macedonia—SME Finance Framework—Investbanka

DAI was contracted by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development to help Investbanka substantially increase its small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) lending activities.

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Madagascar—Eco-Regional Initiatives to Promote Alternatives to Slash and Burn Practices (ERI)

Through the Eco-Regional Initiatives to Promote Alternatives to Slash and Burn Practices project, DAI created an innovative form of eco-regional conservation and development that contributed to national goals articulated in the “Madagascar Naturellement” vision, the “Madagascar Action Plan,” and other government policy documents.

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Malawi—Community Partnerships for Sustainable Resource Management (COMPASS II)

COMPASS II identified natural resource-based products in Malawi that had the potential to provide business opportunities for HIV-affected and other marginalized households, such as those headed by women or youth.

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Malawi—Feed the Future Integrating Nutrition into Value Chains

DAI and our partners, Michigan State University and Save the Children, focused on inclusive value chain building in Malawi and smallholders’ decision-making about what to plant and consume, acknowledging that smallholders operate under short horizons with limited assets and coping strategies for handling fluctuations in food and income.

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Malawi—Justice and Accountability Programme (Chilungamo)

Chilungamo contributes to increased levels of governance, accountability, compliance with the rule of law, and respect, promotion, and protection of human rights in Malawi.

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Malawi—Local Government Accountability and Performance (LGAP)

To ensure more citizens benefit from the effects of decentralization, the Local Government Accountability and Performance activity worked to improve local government performance and transparency, increase citizen engagement, and strengthen the enabling environment for decentralization in Malawi.

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Malawi—Public Finance Management Reforms (Chuma Cha Dziko)

DAI works with the Government of Malawi, the Ministry of Finance, Economic Planning, and Development, and other stakeholders to achieve efficient and effective use of public resources and support the growth of the economy and development of Malawi.

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Malawi—Technical Assistance to AFIKEPO Nutrition Programme

This project works to increase and diversify dietary intake of safe and nutritious foods to achieve optimal nutrition for women of childbearing age, adolescent girls, infants, and young children in 10 targeted districts in Malawi.

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Malawi—Technical Cooperation to Strengthen National Capacity in Implementing Land Policies and Laws Efficiently and Effectively (Land Governance)

The Malawi Land Governance programme enhanced people’s livelihoods and food security through sustainable agricultural development, with an emphasis on reaching remote rural areas and vulnerable populations.

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Malawi—Tilitonse Fund

The Tilitonse Fund was a multi-donor grants facility that supported Malawian-based civil society organisations in promoting accountable, inclusive, and responsive governance.

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Maldives—Public Financial Management

The Public Financial Management activity assists the Government of Maldives to prioritize infrastructure projects with the highest returns to the economy, enhance domestic resource mobilization, and realize “win-win” public-private partnerships in infrastructure to reduce dependence on high-risk debt financing.

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Mauritania—Corporate Social Investment Program Strategy

DAI’s Sustainable Business Group (SBG) created an innovative five-year strategy to deliver economic and social impact beyond project revenue, to create positive outcomes for government, commercial opportunities for suppliers, and direct employment.

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Mauritania—Kosmos Innovation Center (KIC)

Since 2016, DAI’s Sustainable Business Group has provided support to the KIC, which got its start in Ghana and expanded its work to Mauritania in 2018.

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Mauritania—Local Content Study

DAI’s Sustainable Business Group (SBG) worked with a multinational mining company to assess the company’s Local Business Integration (LBI) program and conducted a gap analysis to inform recommendations for optimizing supplier development.

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Mauritius—Enhancing Resilience to Climate Change

DAI worked with the Government of Mauritius to improve capacity and coordination across key institutions dealing with climate change.

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Mexico Clean Energy Programme

The U.K. Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) aims to promote energy-driven low-carbon growth, reducing poverty and generating new market opportunities for symbiotic U.K. partnerships and investments. DAI is helping the FCDO achieve its vision in Mexico by implementing the Clean Energy Program, which aims to develop the skills of men and women, small and medium enterprises, and government institutions to support Mexico’s transition to a low-carbon economy.

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Mexico—Access to Rural Finance for Microenterprises (AFIRMA)

The Access to Rural Finance for Microenterprises project built an inclusive, sustainable microfinance sector in Mexico as a means to increase access to a range of financial services and thereby spur local economic development.

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Mexico—Agricultural and Rural Bank Officer Training Program (FINRURAL)

Through a U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) grant, DAI created and implemented a rural bank and credit officer training program to give Financiera Rural staff a solid foundation in rural and agricultural loan and credit operations, and to give the institution the in-house expertise it needed to meet its future demands for new officer training.

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Mexico—Better Health Programme (BHPMx)

The Mexico Better Health Programme addressed the growing threat of noncommunicable diseases—especially obesity and diabetes—with a focus on realizing the economic and social benefits associated with improved health.

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Mexico—Financial Services Programme

This programme aims to create a more inclusive and competitive financial services sector accessible to all segments of Mexican society and new market entrants.

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Mexico—Local Content Study

Mexican Association of Hydrocarbon Organizations commissioned the DAI Sustainable Business Group to conduct a multiphase study consisting of policy analysis and benchmarking, national content methodology simplification, and supply-demand gap analysis.

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Mexico—Programa para el Fortalecimiento de Best bank to save money in usa de Justicia Penal Estatal (ConJusticia)

ConJusticia in Mexico consolidates and sustains recent justice system reforms by supporting state-level attorneys general offices and justice courts, with an emphasis on promoting collaboration and durable partnerships between these entities and other justice sector and local actors.

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Mexico—Skills for Prosperity Mexico (SFPMx)

The Skills for Prosperity Mexico project works to prepare learners to go from the classroom to the workforce with the right skills for the marketplace.

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Mexico—Technical Assistance Program for Rural Microfinance (PATMIR)

We worked with an alliance of regulated financial institutions to expand access to basic financial services to the poor. This included applying new approaches to branchless banking.

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Middle East and North Africa—Further Advancing the Blue Revolution Initiative (FABRI)

We worked closely with the U.S Agency for International Development to launch and strengthen the Middle East and North Africa Network of Water Centers of Excellence (MENA NWC), a regional association of research and educational institutions.

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Moldova—Agricultural Competitiveness and Enterprise Development Project (ACED)

The need to diversify export markets is broadly accepted throughout Moldova. ACED supported this imperative—including improving Moldova’s sanitary and phytosanitary standards compliance and its ability to meet international food safety standards.

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Moldova—Business and Tax Administration Reform Project (BIZTAR)

BIZTAR supported the Government of Moldova’s efforts to encourage productive investment by improving the business environment and lowering the overall burden of state regulation on private enterprise.

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Moldova—ICS Total Leasing SA, Moldova, Improvement of Risk Management

To support the development of the small and medium enterprises sector in Moldova, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Bank, through the Moldovan Financial Sector Framework, approved a loan facility of €1.5 million to ICS Total Leasing SA in December 2010.

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Moldova—IFC Investment Climate Reform

DAI completed the International Finance Corporation (IFC)’s Investment Climate Reform program in support of Moldova’s strategy to prepare its economy to capitalize on the country’s association agreement with the European Union.

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Moldova—Support for Structured Policy Dialogue, Coordination of the Implementation of the Association Agreement, and Enhancement of the Legal Approximation Process

The DAI-led technical assistance project works to increase the capacity of the Government of the Republic of Moldova and other key national institutions in implementing the European Union-Republic of Moldova Association Agenda.

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Moldova—Support for Structured Policy Dialogue, Coordination of the Implementation of the Association Agreement, and Enhancement of the Legal Approximation Process

This project works to increase the capacities of the Government of the Republic of Moldova and other key national institutions in implementing the EU-Republic of Moldova Association Agenda.

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Moldova—Support to Efficient Prevention and Fight Against Corruption in the Justice Sector

This project worked to accelerate the sustainable reform of the justice sector by supporting the implementation of the legislation to prevent and combat corruption in the justice sector in the Republic of Moldova.

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Mongolia—Corporate Social Investment Strategy Study

DAI’s Sustainable Business Group (SBG) was selected in 2019 by an international mining company to conduct a study of innovative development models being implemented by corporations interested in having a real impact on socioeconomic and development outcomes of the countries in which they operate.

Источник: https://www.dai.com/our-work/the-projects

Definition: The index of Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism measures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically-motivated violence and terrorism. The index is an average of several other indexes from the San francisco food Intelligence Unit, the World Economic Forum, and the Political Risk Services, among others.


Construction of the political stability index

The index is a composite measure as it is based on several other indexes from multiple sources including the Economist Intelligence Unit, the World Economic Forum, and the Political Risk Services, among others. The underlying indexes reflect the likelihood of a disorderly transfer of government power, armed conflict, violent demonstrations, social unrest, international tensions, terrorism, as well as ethnic, religious or regional conflicts. The methodology of the overall index is kept consistent so the numbers are comparable over time. You may also want to have a look at the following indicators: rule of law, political rightsand corruption perceptions.
Political stability in Europe
Political stability in Asia
Political stability in Africa
Political stability in North America
Political stability in South America
Political stability in Australia
Political stability in the European union
Political stability in Sub Sahara Africa
Political stability in MENA
Political stability in South East Asia
Political stability in Latin America


New and expanding database: Food prices around the world
Источник: https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/rankings/wb_political_stability/

GTFP Issuing Banks

For a complete list of GTFP issuing banks at a glance, please see our downloadable PDF file.

 

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Источник: https://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/industry_ext_content/ifc_external_corporate_site/financial+institutions/priorities/global+trade/gtfp-banks

About

The Global Findex database is the world’s most comprehensive data set on how adults save, borrow, make payments, and manage risk. Launched with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the database has been published every three years since 2011. The data are collected in partnership with Gallup, Inc., through nationally representative surveys of more than 150,000 adults in over 140 economies. The 2017 edition includes updated indicators on access to and use of formal and informal financial services. And it adds new data on the use of financial technology (fintech), including the use of mobile phones and the internet to conduct financial transactions.

Financial inclusion is on the rise globally. The 2017 Global Findex database shows that 1.2 billion adults have obtained an account since 2011, including 515 million since 2014. Between 2014 and 2017, the share of adults who have an account with a financial institution or through a mobile money service rose globally from 62 percent to 69 percent. In developing economies, the share rose from 54 percent to 63 percent. Yet, women in developing economies remain 9 percentage points less likely than men to have a bank account. This third edition of the database points to advances in digital technology that are key to achieving the World Bank goal of Universal Financial Access by 2020.

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This overview distills key findings from each of the six chapters of the main report on the 2017 Global Findex database

Account ownership

Globally, 69 percent of adults have an account, up from 62 percent in 2014 and 51 percent in 2011. Account ownership varies among economies and by individual characteristics like gender and income.

The unbanked

About 1.7 billion adults remain unbanked—without an account at a financial institution or through a mobile money provider. In 2014 that number was 2 billion.

Payments

The 2017 Global Findex survey asked people what kinds of payments they make and receive and how they carry out these transactions—whether using an account or in cash.

Use of accounts

Once people have an account, the next step is to ensure that they can transact in safe and convenient ways. This chapter explores how people use technology to access and use their accounts.

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The Global Findex database provides more than 200 indicators on topics such as account ownership, payments, saving, credit, and financial resilience. Global Findex data is reported for all indicators by country, region, and income group. Available indicators are reported for 2017, 2014, and 2011.

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Источник: https://globalfindex.worldbank.org/

Rotating savings and credit association

Form of peer-to-peer banking

A rotating savings and credit association (ROSCA) is a group of individuals who agree to meet for a defined period in order to save and borrow together, a form of combined peer-to-peer banking and peer-to-peer lending.

The first academic description of ROSCAs was by Shirley Ardener in 1964.[1] F. J. A. Bouman described ROSCAs as "the poor man's bank, where money is not idle for long but changes hands rapidly, satisfying both consumption and production needs."[2] They are also known as tandas (Latin America), chama (Swahili-speaking East Africa), Kameti کمیٹی (Pakistan), visi (Gujaratis, India), ekub (Ethiopia), partnerhand (West Indies), cundinas (Mexico), Hagbad (Somalia), stokvel (South Africa), susu (West Africa and the Caribbean), hui (會) (Chinese communities in East and Southeast Asia), hội/hụi (Vietnam), paluwagan (Philippines), Gam'eya جمعية (Egypt), gye (계) (South Korea), tanomoshiko (頼母子講) (Japan), Chit Fund (India), pandeiros (Brazil), cuchubál (Guatemala), juntas,quiniela or panderos (Peru), C.A.R. Țigănesc/Roata (România), arisan (Indonesia), lenshare (เล่นแชร์) (Thai), dhukuti or dhikuti (Nepal), and menage or menodge (Scotland[3])

Structure[edit]

Meetings can be regular or tied to seasonal cash flow cycles in rural communities. These usually coincide with the crop harvest for farmers and pay dates for the employed members where people have sure funds on hand. A slot is equivalent to one periodic money withdrawal. To determine the order of money distribution among members, a drawing of slot is done and agreed prior to the start of periodic fund accumulation. Depending on the intended purpose, a member can swap his slot with another through mutual agreement. Such switching of slots is allowed prior to the fund accumulation or before the periodic money withdrawal. A member who availed more than one slot may have the reserved right to choose the other slot pay date. Nevertheless, the organizer should be informed of the changes prior to the pay process to avoid confusion. Each member contributes the same amount at each meeting, and one member takes the whole sum once. As a result, each member is able to access a larger sum of money during the life of the ROSCA, and use it for whatever purpose she or he wishes. This method of saving is a popular alternative to the risks of saving at home, where family and relatives may demand access to savings.[4]

Every transaction is seen by every member during the meetings. Since no money has to be retained inside the group, no records have to be kept. Though some maintain a crude list of slots. These characteristics make the system a model of transparency and simplicity that is well adapted to communities with low levels of literacy and weak systems for protecting collective property rights.

The system further reduces the risk to members because it is time limited—typically lasting no more than 6 months. Each member receives at least once the amount collected. This reduces the size of the loss, should someone take funds early and not pay back.

In addition to their simplicity of structure, ROSCAs compensate when two key conditions exist, which make them competitive alternative financial products, even in relatively sophisticated economies:[5]

  1. Erosion of buying power of accumulated savings over long savings horizons in inflationary conditions
  2. Failure of the normal financing market to provide credit to credit worthy borrowers, often due to opportunity cost, regulation, or operational expense

Diversity and distribution[edit]

Variously called "committee" in India and Pakistan, Ekub in Ethiopia, Susus in Western Africa and the Caribbean, "Seettuva" in Sri Lanka, tontines in West Africa, tanomoshiko or mujin in pre-1945 Japan, wichin gye in Korea, arisan in Indonesia, likelembas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, xitique in Mozambique and djanggis in Cameroon, ROSCAs are informal or 'pre-co-operative' microfinance groups that have been documented around the developing world. A famous early study by anthropologist Clifford Geertz documented the arisans of Modjokuto in Eastern Java. He described them as "an "intermediate" institution growing up within peasant social structure, to harmonize agrarian economic patterns with commercial ones, to act as a bridge between peasant and trader attitudes toward money and its uses."[6]

The individuals in the ROSCA select each other, which ensures that participation is based on trust and social forces (social capital), and a genuine commitment to participate. In Brazilian consorcios, groups of strangers are assembled into a ROSCA unit by an agent or intermediary, whose role in facilitating the group formation and on-going administration is remunerated. As at 2015, over five million active ROSCA users were reported in Brazil.[7] As the consorcio runs its term, many of the same features of social capital and compliance manifest, as members of the group develop personal contact and trust.

Rotating or accumulating?[edit]

ROSCAs can be compared and contrasted with accumulating savings and credit associations (ASCAs). Documented extensively in South Asia by Rutherford, ASCAs are also time-limited, informal microfinance groups. Unlike ROSCAs however, they appoint one of their members to manage an internal fund. Records are kept and surplus lent out. After a pre-agreed period (often 6–12 months) all the loans are called back and the fund, plus accumulated profit, is distributed to the members.

International development practitioners have been intrigued for years by the potential benefits of attempting to link ROSCAs and ASCAs to formal financial systems. But such linkages tend to defeat the voluntary purpose of these groups and distort member incentives towards securing access to external funds. CARE, an American NGO, has spread standardized ASCAs to reach 2 million people in Africa.[8] These standardized ASCAs are called village savings and loan associations (VSLAs), and they usually comprise 10 to 20 participants who conduct saving and loan activities for a fixed period, usually 12 southeast financial credit union epal. Unlike informal ASCAs, these use a triple-locked box to secure the funds, have standardized election procedures and maintain a careful separation of various duties, such as record-keeping, money-counting, meeting facilitation etc. Interest rates on loans typically vary from 5–10% a month, while cycle-end pay-outs in most groups range from 30 to 60% of invested capital.[9]

As of the end of June 2012 development agencies (including CARE, Oxfam, CRS and PLAN) were carrying out projects reaching 1.8 million members in 23 countries, mostly in Africa. The Savings Group Information Exchange, a project of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, provides researchers with an on-line database where indicators like savings and loans per member, country, return on assets and percentage of female members can be compared.

Another interesting variant on this theme are the terminating deposits that formed part of product line of building societies in the last half of the nineteenth century. These provided many workers with the funds required to finance their own homes.

Online ROSCAs[edit]

Carlos Veléz-Ibáñez, an anthropology professor at Arizona State University, stated that "technology has added a new twist to the savings pools, with 'electronic cundinas[ROSCAs]' being organized on Web sites that can bring together people from across the United States".[10] A few of the existing products include eMoneyPool, created by two brothers living in Phoenix, Arizona; Monk, founded by ex-googler and ex-intel employees in Silicon Valley; Puddle, a google-venture backed startups, Moneyfellows UK & African based online mobile and web platform digitizing the ROSCA model; ROSCA Finance, a patent pending startup creating a global, autonomous money sharing platform founded by former Santander bankers; Esusu, founded by ex-Goldman Sachs, PwC and LinkedIn employees in New York and Partnerhand,[11] a patent pending[12] UK based organisation facilitating online 'Pardner's'[13] between verified individuals, founded in southeast financial credit union epal.

StepLadder, founded in 2016[14] by finance professionals with distinguished academic work on Consorcios in Brazil[15] is joining the UK market for ROSCA-based collaborative finance by serving prospective first-time UK home buyers.[16] In October 2017 Finlok platform launched a digital ROSCA product in India leveraging NPCI's Unified Payment Interface.

Another company which has taken ROSCA online is AZ Fundchain, they are the first team to make ROSCA available on the Ethereum blockchain through a simple mobile app. They were founded in 2018 and launched their app to the public in mid 2019.

Aturi Africa has automated and digitized Chama financial services with a goal of offering these services to millions of people in Africa and around the world.The FinTechStartUp is founded by ex-Safaricom employee from Kenya and it launched in late 2020.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Ardener, Shirley (1964). "The Comparative Study of Rotating Credit Associations". The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 94 (2): 201–229. doi:10.2307/2844382. JSTOR 2844382.
  2. ^F. J. A. Bouman, Indigenous savings & credit societies in the developing world in Von Pischke, Adams & Donald (eds.) Rural Financial Markets in the Developing World, World Bank, Washington, 1983
  3. ^Speitel, Pauline Cairns. "Scots Word of the Week: Menage, menodge". The Herald. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  4. ^Stuart Rutherford. The Poor & Their Money Oxford University Press, Delhi, 2000
  5. ^"Consorcios and Brazils Consumer Credit Innovation"(PDF).
  6. ^Geertz, Clifford (1956). The Rotating Credit Association: a middle rung in development. Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for International Studies.
  7. ^"Relatorio de Inclusao Financiera No.3, 2015"(PDF). Banco Central do Brasil.
  8. ^Grant, William J.; Allen, Hugh (Fall 2002). "CARE's Mata Matsu Dubara (Women on the Move) Program in Niger". Journal of Microfinance. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young School of Business.
  9. ^Allen, Hugh; Staehle, Mark (2007). Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLAs) Programme Guide, Field Operations Manual. Solingen: VSL Associates.
  10. ^"Traditional Mexican Savings System's Popularity Grows".
  11. ^"partnerhand.com".
  12. ^"System, Method and computer program for operating web-based collective e-money lending/borrowing circles between members and non-members of social networking websites".
  13. ^"Pardner in Financial Progress".
  14. ^"Companies House".
  15. ^"Consorcios and Brazils Consumer Credit Innovation"(PDF).
  16. ^"joinstepladder.com".

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ardener, Shirley and Sandra Burman. "Money-Go-Rounds: The Importance of Rotating Savings and Credit Associations for Women". Oxford: Berg, 1995.
  • Arnaldo, Mauri, "Economia sommersa, finanza informale e microcredito nei paesi emergenti", A: Mauri & C. Conti (eds.), Finanza informale, finanza etica e finanza internazionale nelle piccole e medie imprese, Milano 2000.
  • Besley, Timothy, Stephen Coate, and Glenn Loury. "The economics of rotating savings and credit associations." The American Economic Review (1993): 792–810.
  • Geertz, Clifford. The Rotating Credit Association: a middle rung in development. Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for International Studies, 1956.
  • Grant, William J. & Hugh Allen. CARE's Mata Matsu Dubara (Women on the Move) Program in Niger. Journal of Microfinance, Brigham Young School of Business, Provo, Utah, Fall, 2002.
  • Rutherford, Stuart, The Poor and Their Money Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • van den Brink, Rogier and Jean-Paul Chavas, "The Microeconomics of an Indigenous African Institution: The Rotating Savings and Credit Association." Economic Development and Cultural Change, Volume 45, No. 4, July 1997.
  • Von Pischke, J. D., Dale W. Adams & Gordon Donald. Rural Financial Markets in Developing Countries. EDI Series in Economic Development, World Bank, Washington, 1983.
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotating_savings_and_credit_association

When Johnson & Johnson (J&J) vaccines first arrived in Nepal in mid-July, the Nepalese government decided to prioritise people with disability for vaccination. This consignment of J&J vaccines was the first batch of single-dose vaccines Nepal had received.

“To facilitate vaccination for people with disability, Nepal allocates J&J vaccines for them so they don’t have to come twice to be fully vaccinated,” explains Dr Vinod Bura, WHO Nepal’s team lead for immunisation.

When Nepal’s vaccination campaign kicked off in late January 2021, the government first prioritised frontline workers and the elderly for vaccination. Later, in mid-July, Nepal received over 1.5 million doses of J&J vaccine from the US, donated through the COVAX Facility, which eased the severe shortage of vaccines.

It was at this point that the Nepalese government decided to prioritise people who are more vulnerable to the pandemic due to underlying societal or biomedical factors for vaccination. This included people with disability, workers in risky positions, migrants, refugees and prisoners.

Recalling the first day of the J&J vaccine launch at an orthopaedic hospital in Kathmandu, where many patients had a disability, Dr Vinod became emotional. “Many of them were alone in the hospital without family support. They were extremely worried about their own health and safety when COVID-19 hit the country.”

While lockdown, isolation, COVID-19 containment measures and the resource crunch have caused anxiety and stress across all populations, this situation is further amplified among people with disability.

Preventive measures such as social distancing and self-isolation could be challenging for these populations, especially for those with high support needs who rely on carers for daily activities. The COVID-19 situation has weakened the already fragile socio-economic status of people with disability.

“Nepal’s COVID-19 vaccine prioritisation plan for people with disability is providing them relief and hope,” says Dr Vinod. “I met this patient in his 50s in the vaccination site who used to be a writer. With his whole body paralysed, he is fully dependent on a carer. He told me he was surprised and very grateful when he learned that the government has prioritised them for vaccination.”

Photo credit: MoHP Nepal

Nepal is one of the few countries that has strictly followed the WHO SAGE prioritisation framework, prioritising COVID-19 vaccines for people with disability. Although the SAGE framework advises countries to prioritise people with disabilities and other disadvantaged populations in order to achieve vaccine equity, according to a Leonard Cheshire report very few countries did so.

Likewise, a recommendation report authored by the International Disability Alliance warned that people with disability will in practice be among the last groups accessing vaccination without specific prioritisation due to societal barriers, including inaccessible information on registration systems and inaccessible health services.

To overcome such barriers, the Nepalese government has been making a special effort to disseminate public information effectively. As well as audio, visual, print, and social media platforms, the government has involved telecommunication companies to help circulate COVID-19 messages to more than 90 percent of telephone subscribers in Nepal. In addition, television announcements were developed in sign language for the deaf, and braille was embossed on COVID-19 prevention flyers for the visually impaired.

Along with NGOs and health workers who work closely with people with disability, trained female community health volunteers, rural health workers, Nepal scouts and religious leaders were engaged and mobilised to reach communities and hidden marginalised populations. “The Nepalese government has demonstrated that well-designed policies have to go hand-in-hand with transparent and effective communication in order to be successful,” Dr Vinod adds.

Photo credit: MoHP Nepal

Yet, Nepal’s road to vaccine equity is not without some hitches. As in other countries, the lack of disability-disaggregated data caused a barrier in assessing the total number of people with disability in the country, as well as where and in what conditions they are living.

Because of this, the Nepalese government organised vaccination campaigns in hospitals and centres for people with disability. Standard messages and guidelines were also disseminated to all health workers at vaccination sites – whenever a person with visible disability or with a disability ID card comes to the site, they are eligible to receive COVID-19 vaccines.

According to Dr Vinod, while it is difficult to precisely measure what percentage of the population with disability are vaccinated due to a lack of good data, around southeast financial credit union epal to ten thousand people with disability have benefited from the prioritisation plan. To better understand progress, WHO and the Nepalese government are planning to carry out a rapid assessment in the near future.

“Leave no one behind” has been one of the core pledges of the SDG 2030 agenda. In light of the COVID-19 situation, it is vital to consider the plight faced by people with disability. More than ever, this pandemic and the resulting health resource crunch has highlighted the need to not leave anyone behind and reach the furthest behind first, particularly people with disability who are already facing severe barriers and marginalisation. Nepal has lessons for us all.

Источник: https://www.gavi.org/vaccineswork/covid-19-vaccines-nepal-leaves-no-people-disability-behind

CHENGDU, China, Nov. 26, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- On November 23, the Sea-Railway Intermodal Train from Chengdu (Shuangliu) Air-rail International Intermodal Port, Sichuan Province, China to Southeast Asia via Qinzhou Port in Guangxi started.

A total of 1,540-foot containers were transported by the train. The customer is a local pharmaceutical enterprise. In the past, the enterprise had to send the goods to the river port, ship the goods to the Shanghai port, and then load the goods to the sea ships. In the case of the dry season of the river, it will take up to more than half a month to reach Shanghai. While by the Sea-Railway Intermodal Train, the economic cost is one third lower than the former route, taking only one-quarter of the time it used to take.

"The opening of this train indicates that the intermodal port has realized the organic integration of international air routes, international train networks and international maritime routes, and realized the improvement of the multimodal transport system of 'air, railway, highway and sea transportation', " said Zheng Shuangli, Deputy General Manager of Chengdu Airport Modern Service Industry Development Co., Ltd. The intermodal port will provide diversified logistics solutions for export-oriented enterprises.

Shuangliu is located in the hinterland of China and is the location of Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, China's fourth largest aviation hub. In the past, high-end biomedicine, electronic information and other high-value-added products were sent to the world through Shuangliu aviation channels. Today, the sea-railway intermodal trains can transport goods with relatively low added value and low timeliness requirements to Qinzhou port, Guangxi, and then to the Philippines by sea, with a whole transport time of 5-7 days. Although it takes a little longer than the former road transportation mode for the whole journey, the cost is reduced by more than two thirds.

On the other hand, from the perspective of "carbon emission", transporting goods by rail rather than by existing long-distance highway through airport international intermodal port can effectively give full play to the significant advantages of railway, such as environmental protection, energy conservation and efficiency, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the source.

Air-rail intermodal transport is not a new concept. Highlighting the southbound channel is the reason why Shuangliu "Air-rail International Intermodal Port" is innovative.

"We have closely linked the aviation resources with the new western land-sea corridor," Zheng Shuangli southeast financial credit union epal, among the domestic cities participating in the construction of the new western land-sea corridor, Chengdu Shuangliu pioneered the seamless connection and intermodal transport of air and rail. In this field, Shuangliu has entered the top echelon of the country.

In recent years, Shuangliu has given full play to its advantages of double railway hubs of International Airport and Comprehensive Bonded Zone, constantly explored and developed an air-rail mutual aid and comprehensive three-dimensional opening-up system, and attracted a large number of leading enterprises southeast financial credit union epal the international logistics supply chain such as 4PX Express, SF Express and so on to settle in Shuangliu.

The opening of the sea-railway intermodal train will also bring new logistics solutions for the transportation of raw materials and finished products between other enterprises in the Comprehensive Bonded Zone and Southeast Asia, and form a stable international channel to guarantee the supply chain between the processing enterprises in the Comprehensive Bonded Zone and the production and manufacturing factories in Southeast Asia.

On January 1 next year, RCEP will come into force. Focusing on the supply chain circulation between local enterprises in Chengdu and Southeast Asian enterprises, Chengdu (Shuangliu) Air-rail International Intermodal Port will deeply study the global layout of supply chains of enterprises, provide multimodal transport solutions for enterprises based on supply chains, and strive to become an important service node on the global supply chains and an international logistics distribution hub with regional influence.

View original content: https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/the-sea-railway-intermodal-train-from-shuangliu-international-intermodal-port-china-to-southeast-asia-starts-its-inaugural-journey-301432360.html

SOURCE Chengdu (Shuangliu) Air-rail International Intermodal Port

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