jose diaz balart biography

Age, Biography and Wiki · Net worth: $7 Million (2021) · About · Before Fame · Trivia · Family Life · Associated With · Tags. Ana De la Reguera as Paola/Lola: Jose Diaz-Balart as Jose Diaz-Balart: Melanie Mayron as Marlene Donaldson: Daniel Roebuck as Michael Cordero Sr. Molly. Brendan McLoughlin Bio, Wiki, Age, Height, Baby Mamma (Kaihla Rettinger), Child, NYPD, Parents, Family, Net Worth, Brenda Diaz-Balart(Jose Diaz-Balart.

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Mirta Nunez - Mirta Núñez

Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart (b. 19 ??) is a historian of Cuban descent and Spanish nationality.

Short biography

Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart was born into a family marked by history: her father, the lawyer Emilio Núñez Blanco - who died in Madrid on June 6, 2006 - was a notorious anti-Castroist; his mother, Mirta Díaz-Balartwas the first wife of Fidel Castro. Thus, Mirta Núñez was at the same time the sister of the only "official" son of the Cuban president, Fidel Castro Díaz-Balart (1949-2018), and the first cousin of two US Republican congressmen, the brothers Lincoln and Mario Díaz-Balart .

Mirta Núñez graduated from the Faculty of Information Sciences of the Complutense University in 1983, with the thesis "The Press of the International Brigades" and in October 1988 she read her doctoral thesis, entitled "The war press in the republican zone during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) holiday gifts for employees 2020, directed by José Altabella Hernández. Well documented thesis –6 volumes and 2683 pages– will be partly published by that University the following year and edited four years later with the same title.
From then on, a long series of publications began.

Mirta Núñez is a tenured professor in the Department of History of Social Communication, at the Complutense University of Madridof which she is the current director.

Work

Professor Núñez's work revolves around two axes:

  • Propaganda and the press during the Spanish Civil War
  • The victims of Francoism throughout the dictatorship, emphasizing the most vulnerable: children and women.

The contribution of this historian from primary information is very remarkable: we highlight her study, with Antonio Rojas Friend, of the executions in Madrid after the civil war.

books

  • The discipline of jose diaz balart biography the International BrigadesBarcelona, ​​Flor del Viento, 2006, ISBN 84-96495-12-4 ; ISBN 978-84-96495-12-8
  • Fallen women: legal and clandestine prostitutes in the Franco regimeforeword by Rafael Torres, Madrid, Oberon, 2003. ISBN 84-96052-23-0
  • The years of terror; the strategy of domination and repression of General FrancoMadrid, La Esfera de los Libros, 2004. ISBN 84-9734-179-1
  • The war press in the republican zone during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)Madrid, La Torre, 1992, 3 v. ISBN 84-7960-038-1. It is an extension of: The war press in the republican zone during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)Madrid, Complutense University, 1989, 2 v. Doctoral Thesis Collection No. 278/89. DL M 38486-1989
  • Javier Bueno, a journalist committed to the revolutionMadrid, Fundación Banco Exterior, 1987, ISBN 84-7434-162-0

Co-authored books

  • With Antonio Rojas Friend, Council of war: the executions in postwar Madrid, 1939-1945drawings by José RobledanoMadrid, Compañía Literaria, 1997, ISBN 84-8213-061-7

Prologues

  • Rafael Torres, Franco's slavesprologue by Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart, Madrid, Oberon, 2000. ISBN 84-207-4391-7 (several reissues).

Direction and coordination of degrees

  • The day after: Spain and its former colonies after the "disaster" of 98direction, Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart; coord. Antonio Rojas, Madrid, Argés, 1998, ISBN 84-923190-3-8
  • José Altabella, tribute bookcoord. Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart, Agustín Martínez de la Heras, Rosa Cal MartínezMadrid, Faculty of Information Sciences, 1997. ISBN 84-922275-2-4
  • Spanish republicanism: historical roots and future prospectsÁngeles Egido León, Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart (eds.), Foreword by Nigel TownsonMadrid, Manuel Azaña Association: New Library, 2001. ISBN 84-7030-910-2
  • The great repression. The lead years of the Franco regimeMirta Núñez Díaz-Balart (coord.), Barcelona, ​​Flor del viento, 2009 ISBN 978-84-96495-37-1 .

Collaborations in collective works

  • "The memory of the purified professors of the UCM", The destruction of science in Spain: university purification in the Franco icici infinity login personal banking / (coord.) By Luis Enrique Otero Carvajal, 2006, ISBN 84-7491-808-1p. 7-13
  • "Repression and terrorism in the Francoist State", Spain at war: protagonists for a conflict / (coord.) By José Manuel Chico Isidro, 2003, ISBN 84-9772-102-0p. 71-86
  • "The dreamed humanity: propaganda and reality of the International Brigades through their publications", The International Brigades: the international context, the means of propaganda, literature and memories(coord.) By Manuel Requena Gallego, Rosa María Sepúlveda Losa, 2003, ISBN 84-8427-250-8p. 73-90
  • "Propaganda for war, ashes for peace", Propaganda in War2002, ISBN 84-95719-36-3p. 51-70
  • "'Fallen women'. The problem of prostitution in the postwar period since Franco's propaganda", Social communication during Franco's regime(coord.) By María Inmaculada Sánchez Alarcón, Juan Antonio García Galindo, Juan Francisco Gutiérrez Lozano, 2002, ISBN 84-7785-499-8p. 221-230
  • "The disappeared enemy: The ideological combat against liberalism in Franco's prison propaganda", The liberal revolutionCongress on the Spanish liberal Revolution in its peninsular (and insular) and Jose diaz balart biography diversity, Madrid, April 1999, (coord.) By Alberto Gil Novales, 2001, ISBN 84-7923-255-2p. 697-708
  • "The republican militia: from iconographic prominence to reality", Studies of women in the field of English-speaking countries2001, ISBN 84-699-468-3, p. 135-150
  • The prison behind the walls: The work of the prisoners in Franco's Spain, Spanish republicanism: historical roots and future prospects2001, ISBN 84-7030-910-2p. 143-174
  • "Azaña and Casares: the design of a policy of public order", Azaña and the others(coord.) By Angeles Egido León, 2001, ISBN 84-7030-907-2p. 89-102
  • "Bonapartist charity for the Madrid famine", Science and political independence(coord.) By Alberto Gil Novales, 1996, ISBN 84-7923-095-9p. 147-163
  • "Fiction and reality in 'Espoir, Sierra de Teruel'", History and cinema: reality, fiction and propaganda(coord.) By Julio Montero Díaz, María Antonia Paz Rebollo, 1995, ISBN 84-89365-11-3p. 159-168
  • "The press of the International Brigades", Communication, culture and politics during the Second Republic and the Civil War: II Meeting on the History of the Press (coord.) By Manuel Tuñón de Lara, v. 2, 1990, ISBN 84-7585-270-Xp. 405-426

Some articles

  • "Pain as therapy. The common marrow of jose diaz balart biography Nazi and Francoist concentration camps", AyerISSN 1134-2277nº 57, 2005, p. 81-102
  • "Pain as therapy: the common marrow of the Nazi and Francoist concentration camps", The digital museISSN 1579-2803No. 6, 2004, (Issue dedicated to: The exile of Central and Eastern Europe )
  • "Triptych of women. From the committed woman to the marginal", History of jose diaz balart biography presentISSN 1579-8135nº 4, 2004, p. 47-60
  • "The anti-republican repression: the dispersed memory, the erased footprint", Republican notebooksISSN 1131-7744no. 54, 2004 (issue dedicated to: The great forgotten. The left-wing republicans in exile), p. 229-251
  • "A ring for political combat: the press of the international Brigades", AyerISSN 1134-2277nº 56, 2004, p. 121-142
  • "The 'redeemed' childhood: the last link in the Francoist prison system", History and social communicationISSN 1137-0734No. 6, 2001 (issue dedicated to: The civil war and the media) p. 137-148
  • "Casares, the demonization of a politician", Republican NotebooksISSN 1131-7744nº 40, 1999, p. 47-66
  • "Official propaganda to adorn the postwar prison world", History and social communicationISSN 1137-0734No. 4, 1999 (Issue dedicated to: Propaganda), p. 135-144
  • "The eye of the hurricane: Regional societies at the apex of a Hispano-Cuban conflict", History and social communicationISSN 1137-0734No. 3, 1998 (issue dedicated to: The war of 98 and the media ), p. 127-142
  • "Miguel de Unamuno: against the monarchy and the dictatorship", Republican notebooksISSN 1131-7744nº 32, 1997, p. 41-44
  • "The eye of the needle: The journalist card, the last filter of professional purification in the immediate postwar period"History and social communicationISSN 1137-0734No. 2, 1997 (Issue dedicated to: Cinema and social communication ), p. 205-210
  • "An approach to nineteenth-century anticlericalism", History and social communicationISSN 1137-0734nº 1, 1996, p. 63-74
  • "The Thirteen Roses: new revelations about its execution", History 16ISSN 0210-6353nº 205, 1993, p. 21-25

Collaborative Articles

  • With Antonio Rojas Friend, "Victims of the Franco regime in Madrid: the executions in the East Cemetery (1939-1945)", The Franco regime, 1936-1975: politics and foreign relations(coord.) By Jose diaz balart biography Tusell Gómez, v. 1, 1993, ISBN 84-600-8464-7p. 283-290

external links

Источник: https://second.wiki/wiki/mirta_nc3bac3b1ez
In this Spanish name, the first or paternal surnameis Díaz-Balart.

Waldo Díaz-Balart y Gutiérrez (born February 10, 1931) is a Cuban painter and sculptor living in Madrid, Spain.

Contents

Born in Banes, Cuba, Díaz-Balart is the son of the mayor of Banes, Rafael José Díaz-Balart. Díaz-Balart studied accounting and political science and economics in Havana before moving to New York City to pursue art studies in 1959. From 1959 to 1962 he studied art in the Museum of Modern Art, New York. In 1967 he became a lecturer in many cultural centres and universities of the United States, Poland, Spain, Germany and Netherlands. He acted in two movies by Andy Warhol, The Life of Juanita Castro (1965) and The Loves of Ondine (1968). He was friends with fellow Andy Warhol actor Louis Waldon.

Díaz-Balart lectures frequently and his work – explorations of color and light in geometric paintings and light sculpture – has been widely exhibited. In 1966 the Studio Gallery in Washington, D.C. jose diaz balart biography an individual exhibition. In 1967 he presented an exhibition in the Iris Clert Gallery in Paris. In 1967 he joined Mass Art Inc. in partnership with Sujan Souri, Dorian Godoy, and Philip Orenstein. The company manufactured the first inflatable chair designed by Philip Orenstein which is now included in the permanent collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. In 1998 he showed "Waldo Balart. Black Painting" in Galería Edurne in Madrid. In 1970, he participated in the collective exhibition Salón 70 in the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de La Habana. In 1964, he exhibited in peoples bank ct customer service Pan American Union Building in Washington, D.C. and in 1968 in the Gallery of Modern Art, New York. In 1970, he participated at the first San Juan Bienal del Grabado Latinoamericano (Biennial of Latin-American Engraving) at the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture in Puerto Rico.

He had his first major exhibition in 1972, at the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo.

In 1979, he participated in the Third Bienal Internacional del Deporte en las Bellas Artes (Biennial of Sport in Fine Arts) in Barcelona, and in 1995 he participated in the international art fair Art Cologne in Germany.

In 2002, he was honoured as a Frost Art Museum of Florida International University fellow.

He had one-man shows in the Netherlands and in Spain. He is the recipient of a Pollock-Krasner Foundation fellowship. His work is in the permanent collections of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía in Madrid, the Mondriaan House in Amersfoort, The Netherlands, and the Museum of Modern Art in Hünfeld, Germany, among others.

In 1992 he published the book Ensayos de Arte (Essays on Art).

In 1999, he moved from Spain to Liège, Belgium. He later returned to Madrid before 2011. He also briefly lived in Paraguay.

The marriage of his sister, Mirta Díaz-Balart, to former Cuban leader Fidel Castro as Castro's first wife made Waldo Díaz-Balart Castro's brother-in-law. His nephews include U.S. congressmanMario Díaz-Balart, former congressman Lincoln Díaz-Balart, and NBC Nightly News Saturday news anchor José Díaz-Balart.

  1. Hedgecoe, Guy (4 November 2011). "The man who knew Fidel Castro, Warhol and Franco's Spain". iberosphere.com. Retrieved7 June 2018.
  2. Michael Ferguson Joe Dallesandro: Warhol Superstar, Underground Film Icon, Actor, p. 87, at Google Books
  3. John Jonas Gruen and Samuel Swasey Two Men, p. 57, at Google Books
  4. Andrea O'Reilly Herrera (editor) Cuba: Idea of a Nation Displaced, p. 45, at Google Books
  • Jose Veigas-Zamora, Cristina Vives Gutierrez, Adolfo V. Nodal, Valia Garzon, Dannys Montes de Oca; Memoria: Cuban Art of the 20th Century; (California/International Arts Foundation 2001); ISBN978-0-917571-11-4
  • Jose Veigas; Memoria: Artes Visuales Cubanas Del Siglo XX; (California International Arts 2004); ISBN978-0-917571-12-1(in Spanish)
  • Andrea O'Reilly Herrera; Cuba: Idea of a Nation Displaced; (State University of New York Press, 2007) ISBN978-0-7914-7199-9
Waldo Díaz-Balart
Источник: http://wikipedia.us.nina.az/Waldo_Diaz-Balart.html

Jose Díaz-Balart estimated income, Life story, How old?, How tall, Romance, Partnerships, Wage, Net Worth, Cars, Personal Life & many more details have been updated below. Let’s see, how wealthy is Jose Díaz-Balart in 2019-2021? Click here to read and check more detailed Find out more about At this time Net worth as well as Monthly/Year Wage, Expense, Net Worth Reports!

Life story

Jose Díaz-Balart grew up in Fort Lauderdale, FL on November 7, 1960. Emmy-winning journalist and television anchor are most jose diaz balart biography known as a face for Noticiero Telemundo. He has also anchored for MSNBC Live, NBC Nightly News, and made history when he became the first Cuban-American anchor to host CBS’s This Morning. His aunt, Mirta Díaz-Balart, was the first wife of Cuban revolutionary Fidel Castro. He began his journalism career in 1984 after studying at both the New College of Florida jose diaz balart biography the University of Cambridge.

On Popular biography, He is one of the successful Journalists. He is among those famous people who were born on November 7, 1960. One of the wealthiest Journalist who grew up in FL. He is also on the list of Most popular Journalists. Jose Díaz-Balart is 1 world’s most famous people with the age of 58 old.

Person Bio
NameJose
The last name first data money network login yearsJournalist
How old?58 old
Astrological SignsScorpio
When You Were BornNovember 7, 1960
Geographical location of birthFort Lauderdale, FL
NationFL

Jose Díaz-Balart income

Jose Díaz-Balart estimated income, Wage, Net Worth, School holidays usa 2020 california, Personal Life & many more details have been updated below. Let’s see, how wealthy is Jose Díaz-Balart in 2019-2021?

Based on Wikipedia, Forbes, IMDb & Various Online resources, famous Journalist Jose Díaz-Balart’s net worth is $1-5 000 000 at the age of 58 old. He earned the money being a professional Journalist. Born and raised in FL.

Jose Díaz-Balart’s income:
$1-5 000 000

Estimated income in 2021$1-3million
Previous Year’s income (2019)Reviewing
Wage per yearReviewing.
Net Worth SourcePrimary Net Worth source Journalist (profession).
income Verification StatusIt has not been verified

How old?, How tall & Body Size

Jose Díaz-Balart current age 58 old. Jose Díaz-Balart’s height Not Available & weight Not Available right. Measurements of the entire body, dress & shoe size will be Loves and lives a private life.

Who is Jose Díaz-Balart Romance?

Jose Díaz-Balart This page will continue to be updated with new relationship details. Check back often as we will continue to update this page with new relationship details. Here’s what we find Jose Díaz-Balart’s Relationships in the past, Former girlfriends, and Hookups in the past. Jose Díaz-Balart No details to share of Relationship status & Separation from spouse.

. –

Here are some facts about Jose Díaz-Balart

  1. Jose Díaz-Balart’s age 58 old.
  2. Born day November 7, jose diaz balart biography Signs Scorpio.
  3. He was awarded two Emmys for his work with WTVJ-TV in Miami.
Источник: https://www.ourhairstyle.com/jose-diaz-balart-popular-biography-net-worth/
Full NameJose Diaz-BalartNet Worth$5 MillionDate Of BirthNovember 7, 1960Place Of BirthFort Lauderdale, Florida, United StatesProfessionJournalist, ActorEducationUniversity of Cambridge, New College of FloridaNationalityUnited States of AmericaParentsRafael Díaz-BalartSiblingsMario Díaz-Balart, Lincoln Díaz-BalartNicknamesJose Diaz BalartFacebookhttp://www.facebook.com/josediazbalarttelemundoTwitterhttp://www.twitter.com/jdbalartInstagramhttp://www.instagram.com/jdbalartIMDBhttp://imdb.com/name/nm1969325AwardsNews & Documentary Emmy Award for Outstanding Coverage of a Breaking News Story in SpanishNominationsNews & Documentary Emmy Award for Outstanding Live Coverage of a Current News Story – Long Form, News & Documentary Emmy Award for Outstanding Investigative Journalism in Spanish, News & Documentary Emmy Award for Outstanding Newscast or News Magazine In SpanishTV ShowsThe Rundown with José Diaz-Balart, more
Источник: https://networthpost.org/jose-diaz-balart-net-worth/

Rafael José Díaz-Balart

Rafael José Díaz-Balart (c. 1899 – 1985), was a Cuban politician and mayor of the town of Banes. With his wife América Gutiérrez, he was the father of Rafael Díaz-Balart and progenitor of the Díaz-Balart family, an American political family. He was briefly the father-in-law of Fidel Castro through Castro's marriage to Díaz-Balart's daughter, Mirta Diaz-Balart, but after the Cuban Revolution, he became a major anti-Castro figure living in exile in Miami, Florida.

Biography

Born in Santiago de Cuba, Díaz-Balart received a law degree from the University of Havana in 1919.[1] Soon after joining the Bar, he became a municipal judge in the city of Palma Soriano, where he served for four years until, by civil service examination, he obtained the post of civil law notary in the town of Banes in eastern Cuba. While maintaining his law practice he was elected City Council President and Mayor of Banes. He was elected to the Cuban House of Representatives and transferred his law practice first to the city of Holguín, then to Havana. There, he founded the law firm of Diaz-Balart, Diaz-Balart and Amador, with his son, Rafael Lincoln, and partner Rolando Amador.[1] The Díaz-Balarts became one of Cuba's wealthiest families.[2] After several years, Díaz-Balart assumed the post of Land Registrar, also by examination.[1] From 1952 to 1954, Díaz-Balart was Transport Minister in the cabinet of Fulgencio Batista.[3]

In 1948, Díaz-Balart's daughter Mirta married Fidel Castro, then a fellow philosophy student at the University of Havana. They divorced in 1955, and in 1959, Castro led the Cuban Revolution, overthrowing the government with which both Díaz-Balart and his son Rafael were affiliated.[4] Díaz-Balart went into exile in Miami, and became a United States citizen. In 1965, Díaz-Balart, along with his son Rafael, entered law school at the University of Madrid in Spain, where he received a second law degree. Díaz-Balart then returned jose diaz balart biography Miami, Florida, where he remained until his death, in 1985.[1]

On February 10, 2007, Florida International University dedicated the Rafael Diaz-Balart Hall as the building housing the Florida International University College of Law, jointly named for Díaz-Balart and his son Rafael.[1] The United States Congress also passed a resolution in 2007 honoring Díaz-Balart's contributions.[1]

References

  1. ^ abcdefUnited States House of Representatives, Recognizing and Honoring the Lifetime Contributions of Rafael José Díaz-Balart, H. Res. 131 (February 7, 2007).
  2. ^Georgie Anne Geyer, Guerrilla Prince: The Untold Story of Fidel Castro (2011).
  3. ^Philip Brenner, A Contemporary Cuba Reader: Reinventing the Revolution (2008), p. 8.
  4. ^Servando González, The Secret Fidel Castro: Deconstructing the Symbol (2001), p. 227.
Источник: https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Rafael_Jos%C3%A9_D%C3%ADaz-Balart

Chapter
Thirty-Seven

WRITTEN BY

Sarah Goldfinger

RogelioYou have to go to your engagement party
JaneThis is more important

Chapter Thirty-Seven is the 15th episode of Season 2 of Jane the Virgin.

Synopsis

NEW BEGINNINGS — Rafael (Justin Baldoni) and Petra (Yael Grobglas) are new parents but Petra is already back to work and appears to not be interested in jose diaz balart biography. Xo (Andrea Navedo) has invited Alba's (Ivonne Coll) old flame Pablo (guest star Marcelo Tubert) to visit. This does not sit well with Alba as she believes Pablo is cursed and will bring bad luck. Jane (Gina Rodriguez) is growing concerned that she can't get in touch with her father, Rogelio (Jaime Camil), who is being held captive by Lola (guest star Ana De la Reguera).

Starring

Gina Rodriguez as Jane Villanueva
Andrea Navedo as Xiomara Villanueva
Yael Grobglas as Petra
Justin Baldoni as Rafael Solano
Ivonne Coll as Alba Villanueva
Brett Dier as Michael Cordero
andJaime Camil as Rogelio De La Vega

Recurring cast

Mat Vairo as Derek Ruvelle

Guest starring

Ana De la Reguera as Paola/Lola
Jose Diaz-Balart as Jose Diaz-Balart
Melanie Mayron as Marlene Donaldson
Daniel Roebuck as Michael Cordero Sr.
Molly Hagan as Patricia Cordero
Marcelo Tubert as Pablo Alonso Segura
Angie Cepeda as Adriana Chavando
Norma Jose diaz balart biography as Director

Co-Starring

Alison Fernandez as Young Jane
Arianna Ortiz as Fiona
Shelly Bhalla as Krishna Dhawan
Michelle Twarowska as Nurse Helga
Claudia Zielke as Nurse Wilma
Iris Almario as Soledad Goldberg
Drue Schaefer Crookston as Paramedic
Christine Rodriguez as Student
Jenn Liu as Hospital Nurse

Trivia

  • Lola was gonna kill herself and Rogelio in a murder-suicide.
  • Jane is there for her father.
  • Derek tells Rafael he thought about drowning himself because he was left without a family.
  • Michael's parents are divorced. Michael Sr. cheated on his wife.
  • Rafael seems to be getting along better with Jane, and also with Michael.
  • Pablo and Alba share a passionate kiss while tangoing at The Marbella, to the song that played when they met, requested by Pablo.
    • Coincidentally, at the same time, the Villanueva house begins to flood!
  • Petra is nervous about being a mother and keeps her distance from the twins, until Rafael assuages her fears with a bonding evening with the girls, telling Petra she will chase student account high school fine.

FLASHBACKS

  • 9-year-old Jane is seen distraught over the illegality of the 2000 U.S. election, heralded by the state of Florida.

CONTINUITY

  • Lina isn't seen at the engagement party
  • Billy doesn't come to the engagement party.

'Secrets'

  • The full story of the flower is revealed, as Alba & Pablo made love in her parents' garden.
  • Derek's father ran half-marathons twice annually and died suddenly of a heart attack. He tells Rafael he has wondered if Mutter killed him.

Photos

Источник: https://janethevirgin.fandom.com/wiki/Chapter_Thirty-Seven

Jose diaz balart biography -

Mario Diaz Balart

Republican politician who has represented Florida’s 21st and 25th districts in the US House of Representatives. He has six Caucus memberships, including one as Founder of the Protecting Families Online Initiative. Mario Diaz Balart was born on September 25, 1961, in Florida. His aunt, Mirta Diaz-Balart, was the first wife of Fidel Castro. He studied political science at the University of South Florida before being elected to the Florida House in 1988. Scroll below and check our most recent updates about Mario Diaz Balart Net Worth, Salary, Biography, Age, Career, Wiki. Also discover more detailed information about Current Net worth as well as Monthly/Year Salary, Expense, Income Reports!

He has one son with his wife, Tia Díaz-Balart. His brother Jose is a journalist and TV show host. He has not shared about He’s parent’s name. We will update Family, Sibling, Spouse, and Children’s information. Right now, we don’t have much information about Education Life.

Bio/Wiki
First NameMario
Last NameBalart
ProfessionPolitician
Age59 years
Birthday & Zodiac
Birth SignLibra
Birth DateSeptember 25, 1961
BirthdaySeptember 25
Birth PlaceFlorida
CountryFlorida
Height & Weight
Height (Approx.)Not Available
Weight (Approx.)Not Available

He is a founding member of the Congressional Hispanic Conference, a caucus of Hispanic Republican congressmen.

Mario Diaz Balart Net Worth

According to Networth and Salary, Mario Diaz Balart’s estimated Net Worth, Salary, Income, Cars, Lifestyles & much more details has been updated below. Let’s check, How Rich is Mario Diaz Balart in 2019-2020?

Estimated Net Worth in 2021$100,000 – $1M.
Previous Year’s Net Worth (2020)Under Review
Annual SalaryUnder Review.
Income SourcePrimary Income source Politician (profession).

Noted, Currently, We don’t have enough information about Cars, Monthly/Yearly Salary, etc. We will update soon.

Popularity (Google Trends)

Источник: https://networthandsalary.com/mario-diaz-balart/

Rafael José Díaz-Balart

Rafael José Díaz-Balart (c. 1899 – 1985), was a Cuban politician and mayor of the town of Banes. With his wife América Gutiérrez, he was the father of Rafael Díaz-Balart and progenitor of the Díaz-Balart family, an American political family. He was briefly the father-in-law of Fidel Castro through Castro's marriage to Díaz-Balart's daughter, Mirta Diaz-Balart, but after the Cuban Revolution, he became a major anti-Castro figure living in exile in Miami, Florida.

Biography

Born in Santiago de Cuba, Díaz-Balart received a law degree from the University of Havana in 1919.[1] Soon after joining the Bar, he became a municipal judge in the city of Palma Soriano, where he served for four years until, by civil service examination, he obtained the post of civil law notary in the town of Banes in eastern Cuba. While maintaining his law practice he was elected City Council President and Mayor of Banes. He was elected to the Cuban House of Representatives and transferred his law practice first to the city of Holguín, then to Havana. There, he founded the law firm of Diaz-Balart, Diaz-Balart and Amador, with his son, Rafael Lincoln, and partner Rolando Amador.[1] The Díaz-Balarts became one of Cuba's wealthiest families.[2] After several years, Díaz-Balart assumed the post of Land Registrar, also by examination.[1] From 1952 to 1954, Díaz-Balart was Transport Minister in the cabinet of Fulgencio Batista.[3]

In 1948, Díaz-Balart's daughter Mirta married Fidel Castro, then a fellow philosophy student at the University of Havana. They divorced in 1955, and in 1959, Castro led the Cuban Revolution, overthrowing the government with which both Díaz-Balart and his son Rafael were affiliated.[4] Díaz-Balart went into exile in Miami, and became a United States citizen. In 1965, Díaz-Balart, along with his son Rafael, entered law school at the University of Madrid in Spain, where he received a second law degree. Díaz-Balart then returned to Miami, Florida, where he remained until his death, in 1985.[1]

On February 10, 2007, Florida International University dedicated the Rafael Diaz-Balart Hall as the building housing the Florida International University College of Law, jointly named for Díaz-Balart and his son Rafael.[1] The United States Congress also passed a resolution in 2007 honoring Díaz-Balart's contributions.[1]

References

  1. ^ abcdefUnited States House of Representatives, Recognizing and Honoring the Lifetime Contributions of Rafael José Díaz-Balart, H. Res. 131 (February 7, 2007).
  2. ^Georgie Anne Geyer, Guerrilla Prince: The Untold Story of Fidel Castro (2011).
  3. ^Philip Brenner, A Contemporary Cuba Reader: Reinventing the Revolution (2008), p. 8.
  4. ^Servando González, The Secret Fidel Castro: Deconstructing the Symbol (2001), p. 227.
Источник: https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Rafael_Jos%C3%A9_D%C3%ADaz-Balart
In this Spanish name, the first or paternal surnameis Díaz-Balart.

Waldo Díaz-Balart y Gutiérrez (born February 10, 1931) is a Cuban painter and sculptor living in Madrid, Spain.

Contents

Born in Banes, Cuba, Díaz-Balart is the son of the mayor of Banes, Rafael José Díaz-Balart. Díaz-Balart studied accounting and political science and economics in Havana before moving to New York City to pursue art studies in 1959. From 1959 to 1962 he studied art in the Museum of Modern Art, New York. In 1967 he became a lecturer in many cultural centres and universities of the United States, Poland, Spain, Germany and Netherlands. He acted in two movies by Andy Warhol, The Life of Juanita Castro (1965) and The Loves of Ondine (1968). He was friends with fellow Andy Warhol actor Louis Waldon.

Díaz-Balart lectures frequently and his work – explorations of color and light in geometric paintings and light sculpture – has been widely exhibited. In 1966 the Studio Gallery in Washington, D.C. presented an individual exhibition. In 1967 he presented an exhibition in the Iris Clert Gallery in Paris. In 1967 he joined Mass Art Inc. in partnership with Sujan Souri, Dorian Godoy, and Philip Orenstein. The company manufactured the first inflatable chair designed by Philip Orenstein which is now included in the permanent collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. In 1998 he showed "Waldo Balart. Black Painting" in Galería Edurne in Madrid. In 1970, he participated in the collective exhibition Salón 70 in the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de La Habana. In 1964, he exhibited in the Pan American Union Building in Washington, D.C. and in 1968 in the Gallery of Modern Art, New York. In 1970, he participated at the first San Juan Bienal del Grabado Latinoamericano (Biennial of Latin-American Engraving) at the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture in Puerto Rico.

He had his first major exhibition in 1972, at the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo.

In 1979, he participated in the Third Bienal Internacional del Deporte en las Bellas Artes (Biennial of Sport in Fine Arts) in Barcelona, and in 1995 he participated in the international art fair Art Cologne in Germany.

In 2002, he was honoured as a Frost Art Museum of Florida International University fellow.

He had one-man shows in the Netherlands and in Spain. He is the recipient of a Pollock-Krasner Foundation fellowship. His work is in the permanent collections of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía in Madrid, the Mondriaan House in Amersfoort, The Netherlands, and the Museum of Modern Art in Hünfeld, Germany, among others.

In 1992 he published the book Ensayos de Arte (Essays on Art).

In 1999, he moved from Spain to Liège, Belgium. He later returned to Madrid before 2011. He also briefly lived in Paraguay.

The marriage of his sister, Mirta Díaz-Balart, to former Cuban leader Fidel Castro as Castro's first wife made Waldo Díaz-Balart Castro's brother-in-law. His nephews include U.S. congressmanMario Díaz-Balart, former congressman Lincoln Díaz-Balart, and NBC Nightly News Saturday news anchor José Díaz-Balart.

  1. Hedgecoe, Guy (4 November 2011). "The man who knew Fidel Castro, Warhol and Franco's Spain". iberosphere.com. Retrieved7 June 2018.
  2. Michael Ferguson Joe Dallesandro: Warhol Superstar, Underground Film Icon, Actor, p. 87, at Google Books
  3. John Jonas Gruen and Samuel Swasey Two Men, p. 57, at Google Books
  4. Andrea O'Reilly Herrera (editor) Cuba: Idea of a Nation Displaced, p. 45, at Google Books
  • Jose Veigas-Zamora, Cristina Vives Gutierrez, Adolfo V. Nodal, Valia Garzon, Dannys Montes de Oca; Memoria: Cuban Art of the 20th Century; (California/International Arts Foundation 2001); ISBN978-0-917571-11-4
  • Jose Veigas; Memoria: Artes Visuales Cubanas Del Siglo XX; (California International Arts 2004); ISBN978-0-917571-12-1(in Spanish)
  • Andrea O'Reilly Herrera; Cuba: Idea of a Nation Displaced; (State University of New York Press, 2007) ISBN978-0-7914-7199-9
Waldo Díaz-Balart
Источник: http://wikipedia.us.nina.az/Waldo_Diaz-Balart.html

Mirta Nunez - Mirta Núñez

Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart (b. 19 ??) is a historian of Cuban descent and Spanish nationality.

Short biography

Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart was born into a family marked by history: her father, the lawyer Emilio Núñez Blanco - who died in Madrid on June 6, 2006 - was a notorious anti-Castroist; his mother, Mirta Díaz-Balart , was the first wife of Fidel Castro . Thus, Mirta Núñez was at the same time the sister of the only "official" son of the Cuban president, Fidel Castro Díaz-Balart (1949-2018), and the first cousin of two US Republican congressmen, the brothers Lincoln and Mario Díaz-Balart .

Mirta Núñez graduated from the Faculty of Information Sciences of the Complutense University in 1983, with the thesis "The Press of the International Brigades" and in October 1988 she read her doctoral thesis, entitled "The war press in the republican zone during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) ", directed by José Altabella Hernández . Well documented thesis –6 volumes and 2683 pages– will be partly published by that University the following year and edited four years later with the same title.
From then on, a long series of publications began.

Mirta Núñez is a tenured professor in the Department of History of Social Communication, at the Complutense University of Madrid , of which she is the current director.

Work

Professor Núñez's work revolves around two axes:

  • Propaganda and the press during the Spanish Civil War
  • The victims of Francoism throughout the dictatorship, emphasizing the most vulnerable: children and women.

The contribution of this historian from primary information is very remarkable: we highlight her study, with Antonio Rojas Friend, of the executions in Madrid after the civil war.

books

  • The discipline of conscience: the International Brigades , Barcelona, ​​Flor del Viento, 2006, ISBN 84-96495-12-4 ; ISBN 978-84-96495-12-8
  • Fallen women: legal and clandestine prostitutes in the Franco regime , foreword by Rafael Torres, Madrid, Oberon, 2003. ISBN 84-96052-23-0
  • The years of terror; the strategy of domination and repression of General Franco , Madrid, La Esfera de los Libros, 2004. ISBN 84-9734-179-1
  • The war press in the republican zone during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) , Madrid, La Torre, 1992, 3 v. ISBN 84-7960-038-1 . It is an extension of: The war press in the republican zone during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) , Madrid, Complutense University, 1989, 2 v. Doctoral Thesis Collection No. 278/89. DL M 38486-1989
  • Javier Bueno, a journalist committed to the revolution , Madrid, Fundación Banco Exterior, 1987, ISBN 84-7434-162-0

Co-authored books

  • With Antonio Rojas Friend, Council of war: the executions in postwar Madrid, 1939-1945 , drawings by José Robledano , Madrid, Compañía Literaria, 1997, ISBN 84-8213-061-7

Prologues

  • Rafael Torres, Franco's slaves , prologue by Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart, Madrid, Oberon, 2000. ISBN 84-207-4391-7 (several reissues).

Direction and coordination of degrees

  • The day after: Spain and its former colonies after the "disaster" of 98 , direction, Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart; coord. Antonio Rojas, Madrid, Argés, 1998, ISBN 84-923190-3-8
  • José Altabella, tribute book , coord. Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart, Agustín Martínez de la Heras, Rosa Cal Martínez , Madrid, Faculty of Information Sciences, 1997. ISBN 84-922275-2-4
  • Spanish republicanism: historical roots and future prospects , Ángeles Egido León, Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart (eds.), Foreword by Nigel Townson , Madrid, Manuel Azaña Association: New Library, 2001. ISBN 84-7030-910-2
  • The great repression. The lead years of the Franco regime , Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart (coord.), Barcelona, ​​Flor del viento, 2009 ISBN 978-84-96495-37-1 .

Collaborations in collective works

  • "The memory of the purified professors of the UCM", The destruction of science in Spain: university purification in the Franco regime / (coord.) By Luis Enrique Otero Carvajal, 2006, ISBN 84-7491-808-1 , p. 7-13
  • "Repression and terrorism in the Francoist State", Spain at war: protagonists for a conflict / (coord.) By José Manuel Chico Isidro, 2003, ISBN 84-9772-102-0 , p. 71-86
  • "The dreamed humanity: propaganda and reality of the International Brigades through their publications", The International Brigades: the international context, the means of propaganda, literature and memories , (coord.) By Manuel Requena Gallego, Rosa María Sepúlveda Losa, 2003, ISBN 84-8427-250-8 , p. 73-90
  • "Propaganda for war, ashes for peace", Propaganda in War , 2002, ISBN 84-95719-36-3 , p. 51-70
  • "'Fallen women'. The problem of prostitution in the postwar period since Franco's propaganda", Social communication during Franco's regime , (coord.) By María Inmaculada Sánchez Alarcón, Juan Antonio García Galindo, Juan Francisco Gutiérrez Lozano, 2002, ISBN 84-7785-499-8 , p. 221-230
  • "The disappeared enemy: The ideological combat against liberalism in Franco's prison propaganda", The liberal revolution , Congress on the Spanish liberal Revolution in its peninsular (and insular) and American diversity, Madrid, April 1999, (coord.) By Alberto Gil Novales, 2001, ISBN 84-7923-255-2 , p. 697-708
  • "The republican militia: from iconographic prominence to reality", Studies of women in the field of English-speaking countries , 2001, ISBN 84-699-468-3, p. 135-150
  • The prison behind the walls: The work of the prisoners in Franco's Spain, Spanish republicanism: historical roots and future prospects , 2001, ISBN 84-7030-910-2 , p. 143-174
  • "Azaña and Casares: the design of a policy of public order", Azaña and the others , (coord.) By Angeles Egido León, 2001, ISBN 84-7030-907-2 , p. 89-102
  • "Bonapartist charity for the Madrid famine", Science and political independence , (coord.) By Alberto Gil Novales, 1996, ISBN 84-7923-095-9 , p. 147-163
  • "Fiction and reality in 'Espoir, Sierra de Teruel'", History and cinema: reality, fiction and propaganda , (coord.) By Julio Montero Díaz, María Antonia Paz Rebollo, 1995, ISBN 84-89365-11-3 , p . 159-168
  • "The press of the International Brigades", Communication, culture and politics during the Second Republic and the Civil War: II Meeting on the History of the Press (coord.) By Manuel Tuñón de Lara, v. 2, 1990, ISBN 84-7585-270-X , p. 405-426

Some articles

  • "Pain as therapy. The common marrow of the Nazi and Francoist concentration camps", Ayer , ISSN 1134-2277 , nº 57, 2005, p. 81-102
  • "Pain as therapy: the common marrow of the Nazi and Francoist concentration camps", The digital muse , ISSN 1579-2803 , No. 6, 2004, (Issue dedicated to: The exile of Central and Eastern Europe )
  • "Triptych of women. From the committed woman to the marginal", History of the present , ISSN 1579-8135 , nº 4, 2004, p. 47-60
  • "The anti-republican repression: the dispersed memory, the erased footprint", Republican notebooks , ISSN 1131-7744 , no. 54, 2004 (issue dedicated to: The great forgotten. The left-wing republicans in exile), p. 229-251
  • "A ring for political combat: the press of the international Brigades", Ayer , ISSN 1134-2277 , nº 56, 2004, p. 121-142
  • "The 'redeemed' childhood: the last link in the Francoist prison system", History and social communication , ISSN 1137-0734 , No. 6, 2001 (issue dedicated to: The civil war and the media) p. 137-148
  • "Casares, the demonization of a politician", Republican Notebooks , ISSN 1131-7744 , nº 40, 1999, p. 47-66
  • "Official propaganda to adorn the postwar prison world", History and social communication , ISSN 1137-0734 , No. 4, 1999 (Issue dedicated to: Propaganda), p. 135-144
  • "The eye of the hurricane: Regional societies at the apex of a Hispano-Cuban conflict", History and social communication , ISSN 1137-0734 , No. 3, 1998 (issue dedicated to: The war of 98 and the media ), p. 127-142
  • "Miguel de Unamuno: against the monarchy and the dictatorship", Republican notebooks , ISSN 1131-7744 , nº 32, 1997, p. 41-44
  • "The eye of the needle: The journalist card, the last filter of professional purification in the immediate postwar period" , History and social communication , ISSN 1137-0734 , No. 2, 1997 (Issue dedicated to: Cinema and social communication ), p. 205-210
  • "An approach to nineteenth-century anticlericalism", History and social communication , ISSN 1137-0734 , nº 1, 1996, p. 63-74
  • "The Thirteen Roses: new revelations about its execution", History 16 , ISSN 0210-6353 , nº 205, 1993, p. 21-25

Collaborative Articles

  • With Antonio Rojas Friend, "Victims of the Franco regime in Madrid: the executions in the East Cemetery (1939-1945)", The Franco regime, 1936-1975: politics and foreign relations , (coord.) By Javier Tusell Gómez, v . 1, 1993, ISBN 84-600-8464-7 , p. 283-290

external links

Источник: https://second.wiki/wiki/mirta_nc3bac3b1ez

Fidel Castro orchestrated the Cuban Revolution and was the head of Cuba's government until 2008.

Who Was Fidel Castro?

Beginning in 1958, Fidel Castro and his forces began a campaign of guerrilla warfare which led to the overthrow of Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. As the country's new leader, Castro implemented communist domestic policies and initiated military and economic relations with the Soviet Union that led to strained relations with the United States. The tension between the United States and Cuba culminated in the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Under Castro, improvements were made to healthcare and education, while he maintained a dictatorial control over the country and brutally persecuted or imprisoned anyone thought to be enemies of the regime. 

Thousands of dissidents were killed or died trying to flee the dictatorship. Castro was also responsible for fomenting communist revolutions in countries around the world. However, the 1991 collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and its negative impact on Cuba's economy led Castro to relax some restrictions over time. In failing health, Castro officially handed over power to his brother Raúl Castro in 2008, but still wielded some political influence in Cuba and abroad. Fidel Castro died in 2016 at the age of 90.

Early Life

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was born on August 13, 1926, near Birán, in Cuba's eastern Oriente Province. He was the third of six children, including his two brothers, Raúl and Ramón; and three sisters, Angela, Emma and Agustina. His father, Ángel, was a wealthy sugar plantation owner originally from Spain who did most of his business with the American-owned United Fruit Company, which dominated the agriculture in that region at the time. His mother, Lina Ruz González, had been a maid to Ángel's first wife, Maria Luisa Argota, at the time of Fidel's birth. By the time Fidel was 15, his father dissolved his first marriage and wed Fidel's mother. At age 17, Fidel was formally recognized by his father and his name was changed from Ruz to Castro.

Educated in private Jesuit boarding schools, Castro grew up in wealthy circumstances amid the poverty of Cuba but was also imbued with a sense of Spanish pride from his teachers. From an early age, Castro showed he was intellectually gifted, but he was also something of a troublemaker and was often more interested in sports than studies. He attended Colegio Dolores in Santiago de Cuba and then El Colegio de Belén in Havana, where he pitched for the school's baseball team as well as played basketball and ran track. After his graduation in late 1945, however, Castro entered law school at the University of Havana and became immersed in the climate of Cuban nationalism, anti-imperialism and socialism, focusing his energies more exclusively on politics.

Early Political Insurrections and Arrests

By 1947, Castro had become increasingly passionate about social justice and he traveled to the Dominican Republic to join an expedition attempting the overthrow of the country's dictator, Rafael Trujillo. Though the coup failed before it got started, the incident did little to dampen Castro's passion for reform, and he traveled to Bogotá, Colombia, the following year to participate in the anti-government rioting there.   

In 1947, Castro also joined the Partido Ortodoxo, an anti-communist political party founded to reform government in Cuba. Its founder, Cuban presidential candidate Eduardo Chibás, lost the 1948 election but inspired Castro to be an ardent disciple. He pledged to expose the government's corruption and warn the people about General Fulgencio Batista, himself a former president, who was plotting a return to power. However, Chibás' efforts were cut short after his supposed allies refused to provide evidence of government wrongdoing. In August 1951, Chibás shot himself during a radio broadcast.

Meanwhile, Castro had married Mirta Díaz Balart, who was from a wealthy political family in Cuba. They had one child, named Fidel, in 1949. The marriage exposed Castro to a wealthier lifestyle and political connections. At the same time, however, he developed an interest in the work of Karl Marx and became intent on running for a seat in the Cuban congress. But in March 1952 a coup led by General Fulgencio Batista successfully overthrew the government and the upcoming election was canceled, leaving Castro without a legitimate political platform and little income with which to support his family. 

Batista set himself up as dictator, solidified his power with the military and Cuba's economic elite and had his government recognized by the United States. In response, Castro and fellow members of the Partido Ortodoxo organized a group they called "The Movement" and planned an insurrection. On July 26, 1953, Castro and approximately 150 supporters attacked the Moncada military barracks outside of Santiago de Cuba in an attempt to overthrow Batista. However, the attack failed and Castro was captured, tried, convicted and sentenced to 15 years in prison. His brother Raúl was also among those imprisoned. 

Guerrilla War Against Batista

While incarcerated, Castro renamed his group the "26th of July Movement" and continued to coordinate its activities through correspondence. He and his compatriots were ultimately released in 1955 under an amnesty deal with the Batista government, and he traveled with Raúl to Mexico, where they continued to plan their revolution. 

In Mexico, Castro met with other Cuban exiles, as well as the Argentinian rebel Ernesto "Che" Guevara, who believed that the plight of Latin America's poor could be rectified only through violent revolution. He joined Castro's group and became an important confidante, helping to shape Castro's political beliefs.

On December 2, 1956, Castro returned to Cuba aboard the boat Granma with little more than 80 insurgents and a cache of weapons near the eastern city of Manzanillo. In short order, Batista's forces killed or captured most of the attackers. But Castro, Raúl, Guevara and a handful of others were able to escape into the Sierra Maestra mountain range along the island's southeastern coast. Over the course of the next two years, Castro's steadily growing forces waged a guerrilla war against the Batista government, organizing resistance groups in cities and small towns across Cuba. Castro was also able to organize a parallel government, carry out some agrarian reform and control provinces with agricultural and manufacturing production.

Beginning in 1958, Castro and his forces mounted a series of successful military campaigns to capture and hold key areas throughout Cuba. Combined with a loss of popular support and massive desertions in its military, Batista's government finally collapsed under Castro's efforts, and in January 1959, Batista himself fled to the Dominican Republic. At the age of 32, Castro had successfully concluded his guerrilla campaign to take control of Cuba.

A provisional government was quickly created, with Manuel Urrutia installed as president and José Miró Cardona as prime minister. It quickly gained the recognition of the United States, and Castro himself arrived in Havana to cheering crowds and assumed the post of commander-in-chief of the military. In February 1959, Miró suddenly resigned, and Castro was sworn in as Cuba's prime minister. Meanwhile, hundreds of members of Batista's government were tried and executed. 

Turn to Communism

Castro implemented far-reaching reforms by nationalizing factories and plantations in an attempt to end U.S. economic dominance on the island. Among these reforms, it was announced that the new government would base compensation to foreign companies on the artificially low property values that the companies themselves had negotiated with past Cuban governments in order to keep their taxes low. American companies soon felt the negative effects of such measures, leading to a significant strain in relations between the Cuba and the United States. 

During this time, Castro repeatedly denied being a communist, but to many Americans, his policies closely resembled a Soviet-style control of both the economy and government. In April 1959, Castro and a delegation visited the United States as guests of the National Press Club. Castro hired a renowned public relations firm to help promote his tour, but President Dwight Eisenhower refused a meeting with him.

That May, Castro signed the first Agrarian Reform Act, which limited the size of land holdings and forbade foreign property ownership. On the surface, the intent was to develop a class of independent farmers. In reality, this program led to state land control, with the farmers becoming mere government employees. By the end of 1959, Castro's revolution had become radicalized, with purges of military and government leaders — including President Urrutia — and the suppression of any media critical of Castro's policies.

Castro's government also began to establish relations with the Soviet Union. The USSR sent more than 100 Spanish-speaking advisers to help organize Cuba's defense committee. In February 1960, Cuba signed a trade agreement to buy oil from the Soviet Union and established diplomatic relations. When U.S.-owned refineries in Cuba refused to process the oil, Castro expropriated them, and the United States retaliated by cutting Cuba's import quota on sugar, thus beginning what would become a decades-long contentious relationship between the two countries.

Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis 

The year 1961 proved to be pivotal in Castro's relationship with the United States. On January 3, 1961, outgoing President Eisenhower broke off diplomatic relations with the Cuban government. On April 14th, Castro formally declared Cuba a socialist state. Three days later, some 1,400 Cuban exiles invaded Cuba at the remote Bay of Pigs in an attempt to overthrow the Castro regime. The incursion ended in disaster, with hundreds of the insurgents killed and more than 1,000 captured. Though the United States denied any involvement, it was revealed that the Cuban exiles had been trained by the Central Intelligence Agency and armed with American weapons. Decades later, the National Security Archive revealed that the United States had begun planning an overthrow of the Castro government as early as March 1959. The invasion was conceived during the Eisenhower administration and inherited by President John F. Kennedy, who reluctantly approved its action but denied the invaders air support in the hopes of concealing a U.S. role in the effort.

Castro, in turn, was able to capitalize on the incident to consolidate his power and further promote his agenda. On May 1st he announced an end to democratic elections in Cuba and denounced American imperialism. Then at year's end, Castro declared himself a Marxist-Leninist and announced the Cuban government was adopting communist economic and political policies. On February 7, 1962, the United States imposed a full economic embargo on Cuba.

In the wake of the Bay of Pigs incident, Castro intensified his relations with the Soviet Union by accepting further economic and military aid. In October 1962, his increasing reliance on Soviet support brought the world to the brink of nuclear war. Hoping to deter another U.S. invasion of Cuba, Castro and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing nuclear missiles in Cuba, just 90 miles off the coast of Florida. Khrushchev justified the move as a response to U.S. Jupiter missiles that had been deployed in Turkey. However, an American U-2 reconnaissance plane discovered the base construction before the missiles were installed and President Kennedy responded by demanding the removal of the missiles, with orders for the U.S. Navy to search any vessels headed for the island.

Over 13 anxious days of secret communications between Khrushchev, Kennedy and their agents, the Soviets agreed to remove the missiles in exchange for the United States' public agreement not to invade Cuba. The Kennedy administration also agreed to secretly remove the Jupiter missiles from Turkey. Both leaders saved face and gained some admiration for restraint. Castro, on the other hand, was humiliated: Both superpowers had completely left him out of the negotiations. Furthermore, the United States was able to persuade the Organization of American States to end diplomatic relations with Cuba, in response to Castro's "shameful" actions.

Cuba Under Castro

But Castro wasn't shamed for long. In 1965, he merged Cuba's Communist Party with his revolutionary organizations, installing himself as head of the party. Within a few years, he began a campaign of supporting armed struggle against imperialism in Latin American and African countries. In January 1966, Castro founded the Organization for Solidarity with the Peoples of Asia, Africa, and Latin America to promote revolution and communism on three continents. In 1967, he also formed the Latin American Solidarity Organization to foster revolution in select Latin American countries.

In the 1970s, Castro continued to promote himself as the leading spokesperson for Third World countries by providing military support to pro-Soviet forces in Angola, Ethiopia and Yemen. Though Cuba was still heavily subsidized by the Soviet government during this period, those expeditions ultimately proved unsuccessful and put a strain on the Cuban economy.

Meanwhile, the United States' agreement not to invade Cuba had not precluded attempting to topple the Castro regime in other ways. Over the years, Castro was the target of numerous CIA assassination attempts (an estimated 638 in all, according to Cuban intelligence), ranging from exploding cigars to a fungus-infected scuba-diving suit to a mafia-style shooting. Castro took great delight in the fact that none of the attempts ever succeeded and was quoted as saying that if avoiding assassination attempts was an Olympic sport, he would have won gold medals.

Castro's regime has been credited with opening 10,000 new schools and increasing literacy to 98 percent. Cubans enjoy a universal healthcare system, which has decreased infant mortality to 11 deaths in 1,000 (1.1 percent). But at the same time, civil liberties were whittled away, as labor unions lost the right to strike, independent newspapers were shut down and religious institutions were harassed. Castro removed opposition to his rule though executions and imprisonments, as well as through forced emigration. Though there are no exact numbers, the Cuba Archive estimates that tens of thousands were murdered, with a documented 5,600 killed by firing squads alone. Even more Cubans were killed by state forces when they tried to flee the country, which occurred during the 1980 Canimar River Massacre and the Tugboat Massacre of 1994.

During Castro's rule, hundreds of thousands of Cubans fled the country, many settling just across the Florida Straits in Miami. The largest of these exoduses occurred in 1980 when Castro opened up the port of Mariel to allow exiled Cubans living in Miami to come claim their relatives. Upon their arrival, Castro also loaded the ships with Cuban prison inmates and mentally ill people. In all, nearly 120,000 Cubans left their homeland in 1980 to find sanctuary in the United States.

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

After the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union sent Cuba's economy into a tailspin, Castro's revolution began to lose momentum. Without cheap oil imports and an eager Soviet market for Cuban sugar and other goods, Cuban unemployment and inflation grew. The contraction of the Cuban economy resulted in 85 percent of its markets disappearing.

Yet Castro was very adept at keeping control of the government during dire economic times. He pressed the United States to lift the economic embargo, but it refused. Castro then adopted a quasi-free market economy and encouraged international investment. He also legalized the U.S. dollar and encouraged limited tourism, and in 1996 he visited the United States to invite Cuban exiles living there to return to Cuba to start businesses.

In 2001, after massive damage was caused by Hurricane Michelle, Castro declined U.S. humanitarian aid but proposed a one-time cash purchase of food from the United States. President George W. Bush's administration assented and authorized the shipment. With the fuel supply running dangerously low, Castro ordered 118 factories to be closed and sent thousands of Cuban doctors to Venezuela in exchange for oil imports.

Shifting Power and Brother

In the late 1990s, speculation began to arise over Castro's age and well-being. Numerous health problems had been reported over the years, the most significant occurring in 2006, when Castro underwent surgery for gastrointestinal bleeding. In a dramatic announcement, on July 31, 2006, Castro designated his brother Raúl as the country's temporary leader. Raúl had served as Castro's second in command for decades and had been officially selected as his successor in 1997. Following Castro's surgery, his only appearances were in photographs and video recordings of meetings.

On February 19, 2008, 81-year-old Castro permanently gave up the Cuban presidency due to his deteriorating physical condition. He handed over power to Raúl, who was 76 years old at the time. The Cuban National Assembly officially elected Raúl as president of Cuba the same month, although Castro reportedly remained the first secretary of the Communist Party.

In April 2011, news broke that Castro officially stepped down from his role within Cuba's Communist Party. Raúl easily won election as the party's new first secretary, taking over for his brother and choosing famed revolutionary José Ramón Machado Ventura to serve as the party's second in command. Castro claimed that he had actually resigned the post five years earlier.

In his retirement, Castro began writing a column about his experiences and opinions, called "Reflections of Fidel," and in 2007 his autobiography My Life was published. From mid-November to early January 2012, however, Castro failed to publish any columns. This sudden silence sparked rumors that Castro had taken a turn for the worse. But these stories soon proved to be unfounded, as Castro put out a flurry of articles later that January.

Though not involved in the day-to-day affairs of running Cuba, Castro still maintained a certain degree of political influence both at home and abroad. He continued to meet with foreign leaders, such as Iran's Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in 2012, during their visits to Cuba. Pope Benedict arranged a special audience with Castro at the end of his trip in March 2012, seeking to obtain greater religious freedom for Catholics living in the communist nation, and in September 2015 Pope Francis met privately with Castro as well. However, when Barack Obama became the first sitting American president to visit Cuba in almost 90 years, he did not meet with Castro, who later denounced the goodwill mission in his column, citing mistrust of U.S. motivations and writing, "We don't need the empire to gift us anything." 

Death

Castro died on November 25, 2016, at the age of 90. His brother and successor Raúl made the announcement of his death on Cuban state television.

Children

Although there is no official count, Castro is believed to have fathered at least nine children. With his first wife Martina, he had a son Fidel ("Fidelito"), who reportedly committed suicide in February 2018 after a battle with depression. Castro and his second wife, Dalia Sota del Valle, had five more sons. He also had three other children (two daughters and one son) from three separate women.

Mourning for Castro

Following Castro’s death on November 25, 2016, Cuba declared nine days of mourning. Thousands of Cubans lined up to pay tribute to their leader at a memorial at the Plaza de la Revolución in Havana where he had delivered many speeches throughout his rule. On November 29, Raúl led a massive rally which was attended by leaders of ally nations including Nicolas Maduro of Venezuela, Evo Morales of Bolivia, Jacob Zuma of South Africa and Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe. Tens of thousands of Cubans attending the rally chanted “Yo Soy Fidel” (I Am Fidel) and “Viva Fidel!” (Long Live Fidel).

While there was mourning in Havana, Cuban exiles around the world celebrated the death of the man they believed was a tyrant, who was responsible for killing and imprisoning thousands of Cubans and separating generations of families. 

A motorcade carrying Castro’s ashes in a Cuban-flag draped casket was driven across the country to Santiago de Cuba. On December 4th, 2016, Castro's remains were buried at the Santa Ifigenia Cemetery in Santiago, near the burial site of Cuban poet and independence leader José Martí.

Источник: https://www.biography.com

4 Replies to “Jose diaz balart biography”

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  2. This is some great content!! I'm making my way through your channel and I'm loving every single video!!

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