first african slaves arrived in virginia

This weekend marks 400 years when the first slaves arrived in African dances at the Tucker Family Cemetery in Hampton, Va., Aug. The first documented Africans to arrive in the English-speaking colony of what would become Virginia, arrived in August 1619 on the “White. In Colonial America, indentured slaves did not only consist of Africans, but a large In 1640, the Virginia courts had sentenced one of the first black.

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Unit 4


Digitized by Deborah Mercer and Edith Beckett of the New Jersey State Library.
Copyright 2003 by the New Jersey Historical Commission,
New Jersey Department of State.
All rights reserved.
Please direct questions and comments to Deborah Mercer.
Updated:Wednesday, April 23, 2003
Источник: https://www.njstatelib.org/research_library/new_jersey_resources/highlights/african_american_history_curriculum/unit_3_colonial_era_slavery/

BACKGROUND

Although the twenty Africans brought into Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619 arrived by virtue of the slave trade, they actually became indentured servants, Thus, they eventually gained their freedom, and some later actually owned slaves themselves. By the 1640s, however, the practices of enslaving Africans for life and hereditary servitude (the permanent enslavement of the children of slaves) had been established in Virginia and, within the following two decades, had achieved legal recognition. The increased importation of tobacco by the English, as their appetite for this commodity soared, facilitated the rise of a large scale tobacco plantation system in Virginia, and by the 1690s most of Virginia’s slaves were being imported directly from Africa, With the introduction and legalization of slavery in 1750 in Georgia, a system of black bondage became common to all of the thirteen colonies.

Although a few native American groups were enslaved in colonial America (especially between the 1670s and the early 1700s in Carolina, where predatory raids victimized the Timucas, Guaus, and Apalachees), Africans, for several reasons, became America’s prime bondsmen. Indians were familiar with the terrain and could thus easily run away, and there was fear that their enslavement would bring about continual warfare and also disrupt the lucrative fur trade. Europeans, because of their color, could escape and be mistaken easily as free persons.

Because the climate and soil of the South were suitable for the cultivation of commercial (plantation) crops such as tobacco, rice, and indigo, slavery developed in the southern colonies on a much larger scale than in the northern colonies; the latter’s labor needs were met primarily through the use of European immigrants, who usually served indentures of seven years at the most. In fact, throughout the colonial period, Virginia had the largest slave population, followed by Maryland. In South Carolina (Carolina was divided in 1663 into the North Carolina region and South Carolina region and into two colonies in 1701), however, slaves constituted a larger proportion of the total population than in any other colony-sixty percent of the population in 1765.

In general, the conditions of slavery in the northern colonies, where slaves were engaged more in nonagricultural pursuits (such as mining, maritime, and domestic work), were less severe and harsh than in the southern colonies, where most were used on plantations. Also there could be found in the northern colonies several influential religious groups that had moral precepts that encouraged them to practice a more benign form of slavery. The Quakers, the first organized group in the colonies to speak out against slavery, serve as the best example.

During the colonial period slaves resisted their bondage in various ways. Their forms of protest included the murder of their owners, sabotage (of crops, animals, and tools), suicide, and running away. Some of the runaways in Georgia and South Carolina formed maroon communities that often raided nearby plantations for food. Rebellions constituted an additional form of protest. The larger slave popu- lation in the South made the fear of insurrection greater there. In fact, the largest slave rebellion of the colonial period, involving about one hundred slaves, occurred in Stono, South Carolina, in 1739: approximately twenty-five whites and fifty slaves were killed in the Course of the uprising or its suppression. In order to control slaves’ behavior and minimize the possibilities of uprisings, slaves codes (black codes) were established in most of the colonies, Virginia established the first of these during the .1660s, and it served as a model. Under the codes slaves were forbidden to travel without the written permission of their owner and to congregate in large numbers without the presence of whites. Slaves found guilty of murder or rape were to be hanged; for petty offenses slaves were to be whipped, maimed, or branded.

By the end of the colonial period, blacks numbered about five hundred thousand and constituted their largest proportion of the total American population ever, nearly 20 percent. Also, since most were native-born Americans, many by this time had become hyphenated Americans in the true sense of the word. In varying degrees in different parts of the colonies, they had undergone an acculturative process that had created a new cultural group of people: African Americans. This process involved the melding of the different traditional African cultures into a pan-African culture and the retention of some aspects of this culture. Among the areas in which Africanisms or African survivals were most conspicuous were religion, music, dance, and foodways. This process also involved the adoption by slaves of the manners and customs of their land of enslavement. For example, slaves learned to speak English and other European languages (such as Dutch). Still, it should be understood that the process of cultural change did not move solely in one direction, and slaves influenced the behavior of whites in some cultural areas as well, for example, that pertaining to foodways.

As evidence of the acculturative process, blacks by the end of the colonial period had created institutions and organizations of a non-African nature and character. The most prevalent of these were churches, stemming in large part from the revivalistic spirit of the Great Awakening, which lasting roughly from 1740 to 1790, witnessed the conversion of large numbers of blacks to Christianity. Black Baptist congregations, for example, appeared in 1756 in Lunenberg, Virginia; in 1773 in Silver Bluff, South Carolina; and in 1776 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The Silver Bluff congregation was perhaps the most significant, since it is linked to several early black missionaries who established Baptists churches elsewhere. The first of these missionaries was David George. After the American recapture of Savannah in 1782, which followed the flight of Silver Bluff congregants from Savannah to take refuge behind the British lines, George sailed with the British to Nova Scotia, where he established his first church. Ten years later, he emigrated to Sierra Leone and founded a second congregation.

Another Silver Bluff exporter was George Leile, who, when the British evacuated Savannah, accompanied those who went to Jamaica. There he established the first Baptist church in Kingston. Before leaving Savannah, however, Leile converted a slave named Andrew Bryan, who established the First African Baptist Church of Savannah in 1788. In addition to these Baptists, Harry Hosier (“Black Harry”), the constant companion of the English evangelist Francis Asbury, the person most responsible for spreading Methodism in the colonies, was an outstanding pre-Revolutionary War black missionary.

Aiding the acculturative process was the emergence by the end of the colonial period of the key African American social institution: the family. It is believed that between 1720 and 1740, with the increased arrival of fresh slaves from Africa, slaves had started to reproduce themselves in significant numbers, a process enhanced when the next generation of these slaves produced a greater balance in the sexes. By the end of the colonial period this process had given rise to several generations of American born blacks who were connected by blood and had developed an affinity based on an awareness of common descent. These early black families also began the process of serving as socializing agents, helping younger generations acquire the adaptive mechanisms that would facilitate their survival in the face of the stresses and strains of bondage.

While it is possible that black slaves were on New Jersey soil as early as the 1620s, certainly slavery was encouraged by the colony’s first constitution, the Concessions and Agreement of 1664/1665. It provided additional land for those bringing servants or slaves into the colony. The earliest known record of slaves in New Jersey dates to 1680, when Colonel Lewis Morris of Shrewsbury, Monmouth County, is identified as owning approximately sixty to seventy slaves.

Slavery was more prevalent in East Jersey, which originally included the present counties of Bergen, Essex, Middlesex, and Monmouth and whose primary slave-importing port was Perth Amboy. The Passaic and Raritan river valleys, populated mainly by Dutch farmers who had a long history of slave ownership, were in fact the sites of considerable holdings of slaves, In West Jersey (Burlington, Gloucester, Salem, and Cape May counties), where Cooper’s Ferry (Camden) was the principal port of entry for slaves, both the presence of a significant number of Quakers with antislavery sentiments and a tendency to rely on white immigrants for the area’s labor needs lessened the development of slavery.

Since most slaves in New Jersey worked on small farms that had about three bondsmen, they generally experienced a milder form of bondage than their counterparts in the South, Also, as in other northern colonies, more slaves in New Jersey were used in nonagricultural pursuits than in the South. They were, for example, employed in Charles Read’s ironworks in Burlington County, in copper mining on the Schuyler family lands in Bergen County, and in the skilled trades. Still, New Jersey was one of the few northern colonies where slave conspiracies occurred. Perhaps the most significant was discovered in Somerville in 1734; as a result of that discovery thirty blacks were apprehended, one hanged, several had ears cut off, and others whipped. Subsequent slave plots surfaced in 1741 in Hackensack, for which two slaves were executed by burning, in 1772 in Perth Amboy, and in 1779 in Elizabethtown. Some whites also voiced protest against slavery in New Jersey, as in many of the other colonies by the time of the American Revolution, The Quaker John Woolman of Mount Holly, as reflected in his 1754 publication, Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes, was one of the earliest of these.


CORE LESSON

Theme

The enslavement of Africans in colonial America, emanating from the arrival in 1619 of twenty slaves in Jamestown, Virginia, encompassed all of the colonies. The scope and nature of slavery in the northern colonies, however, differed considerably from the institution in the southern colonies, the former generally being milder than the latter.

Materials and Preparation

Students should read either chapters 6, 10, and 11 in The African American Experience: A History (“Africans in the Thirteen Colonies, 1619-1760,” “The Tyranny of Slavery, 1619-1860,” and “Armed Resistance to Slavery, 1658-1860”) or chapters 5-8 in African American History (“How Africans Came to America,” “Slaves in the New World,” “Slavery and the Law,” and “Slave Revolts”).

Students should study Map #4 of the original thirteen colonies and read the “Runaway Slave Notices”.

Students and the teacher should read pages 18-23 in Afro-Americans in New Jersey: A Short History. They should also read Larry A. Greene, “A History of Afro-Americans in New Jersey,” The Journal of the Rutgers University Libraries( June, 1994), for information on blacks in New Jersey in the colonial period and later.

The teacher should read chapter 4 in From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans (“Colonial Slavery”).

Time Period

Each of the activities that follow will take one class period.

ACTIVITY 1

  1. Compare and contrast the scope and nature of slavery in the northern colonies with that in southern colonies.Using Map #4, explain to the class that slavery evolved in different ways in the regions of the North and South. Explain, for example, that the towns, cities, and small farms in the North did not quite require the labor of large numbers of slaves as did the plantations in the South. Divide the class into two groups, one representing northern slaves and the other those in the South. Ask each group to explain its preference for its particular region. Slavery in the South might be favored because the larger holdings permitted greater social interaction among slaves and better conditions for maintaining African cultural traditions. The North might be preferred for its generally milder form of bondage.
  2. Evaluation: Have the students write a short play in which the main characters are escaped slaves, one from New Jersey and one from South Carolina, who meet in Philadelphia. Have these fugitives, both field hands, compare the difficulties they experienced under slavery. Ask students to include such factors as the climate, nature of the work performed, and degree of contact with their owner.

ACTIVITY 2

  1. Analyze a historical document as a primary source of information about colonial slaves.
  2. Discuss running away as a common form of slave protest and the importance of runaway slave notices. Explain that these notices are primary source documents, often containing considerable information about their subjects. Divide the class into groups and assign each group a notice. Have each group analyze its notice and then indicate what it learned from the notice about runaway slaves and slavery in general (for example, some slaves had markings indicating their ethnic group, some could read and write, women were among runaways, some runaways were skilled workers, some spoke several languages, some had African names). Ask students to discuss whether the information found in these runaway notices is likely to be accurate.
  3. Evaluation: Have the students prepare a runaway slave notice. These notices should reflect accurately what we know about colonial slaves (such as names, occupations, African origins).

Supplemental Activities

  1. Visit Virginia’s Colonial Williamsburg, which features the most ambitious living history portrayal of slavery during the colonial period.
  2. Visit the graves of two colonial New Jersey slaves and read the tombstone inscriptions. These will provide particulars concerning these slaves. The fact that they were buried in the family plot of their owner should also be noted. One grave is that of Ambo, Rahway Cemetery, Rahway, and the other is that of Caesar, Scotch Plains Baptist Church Cemetery, Scotch Plains.

Key Persons

Andrew Bryan. An early black Baptist minister who in 1788 organized the First African Baptist Church in Savannah, perhaps the nation’s oldest continuous black congregation.

David George. One of the black missionaries associated with the early black Baptist church in Silver Bluff, South Carolina. He later organized churches in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone.

Harry Hosier (“Black Harry”). An early black Methodist evangelist who accompanied Francis Asbury in spreading Methodism and was highly regarded for his preaching talents.

George Leile. An exhorter also associated with the Silver Bluff, South Carolina, black Baptist church. He later organized the first Baptist church in Jamaica.

John Woolman. A Mount Holly Quaker whose 1754 Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes was one of the earliest antislavery documents in the colonies.

Annotated Bibliography and Suggested Reading

FOR TEACHERS

Cooley, Henry S. 1896. Slavery in New Jersey.
One of the first scholarly studies of New Jersey slavery, covering its beginning in the colonial era to its abolition in the early nineteenth century. Despite the study’s age, it contains valuable information about slavery’s legal history in New Jersey.
Greene, Lorenzo Johnson. 1942. The Negro in Colonial New England.
Time has not diminished this study as the most comprehensive work on blacks in colonial New England. It is most informative in illustrating the regional differences between slavery in the South and New England.
Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. 1992. Africans in Colonial Louisiana.
Explores the development of an Afro-Creole culture in the eighteenth century, with an emphasis on the dynamic impact of African demographics on African cultural retention in America.
MacManus, Edward. 1973, Black Bondage In the North.
A comprehensive state-by-state analysis of the origins and development of slavery in the northern colonies and states. The work contains important information on slavery in New Jersey.
Morgan, Edmund. 1975. American Slavery, American Freedom.
An award-winning work by a premier historian of early American history. It explores the simultaneous development of freedom for whites and the institution of slavery for blacks in the colonial and national eras.
Mullin, Michael. 1992. Africa in America.
A comparative study of slave acculturation and resistance in the American South (especially Virginia and the Carolinas) and British Caribbean Jamaica and Barbados).
Nash, Gary. 1974 Red, White and Black: The Peoples of Early America.
A valuable study of the cultural interactions of the three major groups in colonial America – European, Native American, and African.
Price, Clement Alexander 1980. Freedom Not Far Distant: A Documentary History of Afro-Americans in New Jersey.
Included in this excellent collection of documents relating to New Jersey’s black history are those from the colonial and revolutionary eras. These are most useful in demonstrating the origins and constraints of slavery in New Jersey.
Sobel, Mechal. 1987. The World they Made Together: Black and White Values in Eighteenth Century Virginia.
An innovative work that examines the process by which black and white societies shaped, transformed, and shared each others’ values despite the harsh and oppressed conditions of black slaves.
Tate, Jr., Thad. 1965. The Negro in Eighteenth-Century Williamsburg.
The author traces the development of slavery in Virginia from its legal origins to its economic role in the South’s largest colony.
Wood, Peter. 1974. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion.
A remarkable book, not only because it provides a history of blacks in colonial South Carolina, but because it explores the rich African contribution to South Carolina’s economy and culture, Blacks, even under slavery, are shown not to be passive victims, but a people seeking to carve out as much individual dignity and freedom as possible.

FOR STUDENTS

Piersen, Willaim. 1988. Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-Amercian Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England.
This book argues that eighteenth-century black New Englanders, in their religious beliefs, work habits, style of dress, music, dance, physical postures, and folk medicine, revealed African values and approaches to life.

MATERIALS

Map 4 – Colonial America

Runaway Slave Notices (1772-1781)

Table of Contents

A Look Back: The First Slave Ship in the U.S.

In August 1619, the first English North American slave ship landed in Jamestown, Virginia. Four hundred years later, we still experience the effects of slavery’s aftermath.

At the Center for Social Solutions, we strive to create a better collective understanding of slavery, its lasting impacts, and contemporary forms of involuntary servitude that still exist today. Our Slavery Initiative is completely dedicated to confronting both our nation’s history and the modern global practice of forced labor. As we near the date that marks 400 years after the arrival of the first slaves in the United States, we recognize the importance of commemorating this historic event.

For more information, take a look at the following materials (updated 6/7/21; reposted 8/20/21):

Read 

"Slavery's explosive growth in charts: How '20 and odd' became millions" by USA Today

An interactive look at how the arrival of the first English slave ship in 1619 led to centuries of transatlantic slavery in North America.

"Point Comfort: where slavery in America began 400 years ago" by David Smith, The Guardian

Four hundred years ago, the first enslaved Africans were brought to Point Comfort, Virginia. Many continue to come back to this historic spot in search of answers to the atrocities that took place back then.

“A symbol of slavery—and survival”by DeNeen L. Brown, The Washington Post

While many recognize and study slavery on a large scale, some historians are focused on learning more about one particular woman who was enslaved in the United States shortly after the arrival of the first slave ships.

Watch

Источник: https://lsa.umich.edu/social-solutions/news-events/news/a-look-back/a-look-back--the-first-slave-ship-in-the-u-s-.html

How the Mayflower arrived in a world already scarred by slavery

When the Mayflower arrived in America, history often records the event as a ship arriving in a ‘New World’.

But these shores were not new. The colonists aboard the Mayflower were stepping foot on lands that had been home to people for centuries.

They were also not the first Europeans to make the journey. Jamestown was one of several established settlements in Virginia by the winter of 1620.

Records show that by that year, the Virginia colony was already involved in bringing African slaves to America.

When the Mayflower set sail from its final departure point in Plymouth in September 1620, it set a course for Virginia – its intended destination to build a colony. The ship was voyaging to a place already engaged in a slavery.

And its eventual destination of modern-day Massachusetts was one that had experienced the cruel abduction of the Indigenous population to sell as slaves.

European sailors had already landed at the settlement of the Patuxet people, the lands the Mayflower’s passengers eventually settled on and built Plymouth.

Those European sailors had abducted members of the Indigenous population of Native Americans in the years previous, with the intention of selling them as slaves.

While the Mayflower’s passengers did not bring slaves on their voyage or engage in a trade as they built Plymouth, it should be recognised the journey took place at a time when ships were crossing the Atlantic to set up colonies in America that would become part of a transatlantic slavery operation.

The passengers may not have had a direct hand in the birth of slavery in America, but they became part of a world scarred by slavery.

The abduction of Native Americans

When the Mayflower originally arrived in Cape Cod on November 9, 1620, they were wary of sailing south towards their intended destination because of the stormy conditions.

They instead searched the coastline, eventually settling on a place known to the Indigenous population as home to the Patuxet people of the Wampanoag tribe.

Watching on as they explored this area were a small group of Native Americans, people for whom this area was already home. The new arrivals tried to follow them but got lost and stuck among some dense thickets. They decided to change course and came across cleared land where corn had been grown and abandoned houses.

They found buried corn, which they took back to the ship, intending to plant it and grow more corn. They also found graves.

This village they had stumbled upon was once home to the Patuxet people but had since been deserted following the outbreak of disease known as the Great Dying - thought to be a European disease brought to the region by sailors.

This was a legacy of what the Native American people had already experienced from European colonists in the years prior to the Mayflower.

The native inhabitants of the region around Plymouth Colony were the various groups of the Wampanoag people and other tribes, who had lived there for some 10,000 years before the Europeans arrived.

Ships from England had been fishing and trading in North America waters since the beginning of the 16th century. They would also bring Native Americans back to Europe – some as slaves – often to callously exhibit.

Some were taught English so they could become interpreters in future. In 1614, six years before the Pilgrims arrived, 27 natives were seized by a man called Thomas Hunt.

The majority came from Patuxet, the very abandoned village the Pilgrims would later find, and what is now modern-day Plymouth, Massachusetts.

Hunt lured 24 Native Americans on board his ship under the premise of trade. Their number included a man called Tisquantum, often known in history by the name Squanto. Hunt locked them up below deck, sailed for Spain and sold these people into the European slave trade.

It is thought Tisquantum was liberated some years later, when it is thought he returned to America in 1619 working as an interpreter for Captain Thomas Dermer.

Tisquantum later searched for his homeland but tragically, he arrived as the Great Dying reached its horrific climax. His tribe had all been wiped out. His home village, Patuxet, was lost.

He would go on to play a key role in relations between the Wampanoag people and the new colony and is closely associated to the early growth of Plymouth and the survival of the Mayflower’s passengers after the harsh first winter that greeted their arrival.

He is thought to have died in Plymouth Colony in November 1622, after suffering a severe fever.

The below video, recorded with the help of the Mashpee Wampanoag tribe, gives more insight into the legacy of this period.

The Virginia settlements

The Mayflower voyage itself was largely financed by London’s Merchant Adventurers and the Virginia Company, which offered ‘patents’ for colonial settlements.

These merchants wanted to colonise America for profit - that profit would be made from trade.

Several colonies in the Virginia area had already been established before the Mayflower’s arrival, the biggest being Jamestown.

And to grow these settlements, 12 years after Jamestown was established in 1607, the London Company began to import slaves from Africa.

In 1619 slave traders forced Africans to get on a slave ship, the White Lion, and took them to Virginia. The approximately 20 Africans on that ship, originally from the present-day Angola, had been seized by the British crew from a Portuguese slave ship.

In March 1620, 32 Africans were documented as residing in Virginia. By 1661, Virginia passed its first law allowing any free person the right to own slaves. The culture of owning slaves would soon spread.

In the later years of the Plymouth colony, slavery was by no means widespread, but it was present and seemingly accepted. The families of the colony did not possess the wealth to own slaves, though records from 1674 onwards show the presence of slaves in some households.

King Philip's War

When the Mayflower arrived in America, the colonists and the local Wampanoag tribe settled on a peace built on mutual interest.

But just over 40 years later, tensions grew. The Wampanoag no longer believed the Plymouth colony were honouring their agreement and feared the rate at which colony was expanding.

The colonists demanded the peace agreement should mean the Wampanoag hand over any guns and hanged three of the tribe for the murder in 1675 of Christian native John Sassamon, who had told the Plymouth Colony of a plan to attack English settlements.

The Wampanoag leader Metacom - known as King Philip by the English - refused and led an uprising of the Wampanoag, Nipmuck, Pocumtuck and Narragansett tribes.

What followed is what became known as America’s bloodiest war.

One of those often believed to bear responsibility for the war, and the souring of relations between the two groups, was the Governor of the Plymouth colony at the time, Josiah Winslow.

He was the son of Edward Winslow, a passenger of the Mayflower and a diplomatic man who played a major role in the peace between the colony and the Wampanoag.

The war decimated the Narragansett, Wampanoag and many smaller tribes, paving the way for additional English settlements.

Thousands were killed, wounded or captured. Those captured were inevitably sold into slavery. Some worked as slaves in New Englands, others further afield with some exported to work on plantations in overseas territories.

When the Mayflower landed in 1620, it was the Wampanoag who would help the passengers survive in their lands. Decades later, they would be enslaved on their own lands, along with the African slaves brought across the Atlantic.

Источник: https://www.mayflower400uk.org

1905

July 11-13. W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter were among the leaders of the meeting from which sprung the Niagara Movement, the forerunner of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

1910

April. The National Urban League was established.

1912

September 27. W. C. Handy published "Memphis Blues."

1915

September 9. Carter G. Woodson founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History.

1918

February 19-21. The First Pan-African Congress met in Paris, France, under the guidance of W. E. B. Du Bois.

1920

August 1-2. The national convention of Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Society met in New York City. Garvey would be charged with mail fraud in 1923. He was convicted in 1925 and deported in 1927 after serving time in prison.

1922 1929

These are the years usually assigned to the Harlem Renaissance, which marks an epoch in black literature and art.

1925

May 8. A. Philip Randolph organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.

1931

April 6. Nine young blacks were accused of raping two white women in a boxcar. They were tried for their lives in Scottsboro, Alabama, and hastily convicted. The case attracted national attention.

1936

August 9. Jesse Owens won four gold medals at the Summer Olympics in Berlin.

1937

June 22. Joe Louis defeated James J. Braddock to become heavyweight boxing champion of the world.

1940

October 16. Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., became the first black general in the United States Army.

1941

June 25. President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order forbidding discrimination in defense industries after pressure from blacks led by A. Philip Randolph.

1942

June. Some blacks and whites organized the Congress of Racial Equality in Chicago. They led a sit-in at a Chicago restaurant.

1944

April 24. The United Negro College Fund was founded.

October 2. The first working, production-ready model of a mechanical cotton picker was demonstrated on a farm near Clarksdate, Mississippi.

1947

April 19. Jackie Robinson became the first black to play major league baseball.

1950

September 22. Ralph J. Bunche won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work as a mediator in Palestine.

1952

After keeping statistics kept for 71 years, Tuskegee reported that this was first year with no lynchings.

1954

May 17. In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the Supreme Court completed overturning legal school segregation at all levels.

1955

December 1. Rosa Parks refused to change seats in a Montgomery, Alabama, bus. On December 5 blacks began a boycott of the bus system which continued until shortly after December 13, 1956, when the United States Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation in the city.

1957

February 14. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference was formed with Martin Luther King, Jr., as president.

August 29. Congress passed the Voting Rights Bill of 1957, the first major civil rights legislation in more than 75 years.

1960

February 1. Sit-ins in Greensboro, North Carolina, initiated a wave of similar protests throughout the South.

April 15-17. The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee was founded in Raleigh, North Carolina.

1963

April 3. Under the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr., blacks began a campaign against discrimination in Birmingham.

June-August. Civil rights protests took place in most major urban areas.

August 28. The March on Washington was the largest civil rights demonstration ever. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech.

1964

January 23. The Twenty-fourth Amendment forbade the use of the poll tax to prevent voting.

March 12. Malcolm X announced his split from Elijah Muhammad's Nation of Islam. He would be assassinated on February 21, 1965.

July 18-August 30. Beginning in Harlem, serious racial disturbances occurred in more than six major cities.

1965

January 2. The SCLC launched a voter drive in Selma, Alabama. which escalated into a nationwide protest movement.

August 11-21. The Watts riots left 34 dead, more than 3,500 arrested, and property damage of about 225 million dollars.

1966

July 1-9. CORE endorsed the concept "Black Power." SNCC also adopted it. SCLC did not and the NAACP emphatically did not.

October. The Black Panther Party was founded by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California.

1967

May 1-October 1. This was the worst summer for racial disturbances in United States history. More than 40 riots and 100 other disturbances occurred.

1968

April 4. Martin Luther King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. In the following week riots occurred in at least 125 places throughout the country.

1969

October 29. The Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in schools had to end at once and that unitary school systems were required.

1970

July 1. Kenneth Gibson became the first black mayor of an Eastern city when he assumed the post in Newark, New Jersey.

August 7. There was a shootout during an attempted escape in a San Rafael, California, courthouse. Implicated in the incident, Angela Davis went into hiding to avoid arrest. Davis would be acquitted of all charges on June 4, 1972.

1971

March 24. The Southern Regional Council reported that desegregation in Southern schools was the rule, not the exception. The report also pointed out that the dual school system was far from dismantled.

1973

May 29. Thomas Bradley was elected the first black mayor of Los Angeles.

October 16. Maynard H. Jackson was elected the first black mayor of Atlanta.

1974

April 8. Henry Aaron hit his 715th home run to become the all-time leading hitter of home runs.

July 1. The largest single gift to date from a black organization was the $132,000 given by the Links, Inc., to the United Negro College Fund.

1977

February 3. This was the eighth and final night for the miniseries based on Alex Haley's Roots. This final episode achieved the highest ratings ever for a single program.

1980

May 18. Racial disturbances beginning on May 17 resulted in 15 deaths in Miami, Florida. This was the worst riot since those in Watts and Detroit in the 1960s.

1982

May 23. Lee P. Brown was named the first black police commissioner of Houston, Texas.

1983

February 23. Harold Washington won the Democratic party nomination for mayor of Chicago. On April 12 he would win the election for mayor.

June 22. The state legislature of Louisiana repealed the last racial classification law in the United States. The criterion for being classified as black was having 1/32nd Negro blood. November 2. President Ronald Reagan signed the bill establishing a federal holiday in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr.

August 30. Guion (Guy) S. Bluford, Jr. was the first black American astronaut to make a space flight on board the space shuttle Challenger

1986

January 16. A bronze bust of Martin Luther King, Jr., was the first of any black American in the halls of Congress. The first national Martin Luther King, Jr., holiday was celebrated four days later on January 20.

1987

Frederick Drew Gregory was the first black to command a space shuttle

1988

July 20. Jesse L. Jackson received 1,218.5 delegate votes at the Democratic National Convention. The number needed for the nomination, which went to Michael Dukakis, was 2,082.

November 4. Bill Cosby announced his gift of $20,000,000 to Spelman College. This is the largest donation ever made by a black American.

1989

January 29. Barbara Harris was elected the first woman bishop of the Episcopal Church. August 10. General Colin L. Powell was named chair of the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff.

November 7. David Dinkins was elected mayor of New York, and L. Douglas Wilder, governor of Virginia.

1990

February 11. Nelson Mandela, South African Black Nationalist, was freed after 27 years in prison.

May 13. George Augustus Stallings became the first bishop of the African-American Catholic Church, a breakaway group from the Roman Catholic Church.

November 1.Ebony magazine celebrated its 45th anniversary.

1991

January 15. Roland Burris became the first black attorney general of Illinois.

June 18. Wellington Webb was elected mayor of Denver, Colorado.

1992

April 30. "The Cosby Show" broadcast the final original episode of its highly successful eight season run.

August 3. Jackie Joyner-Kersee was the first woman to repeat as Olympic heptathlon champion.

September 12. Mae C. Jemison was first black American woman in space on board the space shuttle Endeavor.

November 3. Carol Moseley Braun of Illinois was the first black woman ever elected to the United States Senate.

1993

September 7. M. Joycelyn Elders became the first black and the first woman United States Surgeon General.

October 7. Toni Morrison was the first black American to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.

1994

October 21. Dexter Scott King, the youngest son of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Coretta Scott King, is named chief executive and chairman of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in Atlanta.

1995

October 16. The Million Man March, the idea of Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan, called the event, held in Washington, D.C., "A Day of Atonement and Reconciliation." The march was described as a call to black men to take charge in rebuilding their communities and show more respect for themselves and devotion to their families.

November 8. Former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Colin Powell, ends months of speculation by announcing that he will not run for the U.S. presidency in 1996.

December 9. Kweisi Mfume is unanimously elected as president and chief executive officer of the NAACP.

1996

April 3. Commerce Secretary Ron Brown and distinguished business leaders are killed in a plane crash in Dubrovnik, Croatia.

1997

June 23. Betty Shabazz, widow of Malcolm X and a champion of civil rights, died in New York of burns suffered in a June 1 fire in her apartment, allegedly set by her 12-year-old grandson, Malcolm.

October 25. Black American women participated in the Million Woman March in Philadelphia, focusing on health care, education, and self-help.

1998

January 15, 1998. Civil rights veteran James Farmer was one of 15 men and women awarded the Medal of Freedom from President Clinton. Born in Marshall, Texas, he was the national director of the Congress of Racial Equality during the 1960s and was one of the most influential leaders of the civil rights movement throughout its most turbulent decade.

January 18, 1998. Now an annual observance, the New York Stock Exchange closed, for the first time, in honor of the birthday of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

September 21. Track star Florence Griffith Joyner died at the age of 38. In the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games, Griffith became the first American woman to win four track and field medals — three gold and one silver — in one Olympic competition.

1999

January 13. After 13 seasons and six NBA championships, professional basketball star Michael Jordan retired from the game.



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On this day in 1619, “20 and odd” Angolans, kidnapped by the Portuguese, arrive in the British colony of Virginia and are then bought by English colonists. The arrival of the enslaved Africans in the New World marks a beginning of two and a half centuries of slavery in North America.

Founded at Jamestown in 1607, the Virginia Colony was home to about 700 people by 1619. The first enslaved Africans to arrive there disembarked at Point Comfort, in what is today known as Hampton Roads. Most of their names, as well as the exact number who remained at Point Comfort, have been lost to history, but much is known about their journey. 

They were originally kidnapped by Portuguese colonial forces, who sent captured members of the native Kongo and Ndongo kingdoms on a forced march to the port of Luanda, the capital of modern-day Angola. From there, they were ordered on the slave ship San Juan Bautista, which set sail for Veracruz in the colony of New Spain. As was quite common, about 150 of the 350 captives aboard the ship died during the crossing. Then, as it approached its destination, the ship was attacked by two privateer ships, the White Lion and the Treasurer. Crews from the two ships stole up to 60 of the Bautista’s slaves. It was the White Lion which docked at Virginia Colony’s Point Comfort and traded some of the prisoners for food on August 20, 1619.

Scholars note that the arrivals were technically sold as indentured servants. Indentured servants agreed, or in many cases were forced, to work with no pay for a set amount of time, often to pay off a debt and could legally expect to become free at the end of the contract. Many Europeans who arrived in the Americas came as indentured servants. Despite this classification—and records which indicate that some of them did eventually obtain their freedom—it is clear that the Africans arriving at Point Comfort in 1619 were forced into servitude and that they fit the Universal Declaration of Human Rights’ definition of enslaved peoples.

The arrival at Point Comfort marked a new chapter in the history of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, which began in the early 1500s and continued into the mid-1800s. The trade uprooted roughly 12 million Africans, depositing roughly 5 million in Brazil and over 3 million in the Caribbean. Though the number of Africans brought to mainland North America was relatively small—roughly 400,000—their labor and that of their descendants was crucial to the economies of the British colonies and, later, the United States.

READ MORE: How Slavery Became the Economic Engine of the South

Two of the Africans who arrived aboard the White Lion, Antonio and Isabella, became “servants” of Captain William Tucker, commander of Point Comfort. Their son William is the first known African child to have been born in America, and under the law of the time he was born a freeman. In the coming decades, however, slavery became codified. 

Servants of African origin were oftentimes forced to continue working after the end of their contract, and in 1640 a Virginia court sentenced rebellious servant John Punch to a lifetime of slavery. With fewer white indentured servants arriving from England, a racial caste system developed and African servants were increasingly held for life. In 1662, a Virginia court ruled that children born to enslaved mothers were the property of the mother’s owner.

As cash crops like tobacco, cotton and sugar became pillars of the colonial economy, slavery became its engine. Though the slave trade was outlawed in 1807, chattel slavery and the plantation economy it made possible flourished in the South. The 1860 census found that there were 3,953,760 enslaved people in the United States, making up roughly 13 percent of the total population.

The conflict between abolitionists and those who wanted to preserve and spread slavery was a major catalyst in the outbreak of the Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln formally freed enslaved people in the South with the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, although it was not until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865 that slavery was totally abolished in the United States.

READ MORE: The Last American Slave Ship

In the end, 246 brutal years of slavery had an incalculable effect on American society. It would take another century after the Civil War for racial segregation to be declared unconstitutional, but the end of state-sanctioned racism was by no means the end of racism and discrimination in America. Because it became a crucial part of the culture and economy of early America after its introduction in Jamestown, slavery is often referred to as the nation’s “original sin.”

Source: https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-african-slave-ship-arrives-jamestown-colony

Источник: http://bowienewsonline.com/2020/08/first-enslaved-africans-arrive-in-jamestown-setting-the-stage-for-slavery-in-north-america/

The Transatlantic Slave Trade and Origins of the African Diaspora in Texas

The Transatlantic Slave Trade and Origins of the African Diaspora in Texas2019-12-15T15:20:49-06:00

Facts and Figures About the Transatlantic Slave Trade

“The enemies of Africa wish to persuade the world that five out of the six thousand years that the world has existed, Africa has always been sunk in barbarism, and that ignorance is essential to the nature of her inhabitants. Have they forgotten that Africa was the cradle of the arts and sciences? If they pretend to forget this, it becomes our duty to remind them of it.”

– Baron De Vastey, African Haitian, writer, 1817

By  Dr. Glenn Chambers
Asst. Professor of History
Texas A&M University

     The creation of the modern African Diaspora in the Americas is largely the result of a tumultuous period in world history in which Africans were scattered abroad by the pressures of plantation slavery and the ideologies associated with white supremacy. The formation of the black societies and cultures in the Americas that trace their beginnings to this unfortunate period in world history represent a socio-historical phenomenon in which enslaved Africans and their descendants persevered to create a vibrant cultural legacy owing much to both Africa and the Americas, despite the systematic pressures of slave owners and overseers to erase the memory of Africa from the hearts and minds of the population.
Regardless of where one travels throughout the Diaspora, whether in Where is the security code on td bank debit card America, the Caribbean, or North America, it is impossible to elude the numerous similarities in art, cuisine, religion, community organization, speech patterns, and world view that pay homage to the legacy of the African experience in the Americas.
The African Diaspora has been defined by the noted historian Joseph Harris as the sovereign online banking customer login and involuntary dispersion of Africans globally throughout history; the emergence of a cultural identity based on origin and social condition; and the psychological and physical return of those in the Diaspora to Africa. Within this definition, Africa is clearly based at the center of any discussion of the Diaspora and has created a tenuous debate within both scholarly and popular circles as to whether the Diaspora remains connected directly to Africa as evidenced by the numerous Africanisms and cultural retentions in the Diaspora that demonstrate to some an unyielding linkage between Africa and the Diaspora unaffected by slavery, or is the Diaspora something else, with its members impacted as much by the social, cultural, and economic legacies of slavery and colonialism in the Americas as by their ancestral homes on the African continent.
It is probable that the answer lies somewhere in the middle depending on the particular situation and how sustainable the relationship between Africa and the country of arrival. In areas such as the Caribbean and Latin America, particularly Brazil and Cuba, clearly discernible African influences persist well into the twenty-first century due to the short life span of enslaved labor on sugar plantations in the region and therefore, the continuous importation of Africans into these areas legally and later clandestinely well into the nineteenth century. In the Southern United States, due to the banning of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in 1807 and the relatively sustainable working conditions of cotton agriculture, slave owners relied primarily on natural reproduction to increase its enslaved population, thus severing the immediate ties with Africa.
However, this is not to suggest that Africa did not persist to be a relevant factor in the lives of the enslaved.  This essay focuses on the history of the African Diaspora in the American South, particularly the modern state of Texas. The study of the Diaspora in Texas has received considerable attention in recent years as scholars amazon account number begun to revisit the history of slavery and Jim Crow in the South and
Southwest. However, the African Diaspora in Texas has a history that stretches beyond these two themes, due largely to the numerous social, political, economic, and cultural realities that converged in this region as a result of its legacy of falling at various times under the political jurisdiction of both the Spanish and French Empires, Mexico, the Confederacy, the United States, and for a brief, but significant period, an independent nation.
For years, Texas remained on the periphery of discussions on slavery due largely to its status as a frontier region and mobile homes for rent in south carolina dual distinction of representing the rich Mexican and Mexican-American traditions and cultural heritages of the Southwest due to its former status as a Mexican possession as well as the rich legacy of cowboy culture. However, the history of slavery in the Lone star State dates back to the early Spanish settlements of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The institution did not come to play the pivotal role in the Texas economy until Anglo colonization from the Southern United States in the microsoft 360 teams login to the end of the Civil War.
Slavery proved instrumental to the economic success of Texas. As cotton cultivation moved westward, so did the demand for slave labor. Many of the enslaved, like their Anglo-American owners, came to Texas from Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky. Still others were imported into Texas from all over the South in what some have described as the second Middle Passage in which almost one million African Americans were transported from the Upper South (Virginia, Maryland, and the Carolinas) to expanding cotton plantation economies in the Deep South. This internal slave trade unites all African-Americans regardless of the state their ancestors resided in at emancipation. Because only 30% of African Americans on the eve of the Civil War would likely die in the same state they were born, the lives of the enslaved population were in constant flux. Therefore, the history of Africans and their descendants, whether in Africa or santander bank login us the Americas, is one of continuous movement.
Texas shares a unique history with other Southern states such as Louisiana, Florida, and the Carolinas in that much of its early history beginning with European contact was influenced by Southern Europeans, mainly the Spanish, and tied more to the history of colonial Latin America and the Caribbean, rather than the Anglo-Saxon and Dutch influenced colonies of the Mid-Atlantic and New England.
The African Diaspora in what would later become Texas began in 1528, not with plantation slavery, but with the early missions of Spanish conquistadors and explorers.
The first known African to reach Texas was Estéban the Moor, or Estebánico as he is commonly known.  He was an enslaved African who survived the failed Panfilo Narváez expedition from Cuba to Florida. In an attempt to reach Mexico by raft, Estéban, along with his owner Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, and Alonso del Castillo Maldonado were shipwrecked on what is now Galveston Island.  Estéban’s landing on the island made him the first known person born in Africa to set foot in what would become the continental United States. He, along with Cabeza what hair salon is open today near me Vaca, later explored Texas and accounts of their journey were instrumental in inspiring other Spaniards to explore the Southwest.

Because of Estéban’s rapport with Native Americans, due in part to his African ancestry and ability to learn languages and relate to their culture and traditions, the expedition was often given safe passage on their journey. Estéban made a second voyage through Texas in 1539 as part of the Niza expedition in search of the mythic Seven Cities of Cibola. He was later killed by the Zuni Indians reportedly because he was carrying a religious gourd rattle given to him by Indians from an area south of the Zuni. The Zuni believed that Estéban would lead invaders to them and as a result, killed him. Before he died, Estéban’s voyages successfully marked the route by which Coronado would later follow in his own expeditions.
Despite the legend surrounding Estéban and his lasting imprint on the history of the African Diaspora specifically and the Southwest in general, his most important contribution to understanding the multi-faceted dimensions of the history of Africans in the Americas lies not in his exploits, but rather on his personal journey. Born in the Portuguese North African enclave of Azamor, Estéban, like many early captive Africans, was enslaved at an early age and forcibly converted to Roman Catholicism and indoctrinated in Iberian languages and culture. His status as a ladino, or a Hispanicized First african slaves arrived in virginia slave made him a highly prized commodity in both Iberia and the Americas.
Many of the first Africans enslaved in colonial Latin America were ladino slaves born in either Upper Guinea, the Senegambia, or North Africa and acculturated in the Iberian peninsula, or born in the Iberian peninsula. Similar to Estéban, many of the early Africans were pivotal to the expansion of Spanish authority in the Americas due to their involvement in the conquest of Native Americans. In
almost every facet of the conquest, there was participation by people of African descent. These early African “conquistadors” were almost always enslaved Africans carrying out the orders of their Spanish owners. Almost all were enslaved either in the Iberian Peninsula or on Spanish Caribbean possessions.  In these locales, they acquired skills or trades that proved useful to conquering expeditions.
Unfortunately, most of what we know of black conquistadors comes as a result of them killing a native ruler or being killed by natives themselves, or from their efforts in saving the life of a prominent Spaniard. From the records of expeditions known to employ black conquistadors in Honduras, Peru, Chile, Florida, Mexico, and the Carolinas, there is little to discern regarding the individual experiences of these men.
The early African presence in Texas did not end with the death of Estéban.
Subsequent Spanish expeditions in Texas during the seventeen century found instances of descendants of Africans living with Native Americans on the coast near the mouth of the Rio Grande. It is believed that they were descended from either enslaved Africans in earlier Spanish settlements or survivors of shipwrecked vessels from other Spanish areas. When the Spanish began to establish permanent settlements in Texas during the eighteenth century, African descendants were involved in the process just as they had been in other regions of the empire. Many of the early Spanish garrisons in Texas contained either blacks or Afro-mestizos within its ranks.

African Origins, Aaa bank of america mastercard login Realities: The Middle Passage and the Dispersal of a People

Any discussion of the African Diaspora in the Americas must begin with the Transatlantic Slave Trade.  Michael Gomes describes the event as the “quintessential moment of transfiguration, the height of human alienation, and disorientation” of a group of people unlike any other in history. The slave trade began on African soil and involved Africans, Arabs, and Europeans alike. It would be disingenuous to over-simplify the trade as Africans selling other Africans into slavery. Notions of African or Black unity in the Western sense did not exist.
Some have used such arguments to shift the blame for the horrors of the Middle Passage and the plantation experience in the Americas from the European traders who profited from the buying and selling of humans and the American slave owners who capitalized on over three centuries of free labor to Africans. Ethnicity was a marker of identity on the African continent. Raids, kidnappings, and warfare produced the majority of captives brought to the Americas. There were instances of African rulers selling their own subjects into bondage as well as criminals, house servants, and debtors. However, the majority of the enslaved were captured in ethnic conflicts or kidnapped by slave traders.
European slavers often relied on native African or mixed raced (African and European) middlemen to penetrate the interior of the continent and capture men and women to be sold along the coast. This experience alone was traumatic. Once captured, Africans were tied together by rope, and later marched hundreds of miles while suffering from thirst, hunger, exhaustion, physical injuries, and the anxiety of not knowing where they were going or their fate once they reached their final destination. Many did not survive the journey from the interior to the coast. Some died en route while others were too emaciated and weak to endure the transatlantic voyage.
John Blassingame notes that once the captured Africans arrived on the coast, they underwent physical “examinations” in which they were made to jump up and down, and had their genital organs handled by a doctor. Those Africans chosen to make the voyage to the Americas were branded with the seal of the European companies who transported them.
Images of the Middle Passage have captivated the American imagination in recent years. Hollywood films such as “Roots,” based on the Alex Haley novel of the same name and Steven Spielberg’s “Amistad,” based on the 1839 slave mutiny that questioned the legality of slave trafficking in the United States, have detailed the horrors of the trade in African captives to North America. The Cuban director Tomás Gutierrez Alea’s “The Last Supper,” Haile Gerima’s “Sankofa,” and the Brazilian Carlos Diegues’ “Quilombo,” have also contributed to the understanding of the global implications of the Middle Passage and the creation of the African Diaspora in the Americas.
Countless books, articles, novels, and other medium have also been can anyone get usaa home insurance to further our understanding of the nuances of the slave trade and its impact on social, political, economic, and cultural spheres of past and present society. However, for the dearth of information available on the subject, most continue to understate the legacy of those captive Africans forced from their homelands to
embark on the horrendous journey that ended with their enslavement.
Scholars disagree on the number of Africans shipped from Africa to the Americas during the Transatlantic Slave Trade. There is no way to be 100 percent accurate given the unavailability of extensive data documenting each and every transatlantic voyage from the inception of the trade to its demise. Estimates range as low as 5 million to as high as 100 million. There is some consensus that the numbers range between 10-12 million. While exact numbers are debatable, the available data from voyages between 1662 and 1867 does much to demonstrate the distribution of Africans throughout the Americas. During this period, roughly 90 percent of captive Africans ended up in Latin America and the Caribbean with 40 percent going to Brazil, 37 percent to the British and French Caribbean, and 10 percent to the Spanish colonies.
Only 7 percent of captive Africans ended up in British North America (the modern United States). The origins of these Africans can be traced to four regions of the African continent: West Central Africa, the Bight of Benin, the Bight of Biafra, and the Gold Coast. The Kongo ethnicity represented the majority of Africans taken from West Central Africa. Their influence was strong in Brazil, Cuba, Haiti, and portions of the United States such as Louisiana. This group was at the center of many of the early slave insurrections in the Americas.
The establishment of the maroon communities of Palmares in Brazil, San Basilio de Palenque in Colombia, the Haitian Revolution and countless other rebellions were overly represented by Africans originating from West Central Africa. In Louisiana, informal musical gatherings of West African slaves at Congo Square, named for the largest African ethnicity imported into Louisiana at the time, provided the early foundations for what would become jazz.
The Congo peoples had a profound impact on the philosophical and religious world view of the African Diaspora in the Americas.
Generally, the Congo people believe in a divided cosmos comprised of the natural world and the land of the ancestors. The worlds are often divided by a body of water. Adherents believe that life is a cyclical movement between the natural and ancestral world. Life does not end at death, with the latter serving only as a transition into another reality. For many of the enslaved Africans of Congo origin, to die in the struggle for freedom meant only that their bodies would return to the land of the ancestors. As a result, death in many ways offered relief from the horrors of the plantation.
Those Africans from the Bight of Benin consisted overwhelmingly of the Fon, Ewe, and Yoruba ethnicities.  Their impact is also
evident in many of the religious traditions of the African Diaspora. The African-American Baptist ritual of water baptism, Haitian Vodun, Louisiana Voodoo, Cuban santería, Brazilian candomble, and numerous other religious traditions of the Diaspora trace their origins to these groups from the areas that now constitute the southwestern corner of modern Nigeria.
The Yoruba concept of orí proved a particularly enduring legacy among the enslaved population. In traditional Yoruba philosophy, orí refers to the bearer of a person’s destiny as well as the determinant of personality. The term literally means “head” and represents the spiritual and physical duality within human beings.
There is a common belief among the Yoruba that an individual can be healed both spiritually and physically by aligning themselves with the orishas to achieve balance or inner peace. It is this desire for balance that rests at the heart of plantation culture in the Americas in which Africans and their descendants struggled to retain their African character while being bombarded by the traditions of Europeans.
Those Africans from West Central Africa, the Gold Coast, and the Bight of Benin came from centralized states with standing armies.
As a result, these groups were harder to subdue than the more agrarian societies of the Bight of Biafra where amazon prime video phone number large numbers of Ibibio, Ijo, and Ibo originated. Therefore, it is not surprising that many of the slave insurrections in the Americas were organized by members of these ethnicities.
The Akan and Ga peoples of the Gold Coast, in modern day Ghana, were overly represented in the enslaved populations in the British Caribbean, most notably Jamaica. Like the Kongo, the Akan were instrumental in many of the slave rebellions in the region. The maroon communities of Cudjoe and Nanny in Jamaica and their numerous cultural, linguistic, and religious traditions trace their origins
to this group.
A fiercely independent and resilient people, the Akan legacy manifests itself in lasting, though sometimes subtle ways. Some of their most important mythological stories, known Anansesem or “spider stories,” which revolve around a trickster spider in human form manifest themselves in the Anansi stories of the British Caribbean and the Brer Rabbit stories of the American South.
The aforementioned regions of Africa represented the largest number of enslaved Africans brought to the Americas in the over two hundred year period between 1662 and 1867 in which the slave trade was most active. However, the Transatlantic Slave Trade began much earlier in the 15th century shortly after the European discovery of the Americas. The first Africans arrived in the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo as early as 1501. Some of the earliest groups of Africans brought to the Americas traced their origins to the Senegambia and Upper Guinea regions of the present day nations of Senegal, the Gambia, Mali, Guinea, and Guinea-Bissau.
Relatively speaking, the region was culturally homogenous and shared a common sense of history. Many of the languages in the region are mutually intelligible. The empires of Ghana, Songhai, Mali, and the Muslim Almoravids all had their beginnings in the Senegambia region.
The Trans-Saharan trade brought this region into contact with the Arab, Mediterranean, and Iberian world centuries prior to other regions in West Africa. This exposure, while initially providing lucrative gains to African leaders and merchants through the trade in gold and salt, proved detrimental in other ways due to the development of the slave trade. Many of the first Africans enslaved in the How to change address online wells fargo peninsula and other parts of the Mediterranean world were products of this trade that was often spearheaded by Arab and Muslim merchants and traders in North Africa. Others arrived as a result of Portugal’s early inroads into the African continent.
It is estimated that between 1475 and 1540, some 12,000 people were transported as captives from the Gold Coast of Africa. African merchants along the coast imported people enslaved from other regions of Africa. Some merchants used the slaves to extract gold from the mines in the regions. Others sold Africans as commodities once contact with Europeans and commercial relations were firmly
established.
Initially, slaves were transported from the Iberian Peninsula to the Americas in sizable numbers at the encouragement of the Spanish Crown. Most of these early enslaved Africans were Iberian-born descendents of Senegambians who had been nominally Christianized and indoctrinated in Iberian culture. The Spanish continually allowed for the introduction of these Africans into the Americas until the high cost of importation and their prominent role in Native American insurrections led the crown to prefer the exclusive importation of African born slaves.
The importation of African born slaves did not make life easier for the Spanish. Most the African born slaves in the early periods of colonization continued to come from Upper Guinea and the Senegambia region, of which the Wolof, Mandinka, Mandingo, Bambara, and others were prominent. These groups continued to be santander bank login us in slave insurrections from Hispaniola to Louisiana throughout the
sixteenth and seventeenth century. Once the French took over the slave trade in the Senegambian region in the seventeenth century, they continued to export Africans to their colonies in the Americas.
Two-thirds of all enslaved Africans brought to Louisiana during the French colonial period were of Senegambian origin, mainly Wolof and Bambara. Many scholars argue that it was the Bambara culture in particular that served as the foundation for many of the Afro-Creole beliefs in Louisiana such as the transmigration of the soul, social organization, the use of charms, and sense of justice. Each of these concepts proved instrumental in many of the early slave insurrections in Louisiana. There was little fear of retribution from whites on the part of the enslaved. The hierarchical structure within Senegambian society and the strong belief that death offered a return to the ancestral home and liberation from bondage motivated many of the enslaved to persevere.
The connection between the African Diasporas in Louisiana and Texas are strong considering that many Africans from Louisiana were imported into Texas as a result of the internal slave trade. Still, thousands of Black Louisianans migrated to Texas beginning in the period after Reconstruction and continuing to the present day. As a result, the linkages between these early Senegambians enslaved in the former French possession and Texas are just as strong as the linkages between Texas and those Africans enslaved in the original thirteen colonies of British North America.

The Transatlantic Slave Trade and the Origins of the African Diaspora in British North America

Much of the available information on slavery in North America analyzes four distinct patterns that existed in the original thirteen colonies on the eve of the American Revolution. Distinctions are drawn between the Chesapeake region encompassing Virginia, Maryland, and parts of Delaware; the Low Country region consisting of the Carolinas and later Georgia; the Mid-Atlantic, inclusive of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania; and the New England colonies of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island and Maine.
The most important pattern for understanding plantation slavery as it evolved in the American South and later Texas was represented by the Chesapeake region. Because Virginia was the first of the British North American colonies to develop a strong plantation economy centered on enslaved African labor, and due to the early migration of Virginians to other regions in what would become the American South, the colony in many ways codified the social and legal system that would define U.S. race relations.
For years, scholars maintained that a Dutch slave vessel was responsible for bringing the first Africans to Virginia. However, in recent years new evidence has surfaced indicating two English pirate ships actually intercepted a Portuguese ship in the Gulf of Mexico and transported the Africans to Jamestown. All of these early Africans are thought to have been of the Congo ethnicity as they were taken from a port in modern day Angola. Because chattel slavery was not entrenched within colonial Virginian society when the Africans arrived, scholars debate whether these initial Africans served in an indentured capacity or were immediately enslaved.
Some of these early Africans, specifically one Anthony Johnson, rose to prominence in colonial society, while others suffered a fate of perpetual indentured servitude and slavery. The status of Africans in early Virginia was often in question. It is not until the 1640s that evidence of Africans being enslaved in the traditional sense surfaces. Even then, it was the result of a legal sentence, rather than a status acquired at birth. The legal system was instrumental in advancing the institution of slavery as blacks became more likely to be enslaved for minor offenses. Children born of interracial unions were also subject to long periods of servitude due to the taboos within colonial society alaska air customer service telephone number racial mixture between blacks and whites, particularly white women and black men.
From 1619 through the end of the seventeenth century, the rights of Africans and their descendants in Virginia were constantly being threatened. The dissolution of rights, coupled with the increased development of the tobacco industry and its need for consistent labor would have devastating implications for Africans and their descendants. Slavery as an institution in Virginia was solidified with the Slave Codes of 1705. As a result, black and African became synonymous with slavery.
After the solidification of the plantation system, slavery in Virginia and Maryland grew faster than the white population for the next century. The Tidewater region, Piedmont, and Southern Maryland experienced the largest growth in the black population. Virginia counties along the York River contained the highest number of enslaved Africans as the river provided the main artery for slave traders to bring Africans into the region and possessed some of the best agricultural lands to establish plantations.
Though both were fully engaged in the enslavement of Africans and plantation agriculture, slavery in Virginia and Maryland developed differently in terms of their impact on the larger Diaspora in the Southern United States. Maryland was a relatively small state without much room to expand. As a result, following the American Revolution and the ban on the Transatlantic trade, slavery in Maryland decreased. By the Civil War, nearly fifty percent of the black population was free. It was from the freed population in places like Maryland that many of prepaid bankofamerica eddcard early African-American settlers of Liberia originated. Virginia, on the other hand, due in part to its extensive territory, saw the expansion of slavery and growth in the black population until the Civil War. However, by the nineteenth century, the breeding of slaves to be shipped to emerging territories throughout the South rivaled plantation agriculture economically.
Though British North America received only 7 percent of all enslaved Africans during the trade, the impact of this population on the social and cultural dimensions of early America were numerous. In areas where there were fewer white settlers or Native Americans, African cultural retentions persisted. Such was the case in the Low Country of South Carolina and Georgia where Gullah cultural
markers reflect direct linkages with specific ethnicities and regions of West Africa.
Although the first Africans arrived in the Carolinas as part of a Spanish expedition in the early sixteenth century, slavery as an institution was developed by Anglo settlers from Barbados who established large rice and indigo plantations in the region in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Africans continuously outnumbered whites in the low country and during the early years of
the development of the institution came either from the West Indies or directly from Africa. The culture of the slave community in the Carolinas reflects almost all regions of West Schools financial credit union phone number, unlike Louisiana for instance in which Senegambia and later the Congo were overly represented.
After the implementation of the ban on the Transatlantic Slave Trade in 1808, most of the enslaved Africans arriving in South Carolina came from the Chesapeake region. After 1808, Virginia and the Carolinas supplied large numbers of slaves to the Lower South and West. As a result, the history of these regions directly relates to development of Black Texas in that Texas in many instances represents the culmination of a journey for many African-Americans that began on the continent of Africa, through the West Indies, to Virginia, the Carolinas, the Mid-South, and ultimately the plains of East and Central Texas.
The process by which Africans became African Americans continually evolved throughout the duration of the institution of slavery. Initially, clear distinctions were drawn between those slaves born on the continent of Africa and those born in the Americas. The trauma of capture in Africa, the Middle Passage, enslavement and life on the plantations did much to change the concept of Africa in the minds of slaves on the plantation. The “seasoning process,” as this indoctrination came to be known, was equivalent to the breaking of horses. The goal was to condition African captives for their new status as slaves first african slaves arrived in virginia the plantation zones of the Americas.
For those African born captives, traders tried to present them as being as much like Creole slaves as possible. The belief was that Creole slaves, because they were born in the Americas under conditions of slavery and therefore had no knowledge of an independent life in Africa, were more likely to accept their lot in life as enslaved.
To help “Creolize” African born captives, traders usually shaved all of the hair from their bodies, washed them, and oiled them with palm oil. The captive African was fed in small amounts and trained, often through violent coercion, not to resist having their body parts examined. In some instances, slaves were placed into work gangs for a few weeks in the West Indies before being sold in the American South to condition them to the back-breaking labor on the plantation.
Another aspect of the seasoning process was the branding, renaming, and torturing of the enslaved. The branding process was not a new one for Africans who experienced the Middle Passage. Many of the enslaved were branded with the marks of the companies or traders who captured and sold them aboard slave vessels in Africa. In the Americas, many Africans were branded again with the mark of their new owner. The renaming process did much to establish an immediate rift between the enslaved and their ethnic identity in Africa. Names, either Christian or from ancient Greece and Rome are prevalent in the records of the Chesapeake and Carolina colonies. African derived names such as Cudjoe, Cuffee, Quack, Squash, Mingo, and others were also common in the Carolinas.
In addition to stripping the African of his freedom, ethnicity, religion, and original name, the seasoning process did much to diminish any possibility of unity among the enslaved. Older, creole slaves were often put in charge of the seasoning process. wells fargo online banking contact phone number experienced slaves taught the basics of working in gangs, proper behavior toward whites and also other blacks within the slave hierarchy on the plantation, and more importantly how to apply what they knew in Africa (agriculturally) to the American environment.
Particularly in the colonial Carolinas where Africans from rice growing regions of the Senegambia were favored on the rice plantations in the Low Country, African agricultural methods were preferred by owners in order to maximize economic gains on the plantations.
Similar trends have been documented in colonial Latin America in which Africans from the Gold Coast were preferred in the mining zones of Colombia, Peru, and Mexico.
In the Low Country region, rice production was organized either in labor gangs or through the task system in which slaves days were portioned out to perform specific duties. This afforded the enslaved population more individual time depending on the intensity with which they completed their assigned daily tasks. This ultimately helped preserve more first african slaves arrived in virginia of African culture in apply for an employer identification number ein the enslaved population was afforded more time to pass on traditions and customs to subsequent generations. This ended after the transition from rice to cotton production as the largest cash crop in the region. Cotton cultivation was less labor intensive than rice or indigo cultivation. The problem arose when many planters decided to transition to gang labor, therefore regulating a larger portion of the enslaved population’s time. The introduction of cotton cultivation also signaled the beginning of the expansion of slavery beyond the original colonies.
The experiences of women during the Middle Passage and later the seasoning process and plantation living were particularly harsh. Women were often subject to the unwanted sexual advances of the white captors and slave owners. Enslaved women endured the constant threat and practice of rape sexual exploitation.
Because these women were legally and socially considered property with no rights, there were no safeguards to protect them from harassment, rape, or long-term concubinage by masters and overseers. The abuse was widespread, often producing mixed-raced children, who due to the strict racial structure which defined anyone born to an enslaved mother as also enslaved, or anyone with known or visible African ancestry as black, were caught between two diametrically opposed worlds.
Sexual abuse on plantations was widespread, as powerful white males took full advantage of their situation.  Even in situations where black women seemed willing to partake in sexual relationships with white men, such as the “danses des milatresses” (octoroon and quadroon balls) of New Orleans in which women of color entered into contractual arrangements of concubinage, or plaçage, with
wealthy whites in exchange for a home, prestige, education for children born to the union, and material possessions, in reality the nature of plantation society and the racial hierarchy left her with little choice. No matter the circumstances women were subjected to in this environment, enslaved men were powerless to protect black women from exploitation.
Those captive Africans arriving directly from Africa possessed a sense of ethnicity and culture shaped by their African world view.
Plantation owners in the American South realized the strength the enslaved population garnered from the African-born due largely to the significant number of African-born slaves involved in early insurrections, despite the brutality of the seasoning process. The African-born were also more likely to runaway. This created significant financial loss to the owner in that not only did he lose an able-bodied slave, but many runaways created maroon societies or joined with Indians to wreak havoc on owners by recruiting other slaves to run away, stealing food and supplies, or kidnapping female slaves for companionship.
The history of maroon communities has been well documented in Latin America and the Caribbean.  However, very little attention has been given to the numerous communities that existed in what is now the United States. Over fifty communities are known to have existed in the swamps, forests, and mountains of Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia and the Gulf Coast states of Mississippi, Louisiana, Florida, and Alabama.  Within these settlements, Africans lived a relatively autonomous existence by planting their own crops, hunting, gathering, and selling products to outsiders. Maroon communities only flourished in areas where white settlement was scarce and the terrain too difficult to attract white settlers.
In order to curb losses due to marronage, plantation owners outlawed many outward expressions of African identity in the American South. African religion, cultural manifestations such as dance and drumming, and language, suffered under the strict regulation by plantation owners. The how to cancel amazon prime after 30 days was specifically outlawed when it was discovered that its rhythms could be used as a form of communication among the enslaved.  Such repression did much to quell the number of revolts. However, Africans never stopped asserting their right to freedom as evidenced by the numerous slave revolts and conspiracies that transpired throughout the South.
The act of running away and starting new communities or engaging in armed struggle against the slave system is often referred to as ‘grand marronage.” This was by far the most direct form of slave resistance on the plantation. However, first african slaves arrived in virginia acts of rebellion known as “petite marronage” were more prominent. Acts, such as breaking tools, feigning illness, and damaging crops were all methods
employed to create work stoppage and ease the burden of the enslaved, if only briefly. There is also evidence to indicate that some enslaved women used abortifacients or even engaged in infanticide to deny the planter class an increase in enslaved labor. Though the levels of this practice are debatable, such accounts indicate that the enslaved population, particularly in North America, did not readily accept their fate.
In Latin America, particularly Cuba and Brazil, African traditions were transformed within the plantation environment and retained through ethnic societies sanctioned by the colonial governments  In Cuba, African mutual aid societies known as cabildos de nación, met in private and because of their spatial distance from church officials, became very attractive to Afro-Cubans. Cabildos allowed the enslaved the means to enjoy much more religious and cultural autonomy. Plantation owners saw the value in allowing Africans to retain some sense of ethnicity in that it proved easier to control labor and maintain ethnic tensions between the enslaved. This level of autonomy was in many ways synonymous with cultural autonomy in that cabildos proved to be a fertile ground for the nurturing of African traditions. As a result, here exist more outward manifestations of African-derived culture in Latin America than in other parts
of the Diaspora.  However, this does not mean that Africa disappeared from the conscience of enslaved Africans in British North America.
Africans in North America had to recast their culture and traditions in means acceptable to their owners.  Africans took up European instruments and played them in distinct ways to replace the rhythm of the drum. African sensibilities were brought to vocal and musical performance to create a new and vibrant culture that still owed allegiances to Africa. As a result, some have argued for a “creolist” interpretation of the African Diaspora in which the constant reinvention of Africans and their descendants in the Americas contributed to a uniquely American experience, but deeply rooted in the African tradition.
While plantation slavery in North America was a uniquely Southern phenomenon, the institution of slavery was not. The history of slavery in the Northern colonies has a history almost as long as in the South.  However, slavery in the North developed quite differently from the Southern variety. Northern colonists preferred to import enslaved African labor from the Caribbean rather than directly from Africa. Barbados, Jamaica, and Curaçao were the origins of the majority of slaves headed North, with the former supplying the British influenced New England colonies and the latter supplying the former Dutch areas of the Mid-Atlantic. Like their Southern counterparts, Northern owners felt that captive Africans were a riskier investment and preferred those Africans who had been conditioned to slave society. In addition, Africans imported directly from the continent suffered tremendously from Northern winters and were often incapacitated or perished due to the drastic shift in climate.
Unlike the plantation system in the South which was often rural, slavery in Northern environments was overwhelmingly urban.
Africans were often purchased as symbols of economic and social status and worked in a domestic capacity. Large scale agricultural enterprises were rare due to the shorter growing season in the North. The absence of large plantations in no way undermines the struggles of those Africans enslaved in the North. The rights of Africans were stripped of them in Northern locales just as they were in the South. They were still the property of their white owners. Working in a domestic capacity increased the chances of many of the enslaved women being taken advantage of sexually. Because of their closer proximity to whites and isolation from other blacks (most slave owners had no more than two slaves) Africans in the North were more susceptible to assimilation of Western culture.
However, there are instances of African retentions, mainly burial practices surviving in Northern areas throughout the colonial period as evidenced by Akan spiritual markings on graves uncovered during the African Burial Ground project in New York City. African names survive in many of the colonial African cemeteries in places such as Newport, Rhode Island, a city that was instrumental in slave trafficking and slave ship building throughout the period of the transatlantic trade.

The Long, Wayward Voyage: The Emergence of the African Diaspora in Texas

The recorded history of the African Diaspora in Texas began with the expeditions of Estéban and developed further with the early Spanish settlements that introduced enslaved African labor into the territory. However, it was the origins of the institution in the British colonies of North America and the Caribbean that had the greatest impact on the history of Black Texans. Thousands of Texans trace their ancestry back to those enslaved Africans transported in coffles from the Chesapeake and Low Country into the new territories of Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas following the removal of Native Americans from these areas in the nineteenth century.
The expansion of cotton into these regions became synonymous with an increase in the internal slave trade.  The culture of Texans of African descent reflects the rich diversity within the slave community. Though Texas is considered for some the final stop on the long journey of African enslavement in North America, in many instances the state marks the beginning of a new journey for people of
African descendants with strong similarities to the early history of British North America.
The internal slave trade was primarily responsible for the increase in the enslaved population of Texas from the early nineteenth century while the state was still a part of Mexico until the U.S. Civil War. However, the state was also involved in the clandestine enterprise known as the foreign slave trade in which thousands of slaves were imported directly from Africa after 1808 despite the ban on the Trans-Atlantic trade. It is unclear as to the number of Africans illegally imported into the United States, but judging from the available political correspondence on the practice in the United States during the period, the numbers were significant. Texas, particularly Galveston and the areas at the mouth of the Rio Grande, served as a direct link in the trade of human cargo between Africa, Cuba, Louisiana, and other locales throughout the region.
Because of its size and terrain, Texas served as a safe haven for illegal slave traffickers such as the Bowie brothers and Jean and Pierre Laffite. However, the far reaches of the state also provided sanctuary for many enslaved Africans who chose to flee the brutality of slavery through marronage. Many of the slaves ran away to Native American tribes or made their us bank business checking account requirements across the Mexican border after Texas became independent. As a result, a culture of mixed African, Native American, and Spanish influences emerged.
From the early expeditions of Estéban to the establishment of the plantation industrial complex, Africans in the Americans have endured the brutality and uncertainty associated with the institution of slavery and the turmoil of being physically disconnected from Africa. Despite being captured in the interior of the continent, sold along the coast, enduring the Middle Passage and the seasoning
process, Africans and their descendents persevered to create a new reality that bore striking similarities to their former lives in Africa, yet represented a new American reality.
The African Diaspora in Texas represented the culmination of a journey that involved numerous social,political, and economic realities. Tracing its history in what is now the United States from the early British North American colonies, French and Spanish Louisiana, Latin America, and the Caribbean, the culture that developed in Texas represents nearly every facet of the American experience.

Sources:

  • Barr, Alwyn. Black Texans: A History of African Americans in Texas, 1528-1995. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.
  • Blassingame, John W.  The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Ante-Bellum
  • South, New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.
  • Berlin, Ira and Ronald Hoffman, eds. Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the American Revolution. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986.
  • Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1972.
  • Conniff, Michael and Thomas J. Davis. Africans in the Americas: A History of the Black
  • Diaspora.  Caldwell, NJ: Blackburn Press, 2002.
  • Franklin, John Hope.  From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans. New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 1998.
  • Gilroy, Paul. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.
  • Gomez, Michael A. Reversing Sail: A History of the African Diaspora. New York:
  • Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • ____________¬___. Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South. Chapel Hill:
    University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
  • Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-
  • Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1995.
  • Harris, Joseph. Africans and Their History. New York: Meridian, 1998.
  • Hashaw, Tim.  The Birth of Black America: The First Africans and the Pursuit of Freedom at Jamestown.  New York: Carroll and Graf Publishers, 2007.
  • Morgan, Edmund S. American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. New York: W. W. Norton, 1995.
  • Obadele-Starks, Ernest. Freebooters and Smugglers: The Foreign Slave Trade in the United States after 1808. Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas
    Press, 2007.
  • Restall, Matthew. Beyond Black and Red: African-native Relations in Colonial Latin America.  Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2005.
  • Smallwood, Stephanie E. Saltwater Slavery: A Middle Passage from Africa to American Diaspora. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.
  • Tyler, Ron and Lawrence R. Murphy, eds.  The Slave Narratives of Texas.  Abilene, Texas: State House Press, 2006.
Источник: https://www.pvamu.edu/tiphc/research-projects/the-diaspora-coming-to-texas/the-transatlantic-slave-trade-and-origins-of-the-african-diaspora-in-texas/

A Look Back: The First Slave Ship in the U.S.

In August 1619, the first English North American slave ship landed in Jamestown, Virginia. Four hundred years later, we still experience the effects of slavery’s aftermath.

At the Center for Social Solutions, we strive to create a better collective understanding of slavery, its lasting impacts, and contemporary forms of involuntary servitude that still exist today. Our Slavery Initiative is completely dedicated to confronting both our nation’s history and the modern global practice of forced labor. As we near the date that marks 400 years after the arrival of the first slaves in the United States, we recognize the importance of commemorating this historic event.

For more information, take a look at the following materials (updated 6/7/21; reposted 8/20/21):

Read 

"Slavery's explosive growth in charts: How '20 and odd' became millions" by USA Today

An interactive look at how the arrival of the first English slave ship in 1619 led to centuries of transatlantic slavery in North America.

"Point Comfort: where slavery in America began 400 years ago" by David Smith, The Guardian

Four hundred years ago, the first enslaved Africans were brought to Point Comfort, Virginia. Many continue to come back to this historic spot in search of answers to the atrocities that took place back then.

“A symbol of slavery—and survival”by DeNeen L. Brown, The Washington Post

While many recognize and study slavery on a large scale, some historians are focused on learning more about one particular woman who was enslaved in the United States shortly after the arrival of the first slave ships.

Watch

Источник: https://lsa.umich.edu/social-solutions/news-events/news/a-look-back/a-look-back--the-first-slave-ship-in-the-u-s.html

1905

July 11-13. W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter were among the leaders of the meeting from which sprung the Niagara Movement, the forerunner of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

1910

April. The National Urban League was established.

1912

September 27. W. First african slaves arrived in virginia. Handy published "Memphis Blues."

1915

September 9. Carter G. Woodson founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History.

1918

February 19-21. The First Pan-African Congress met in Paris, France, under the guidance of W. E. B. Du Bois.

1920

August 1-2. The national convention of Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Society met in New York City. Garvey would be charged with mail fraud in 1923. He was convicted in 1925 and deported in 1927 after serving time in prison.

1922 1929

These are the years usually assigned to the Harlem Renaissance, which marks an epoch in black literature and art.

1925

May 8. A. Philip Randolph organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.

1931

April 6. Nine young blacks were accused of raping two white women in a boxcar. They were tried for their lives in Scottsboro, Alabama, and hastily convicted. The case attracted national attention.

1936

August 9. Jesse Owens won four gold medals at the Summer Olympics in Berlin.

1937

June 22. Joe Louis defeated James J. Braddock to become heavyweight boxing champion of the world.

1940

October 16. Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., became the first black general in the United States Army.

1941

June 25. President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order forbidding discrimination in defense industries after pressure from blacks led by A. Philip Randolph.

1942

June. Some blacks and whites organized the Congress of Racial Equality in Chicago. They led a sit-in at a Chicago restaurant.

1944

April 24. The United Negro College Fund was founded.

October 2. The first working, production-ready model of a mechanical cotton picker was demonstrated on a farm near Clarksdate, Mississippi.

1947

April 19. Jackie Robinson became the first black to play major league baseball.

1950

September 22. Ralph J. Bunche won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work as a mediator in Palestine.

1952

After keeping statistics kept for 71 years, Tuskegee reported that this was first year with no lynchings.

1954

May 17. In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the Supreme Court completed overturning legal school segregation at all levels.

1955

December 1. Rosa Parks refused to change seats in a Montgomery, Alabama, bus. On December 5 blacks began a boycott of the bus system which continued until shortly after December 13, 1956, when the United States Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation in the city.

1957

February 14. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference was formed with Martin Luther King, Jr., as president.

August 29. Congress passed the Voting Rights Bill of 1957, the first major civil rights legislation in more than 75 years.

1960

February 1. Sit-ins in Greensboro, North Carolina, initiated a wave of similar protests throughout the South.

April 15-17. The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee was founded in Raleigh, North Carolina.

1963

April 3. Under the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr., blacks began a campaign against discrimination in Birmingham.

June-August. Civil rights protests took place in most major urban areas.

August 28. The March on Washington was the largest civil rights demonstration ever. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech.

1964

January 23. The Twenty-fourth Amendment forbade the use of the poll tax to prevent voting.

March 12. Malcolm X announced his split from Elijah Muhammad's Nation of Islam. He would community resource credit union bank assassinated on February 21, 1965.

July 18-August 30. Beginning in Harlem, serious racial disturbances occurred in more than six major cities.

1965

January 2. The SCLC launched a voter drive in Selma, Alabama. which escalated into a nationwide protest movement.

August 11-21. The Watts riots left 34 dead, more than 3,500 arrested, and property damage of about 225 million dollars.

1966

July 1-9. CORE endorsed the concept "Black Power." SNCC also adopted it. SCLC did not and the NAACP emphatically did not.

October. The Black Panther Party was founded by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California.

1967

May 1-October 1. This was the worst summer for racial disturbances in United States history. More than 40 riots and 100 other disturbances occurred.

1968

April 4. Martin Luther King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. In the following week riots occurred in at least 125 places throughout the country.

1969

October 29. The Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in schools had to end at once and that unitary school systems were required.

1970

July 1. Kenneth Gibson became the first black mayor of an Eastern city when he assumed the post in Newark, New Jersey.

August 7. There was a shootout during an attempted escape in a San Rafael, California, courthouse. Implicated in the incident, Angela Davis went into hiding to avoid arrest. Davis would be acquitted of all charges on June 4, 1972.

1971

March 24. The Southern Regional Council reported that desegregation in Southern schools was the rule, not the exception. The report also pointed out that the dual school system was far from dismantled.

1973

May 29. Thomas Bradley was elected the first black mayor of Los Angeles.

October 16. Maynard H. Jackson was elected the first black mayor of Atlanta.

1974

April 8. Henry Aaron hit his 715th home run to become the all-time leading hitter of home runs.

July 1. The largest single gift to date from a black organization was the $132,000 given by the Links, Inc., to the United Negro College Fund.

1977

February 3. This was the eighth and final night for the miniseries based on Alex Haley's Roots. This final episode achieved the highest ratings ever for a single program.

1980

May 18. Racial disturbances beginning on May 17 resulted in 15 deaths in Miami, Florida. This was the worst riot since those in Watts and Detroit in the 1960s.

1982

May 23. Lee P. Brown was named the first black police commissioner of Houston, Texas.

1983

February 23. Harold Washington won the Democratic party nomination for mayor of Chicago. On April 12 he would win the election for mayor.

June 22. The state legislature of Louisiana repealed the last racial classification law in the United States. The criterion for being classified as black was having 1/32nd Negro blood. November 2. President Ronald Reagan signed the bill establishing a federal holiday in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr.

August 30. Guion (Guy) S. Bluford, Jr. was the first black American astronaut to make a space flight on board the space shuttle Challenger

1986

January 16. A bronze bust of Martin Luther King, Jr., was the first of any black American in the halls of Congress. The first national Martin Luther King, Jr., holiday was celebrated four days later frost bank hours christmas eve January 20.

1987

Frederick Drew Gregory was the first black to command a space shuttle

1988

July 20. Jesse L. Jackson received 1,218.5 delegate votes at the Democratic National Convention. The number needed for the nomination, which went to Michael Dukakis, was 2,082.

November 4. Bill Cosby announced his gift of $20,000,000 to Spelman College. This is the largest donation ever made by a black American.

1989

January 29. Barbara Harris was elected the first woman bishop of the Episcopal Church. August 10. General Colin L. Powell was named chair of the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff.

November 7. David Dinkins was elected mayor of New York, and L. Douglas Wilder, governor of Virginia.

1990

February 11. Nelson Mandela, South African Black Nationalist, was freed after 27 years in prison.

May 13. George Augustus Stallings became the first bishop of the African-American Catholic Church, a breakaway group from the Roman Catholic Church.

November 1.Ebony magazine celebrated its 45th anniversary.

1991

January 15. Roland Burris became the first black attorney general of Illinois.

June 18. Wellington Webb was elected mayor of Denver, Colorado.

1992

April 30. "The Cosby Show" broadcast the final original episode of its highly successful eight season run.

August 3. Jackie Joyner-Kersee was the first woman to repeat as Olympic heptathlon champion.

September 12. Mae C. Jemison was first black American woman in space on board the space shuttle Endeavor.

November 3. Carol Moseley Braun of Illinois was the first black woman ever elected to the United States Senate.

1993

September 7. M. Joycelyn Elders became the first black and the first woman United States Surgeon General.

October 7. Toni Morrison was the first black American to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.

1994

October 21. Dexter Scott King, the youngest son of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Coretta Scott King, is named chief executive and chairman of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in Atlanta.

1995

October 16. The Million Man March, the idea of Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan, called the event, held in Washington, D.C., "A Day of Atonement and Reconciliation." The march was described as a call to black men to take charge in rebuilding their communities and show more respect for themselves and devotion to their families.

November 8. Former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Colin Powell, ends months of speculation by announcing that he will not run for the U.S. presidency in 1996.

December 9. Kweisi Mfume is unanimously elected as president and chief executive officer of the NAACP.

1996

April 3. Commerce Secretary Ron Brown and distinguished business leaders are killed in a plane crash in Dubrovnik, Croatia.

1997

June 23. Betty Shabazz, widow of Malcolm X and a champion of civil rights, died in New York of burns suffered in a June 1 fire in her apartment, allegedly set by her 12-year-old grandson, Malcolm.

October 25. Black American women participated in the Million Woman March in Philadelphia, focusing on health care, education, and self-help.

1998

January 15, 1998. Civil rights veteran James Farmer was one of 15 men and women awarded the Medal of Freedom from President Clinton. Born in Marshall, Texas, he was the national director of the Congress of Racial Equality during the 1960s and was one of the most influential leaders of the civil rights movement throughout its most turbulent decade.

January 18, 1998. Now an annual observance, the New York Stock Exchange closed, for the first time, in honor of the birthday of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

September 21. Track star Florence Griffith Joyner died at the age of 38. In the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games, Griffith became the first American woman to win four track and field medals — three gold and one silver — in one Olympic competition.

1999

January 13. After 13 seasons and six NBA championships, professional basketball star Michael Jordan retired from the game.



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BACKGROUND

Although the twenty Africans brought into Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619 arrived by virtue of the slave trade, they actually became indentured servants, Thus, they eventually gained their freedom, and some later actually owned slaves themselves. By the 1640s, however, the practices of enslaving Africans for life and hereditary servitude (the permanent enslavement of the children of slaves) had been established in Virginia and, within the following two decades, had achieved legal recognition. The increased importation of tobacco by the English, as their appetite for this commodity soared, facilitated the rise of a large scale tobacco plantation system in Virginia, and by the 1690s most of Virginia’s slaves were being imported directly from Africa, With the introduction and legalization of slavery in 1750 in Georgia, a system of black bondage became common to all of the thirteen colonies.

Although a few native American groups were enslaved in colonial America (especially between the 1670s and the early 1700s in Carolina, where predatory raids victimized the Timucas, Guaus, and Apalachees), Africans, for several reasons, became America’s prime bondsmen. Indians were familiar with the terrain and could thus easily run away, and there was fear that their enslavement would bring about continual warfare and also disrupt the lucrative fur trade. Europeans, because of their color, could escape and be mistaken easily as free persons.

Because the climate and soil of the South were suitable for the cultivation of commercial (plantation) crops such as tobacco, rice, and indigo, slavery developed in the southern colonies on a much larger scale than in the northern colonies; the latter’s labor needs were met primarily through the use of European immigrants, first african slaves arrived in virginia usually served indentures of seven years at the most. In fact, throughout the colonial period, Virginia had the largest slave population, followed by Maryland. In South Carolina (Carolina was divided in 1663 into the North Carolina region and South Carolina region and into two colonies in 1701), however, slaves constituted a larger proportion of the total population than in any other colony-sixty percent of the population in 1765.

In general, the conditions of slavery in the northern colonies, where slaves were engaged more in nonagricultural pursuits (such as mining, maritime, and domestic work), were less severe and harsh than in the southern colonies, where most were used on plantations. Also there could be found in the northern colonies several influential religious groups that had moral precepts that encouraged them to practice a more benign form of slavery. The Quakers, the first organized group in the colonies to speak out against slavery, serve as the best example.

During the colonial period slaves resisted their bondage in various ways. Their forms of protest included the murder of their owners, sabotage (of crops, animals, and tools), suicide, and running away. Some of the runaways in Georgia and South Carolina formed maroon communities that often raided nearby plantations for food. Rebellions constituted an additional form of protest. The larger slave popu- lation in the South made the fear of insurrection greater there. In fact, the largest slave rebellion of the colonial period, involving about one hundred slaves, first african slaves arrived in virginia in Stono, South Carolina, in 1739: approximately twenty-five whites and fifty slaves were killed in the Course of the uprising or its suppression. In order to control slaves’ behavior and minimize the possibilities of uprisings, slaves codes (black codes) were established in most of the colonies, Virginia established the first of these during the .1660s, and it served as a model. Under the codes slaves were forbidden to travel without the written permission of their owner and to congregate in large numbers without the presence of whites. Slaves found guilty of murder or rape were to be hanged; for petty offenses slaves were to be whipped, maimed, or branded.

By the end of the colonial period, blacks numbered about five hundred thousand and constituted their largest proportion of the total American population ever, nearly 20 percent. Also, since most were native-born Americans, many by this time had become hyphenated Americans in the true sense of the word. In varying degrees in different parts of the colonies, they had undergone an acculturative process that had created a new cultural group of people: African Americans. This process involved the melding of the different traditional African cultures into a pan-African culture and the retention of some aspects of this culture. Among the areas in which Africanisms or African survivals were most conspicuous were religion, music, dance, and foodways. This process also involved the adoption by slaves of the manners and customs of their land of enslavement. For example, slaves learned to speak English and other European languages (such as Dutch). Still, it should be understood that the process of cultural change did not move solely in one direction, and slaves influenced the behavior of whites in some cultural areas as well, for example, that pertaining to foodways.

As evidence of the acculturative process, blacks by the end of the colonial period had created institutions and organizations of a non-African nature and character. The most prevalent of these were churches, stemming in large part from the revivalistic spirit of the Great Awakening, which lasting roughly from 1740 to 1790, witnessed the conversion of large numbers of blacks to Christianity. Black Baptist congregations, for example, appeared in 1756 in Lunenberg, Virginia; in 1773 in Silver Bluff, South Carolina; and in 1776 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The Silver Bluff congregation was perhaps the most significant, since it is linked to several early black missionaries who established Baptists churches elsewhere. The first of these alaska air customer service telephone number was David George. After the American recapture of Savannah in 1782, which followed the flight of Silver Bluff congregants from Savannah to take refuge behind the British lines, George sailed with the British to Nova Scotia, where he established his first church. Ten years later, he emigrated to Sierra Leone and founded a second congregation.

Another Silver Bluff exporter was George Leile, who, when the British evacuated Savannah, accompanied those who went to Jamaica. There he established the first Baptist church in Kingston. Before leaving Savannah, however, Leile converted a slave named Andrew Bryan, who established the First African Baptist Church of Savannah in 1788. In addition to these Baptists, Harry Hosier (“Black Harry”), the constant companion of the English evangelist Francis Asbury, the person most responsible for spreading Methodism in the colonies, was an outstanding pre-Revolutionary War black missionary.

Aiding the acculturative process was the emergence by the end of the colonial period of the key African American social institution: the family. It is believed that between 1720 and 1740, with the increased arrival of fresh slaves from Africa, slaves had started to reproduce themselves in significant numbers, a process enhanced when the next generation of these slaves produced a greater balance in the sexes. By the end of the colonial period this process had given rise to several generations of American born blacks who were connected by blood and had developed an affinity based on an awareness of common descent. These early black families also began the process of serving as socializing agents, helping younger generations acquire the adaptive mechanisms that would facilitate their survival in the face of the stresses and strains of bondage.

While it is possible that black slaves were on New Jersey soil as early as the 1620s, certainly slavery was encouraged by the colony’s first constitution, the Concessions and Agreement of 1664/1665. It provided additional land for those bringing servants or slaves into the colony. The earliest known record of slaves in New Jersey dates to 1680, when Colonel Lewis Morris of Shrewsbury, Monmouth County, is identified as owning approximately sixty to seventy slaves.

Slavery was more prevalent in East Jersey, which originally included the present counties of Bergen, Essex, Middlesex, and Monmouth and whose primary slave-importing port was Perth Amboy. The Passaic and Raritan river valleys, populated mainly by Dutch farmers who had a long history of slave ownership, were in fact the sites of considerable holdings of slaves, In West Jersey (Burlington, Gloucester, Salem, and Cape May counties), where Cooper’s Ferry (Camden) was the principal port of entry for slaves, both the presence of a significant number of Quakers with antislavery sentiments and a tendency to rely on white immigrants for the area’s labor needs lessened the development of slavery.

Since most slaves in New Jersey worked on small farms that had about three bondsmen, they generally experienced a milder form of bondage than their counterparts in the South, Also, as in other northern colonies, more slaves in New Jersey were used in nonagricultural pursuits than in https www bankofamerica com customer service South. They were, for example, employed in Charles Read’s ironworks in Burlington County, in copper mining on the Schuyler family lands in Bergen County, and in the skilled trades. Still, New Jersey was one of the few northern colonies where slave conspiracies occurred. Perhaps the most significant was discovered in Somerville in 1734; as a result of that discovery thirty blacks were apprehended, one hanged, several had ears cut off, and others whipped. Subsequent slave plots surfaced in 1741 in Hackensack, for which two slaves were executed by burning, in 1772 in Perth Amboy, and in 1779 in Elizabethtown. Some whites also voiced protest against slavery in New Jersey, as in many of the other colonies by the time of the American Revolution, The Quaker John Woolman of Mount Holly, as reflected in his 1754 publication, Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes, was one of the earliest of these.


CORE LESSON

Theme

The enslavement of Africans in colonial America, emanating from the arrival in 1619 of twenty slaves in Jamestown, Virginia, encompassed all of the colonies. The scope and nature of slavery in the northern colonies, however, differed considerably from the institution in the southern colonies, the former generally being milder than the latter.

Materials and Preparation

Students should read either chapters 6, 10, and 11 in The African American Experience: A History (“Africans in the Thirteen Colonies, 1619-1760,” “The Tyranny of Slavery, 1619-1860,” and “Armed Resistance to Slavery, 1658-1860”) or chapters 5-8 first african slaves arrived in virginia African American History (“How Africans Came to America,” “Slaves in the New World,” “Slavery and the Law,” and “Slave Revolts”).

Students should study Map #4 of the original thirteen colonies and read the “Runaway Slave Notices”.

Students and the teacher should read pages 18-23 in Afro-Americans in New Jersey: A Short History. They should also read Larry A. Greene, “A History of Afro-Americans in New Jersey,” The Journal of the Rutgers University Libraries( June, 1994), for information on blacks in New Jersey in the colonial period and later.

The teacher should read chapter 4 in From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans (“Colonial Slavery”).

Time Period

Each of the activities that follow will take one class period.

ACTIVITY 1

  1. Compare and contrast the scope and nature of slavery in the northern colonies with that in southern colonies.Using Map #4, explain to the class that slavery evolved in different ways in the regions of the North and South. Explain, for example, that the towns, cities, and small farms in the North did not quite require the labor of large numbers of slaves as did the plantations in the South. Divide the class into two groups, one representing northern slaves and the other those in the South. Ask each group to explain its preference for its particular region. Slavery in the South might be favored because the larger holdings permitted greater social interaction among slaves and better conditions for maintaining African cultural traditions. The North might be preferred for its generally milder form of bondage.
  2. Evaluation: Have the students write a short play in which the main characters are escaped slaves, one from New Jersey at&t jobs one from South Carolina, who meet in Philadelphia. Have these fugitives, both field hands, compare the difficulties they experienced under slavery. Ask students to include such factors as the climate, nature of the work performed, and degree of contact with their owner.

ACTIVITY 2

  1. Analyze a historical document as a primary source of information about colonial slaves.
  2. Discuss running away as a common form of slave protest and the importance of runaway slave notices. Explain that these notices are primary source documents, often containing considerable information about their subjects. Divide the class into groups and assign each group a notice. Have each group analyze its notice and then indicate what it learned from the notice about runaway slaves and slavery in general (for example, some slaves had markings indicating their ethnic group, some could read and write, women were among runaways, some runaways were skilled workers, some spoke several languages, some had African names). Ask students to discuss whether the information found in these runaway notices is likely to be accurate.
  3. Evaluation: Have the students prepare a runaway slave notice. These notices should reflect accurately what we know about colonial slaves (such as names, occupations, African origins).

Supplemental Activities

  1. Visit Virginia’s Colonial Williamsburg, which features the most ambitious living history portrayal of slavery during the colonial period.
  2. Visit the graves of two colonial New Jersey slaves and read the tombstone inscriptions. These will provide particulars concerning these slaves. The fact that they were buried in the family plot of their owner should also be noted. One grave is that of Ambo, Rahway Cemetery, Rahway, and the other is that of Caesar, Scotch Plains Baptist Church Cemetery, Scotch Plains.

Key Persons

Andrew Bryan. An early black Baptist minister who in 1788 organized the First African Baptist Church in Savannah, perhaps the nation’s oldest continuous black congregation.

David George. One of the black missionaries associated with the early black Baptist church in Silver Bluff, South Carolina. He later organized churches in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone.

Harry Hosier (“Black Harry”). An early black Methodist evangelist who accompanied Francis Asbury in spreading Methodism and was highly regarded for his preaching talents.

George Leile. An exhorter also associated with the Silver Bluff, South Carolina, black Baptist church. He later organized the first Baptist church in Jamaica.

John Woolman. A Mount Holly Quaker whose 1754 Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes was one of the earliest antislavery documents in the colonies.

Annotated Bibliography and Suggested Reading

FOR TEACHERS

Cooley, Henry S. 1896. Slavery in New Jersey.
One of the first scholarly studies of New Jersey slavery, covering its beginning in the colonial era to its abolition in the early nineteenth century. Despite the study’s age, it contains valuable information about slavery’s legal history in New Jersey.
Greene, Lorenzo Johnson. 1942. The Negro in Colonial New England.
Time has not diminished this study as the most comprehensive work on blacks in colonial New England. It is most informative in illustrating the regional differences between slavery in the South and New England.
Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. 1992. Africans in Colonial Louisiana.
Explores the development of an Afro-Creole culture in the eighteenth century, with an emphasis on the dynamic impact of African demographics on African cultural retention in America.
MacManus, Edward. 1973, Black Bondage In the North.
A comprehensive state-by-state analysis of the origins and development of slavery in the northern colonies and states. The work contains important information on slavery in New Jersey.
Morgan, Edmund. 1975. American Slavery, American Freedom.
An award-winning work by a premier historian of early American history. It explores the simultaneous development of freedom for whites and the institution of slavery for blacks in the colonial and national eras.
Mullin, Michael. 1992. Africa in America.
A comparative study of slave acculturation and resistance in the American South (especially Virginia and the Carolinas) and British Caribbean Jamaica and Barbados).
Nash, Gary. 1974 Red, White and Black: The Peoples of Early America.
A valuable study of the cultural interactions of the three major groups in colonial America – European, Native American, and African.
Price, Clement Alexander 1980. Freedom Not Far Distant: A Documentary History of Afro-Americans in New Jersey.
Included in this excellent collection of documents relating to New Jersey’s black history are those from the colonial and revolutionary eras. These are most useful in demonstrating the origins and constraints of slavery in New Jersey.
Sobel, Mechal. 1987. The World they Made Together: Black and White Values in Eighteenth Century Virginia.
An innovative work that examines the process by which black and white societies shaped, transformed, and shared each others’ values despite the harsh and oppressed conditions of black slaves.
Tate, Jr., Thad. 1965. The Negro in Eighteenth-Century Williamsburg.
The author traces the development of slavery in Virginia from its legal origins to its economic role in the South’s largest colony.
Wood, Peter. 1974. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion.
A remarkable book, not only because it provides a history of blacks in colonial South Carolina, but because it explores the rich African contribution to South Carolina’s economy and culture, Blacks, even under slavery, are shown not to be passive victims, but a people seeking to carve out as much individual dignity and freedom as possible.

FOR STUDENTS

Piersen, Willaim. 1988. Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-Amercian Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England.
This book argues that eighteenth-century black New Englanders, in their religious beliefs, work habits, style of dress, music, dance, physical postures, and folk medicine, revealed African values and approaches to life.

MATERIALS

Map 4 – Colonial America

Runaway Slave Notices (1772-1781)

Table of Contents

The first Africans arrived in Virginia because of the transatlantic slave trade. Across three and a half centuries—from 1501 to 1867—more than 12.5 million Africans were captured, sold, and transported to the Americas. While Portugal and Spain were the first European powers engaged in this trade, eventually most of the European powers would get involved. It was as profitable as it was brutal.

West Africa MapThe Africans who came to Virginia in 1619 had been taken from Angola in West Central Africa. They were captured in a series of wars that was part of much broader Portuguese hostilities against the Kongo and Ndongo kingdoms, and other states. These captives were then forced to march 100-200 miles to the coast to the major slave-trade port of Luanda. They were put on board the San Juan Bautista, which carried 350 captives bound for Vera Cruz, on the coast of Mexico, in the summer of 1619.

Nearing her destination, the slave ship was attacked by two English privateers, the White Lion and the Treasurer, in the Gulf of Mexico and robbed of 50-60 Africans. The two privateers then sailed to Virginia where the White Lion arrived at Point Comfort, or present-day Hampton, Virginia, toward the end of August. John Rolfe, a prominent planter and merchant (and formerly the husband of Pocahontas), reported that “20. and odd Negroes” were “bought for victuals,” (italics added). The majority of the Angolans were acquired by wealthy and well-connected English planters including Governor Sir George Yeardley and the cape, or head, merchant, Abraham Piersey. The Africans were sold into bondage despite Virginia having no clear-cut laws sanctioning slavery.

The Treasurer arrived at Point Comfort a few days after the White Lion but did not stay long, quickly setting sail for the English colony of Bermuda. Prior to leaving port, however, it is possible that 7 to 9 Africans were sold, including a woman named “Angelo” (Angela) who was taken to Captain William Pierce’s Jamestown property, which Jamestown Rediscovery archaeologists excavated in partnership with the National Park Service. By March 1620, 32 Africans were recorded in a muster as living in Virginia but by 1625 only 23 were recorded. These Africans, scattered throughout homes and farms of the James River Valley, were the first of hundreds of thousands of Africans forced to endure slavery in colonial English America.

A ship “brought not any thing but 20. and odd Negroes” to Virginia in late August 1619 after capturing them from a slave ship bound for Spanish colonies.


By Richard C. Moore, 2010. Courtesy of Kathryn Knight.
The San Juan Bautista’s battle against the two English corsairs, the Treasurerand the White Lion.“Angela” was one of several enslaved Africans brought to Virginia on the Treasurer.
Источник: https://historicjamestowne.org/history/the-first-africans/
first african slaves arrived in virginia

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