what was the first president of the united states

After more than 6 decades, we are now the President's Council on Sports, the United States Olympic Committee, President Carter speaks at 1st National. George Washington: your guide to the war hero, founding father, first US president and slave owner A founding father of the United States. A mansion at 6th & Market Streets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania served as the executive mansion for the first two Presidents of the United States, while the.

What was the first president of the united states -

Grover Cleveland

The First Democrat elected after the Civil War, Grover Cleveland was the only President to leave the White House and return for a second term four years later.

One of nine children of a Presbyterian minister, Cleveland was born in New Jersey in 1837. He was raised in upstate New York. As a lawyer in Buffalo, he became notable for his single-minded concentration upon whatever task faced him.

At 44, he emerged into a political prominence that carried him to the White House in three years. Running as a reformer, he was elected Mayor of Buffalo in 1881, and later, Governor of New York.

Cleveland won the Presidency with the combined support of Democrats and reform Republicans, the "Mugwumps," who disliked the record of his opponent James G. Blaine of Maine.

A bachelor, Cleveland was ill at ease at first with all the comforts of the White House. "I must go to dinner," he wrote a friend, "but I wish it was to eat a pickled herring a Swiss cheese and a chop at Louis' instead of the French stuff I shall find." In June 1886 Cleveland married 21-year-old Frances Folsom; he was the only President married in the White House.

Cleveland vigorously pursued a policy barring special favors to any economic group. Vetoing a bill to appropriate $10,000 to distribute seed grain among drought-stricken farmers in Texas, he wrote: "Federal aid in such cases encourages the expectation of paternal care on the part of the Government and weakens the sturdiness of our national character. . . . "

He also vetoed many private pension bills to Civil War veterans whose claims were fraudulent. When Congress, pressured by the Grand Army of the Republic, passed a bill granting pensions for disabilities not caused by military service, Cleveland vetoed it, too.

He angered the railroads by ordering an investigation of western lands they held by Government grant. He forced them to return 81,000,000 acres. He also signed the Interstate Commerce Act, the first law attempting Federal regulation of the railroads.

In December 1887 he called on Congress to reduce high protective tariffs. Told that he had given Republicans an effective issue for the campaign of 1888, he retorted, "What is the use of being elected or re-elected unless you stand for something?" But Cleveland was defeated in 1888; although he won a larger popular majority than the Republican candidate Benjamin Harrison, he received fewer electoral votes.

Elected again in 1892, Cleveland faced an acute depression. He dealt directly with the Treasury crisis rather than with business failures, farm mortgage foreclosures, and unemployment. He obtained repeal of the mildly inflationary Sherman Silver Purchase Act and, with the aid of Wall Street, maintained the Treasury's gold reserve.

When railroad strikers in Chicago violated an injunction, Cleveland sent Federal troops to enforce it. "If it takes the entire army and navy of the United States to deliver a post card in Chicago," he thundered, "that card will be delivered."

Cleveland's blunt treatment of the railroad strikers stirred the pride of many Americans. So did the vigorous way in which he forced Great Britain to accept arbitration of a disputed boundary in Venezuela. But his policies during the depression were generally unpopular. His party deserted him and nominated William Jennings Bryan in 1896.

After leaving the White House, Cleveland lived in retirement in Princeton, New Jersey. He died in 1908.

The Presidential biographies on WhiteHouse.gov are from “The Presidents of the United States of America,” by Frank Freidel and Hugh Sidey. Copyright 2006 by the White House Historical Association.


Learn more about Grover Cleveland 's spouse, Frances Folsom Cleveland.


Previous President 

Washington, D.C., has not always looked like it does today. Once it was a sleepy little village with only a few buildings. There were no good roads into the village, and no good docks for boats.

About two hundred years ago, when the United States was a brand-new country, people began to talk about where the president should live. Should the president live in the North or the South? Should the president's house be a palace, like kings live in, or a simpler house?

While Congress debated what to build and where to build it, our first president, George Washington, lived in three houses. The first two were in New York City. The third was in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Finally, Washington decided to compromise. He picked a patch of land on the Potomac River.

Both Maryland and Virginia gave land for the new capital. The land was on the border of the North and the South. At that time, there were no western states! George Washington named the land the District of Columbia, in honor of Christopher Columbus.

President Washington hired people to plan a new city. Washington, D.C., is one of the only cities in the world that was designed before it was built. First, Benjamin Banneker and Andrew Ellicott made maps of the land. Then Pierre Charles L'Enfant decided where to put the roads. Washington decided to put the Capitol Building on a hill at one end of the city, and the president's house on a hill at the other end.

Next it was time to decide what kind of house to build for the president. Thomas Jefferson suggested having a contest. He advertised the contest in newspapers across the country. A committee picked a simple but elegant design by James Hoban, a young Irish American architect.

The first stone was laid on October 13, 1792. It took eight years to finish enough of the house to make it livable. The Capitol Building wasn't completed yet, and congressmen lived in boardinghouses surrounded by farmland. John Adams, the second president of the United States, moved into a cold, damp White House in November 1800. Abigail Adams hung her laundry up to dry in the East Room. She thought it would be bad manners to hang the president's laundry outside.

By the time our third president, Thomas Jefferson, moved into the White House in 1801, most of the outside structures were finished. The White House was the largest residential house in America! Jefferson ordered wallpaper and furniture from France. Every president since has ordered special things for the house. Today, you can see chairs that people sat on more than one hundred years ago! During this time, the building was called the President's Palace, and then the President's House.

Then James Madison was elected president. During his term of office, the United States went to war with England. It was the War of 1812. As the British troops got close to Washington, Madison's wife, Dolley, ordered a carriage to pick her up and take her to safety. But she would not leave the house until two men agreed to take down the famous portrait of George Washington. The troops set fire to the Capitol Building and the White House. Today, the picture that Dolley saved is the only thing that has been in the White House since it first opened. When the war was over, the house was rebuilt and repainted white to cover the smoke marks. People began to call it the White House.

Adapted from The Story of the White House by Kate Waters. (Copyright 1991. Published by Scholastic.)

 

History of The White House: An American Treasure

For almost 200 years, the White House has stood as a symbol of the Presidency, the United States government, and the American people. Its history and the history of the nation's capital began when President George Washington signed an Act of Congress in December of 1790 declaring that the federal government would reside in a district "not exceeding ten miles square . . . on the river Potomac." President Washington, together with city planner Pierre L'Enfant, chose the site for the new residence, which is not 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue. As preparations began for the new federal city, a competition was held to find a builder for the "President's House." Nine proposals were submitted, and Irish-born architect James Hoban won a gold medal for his practical and handsome design.

Construction began when the first cornerstone was laid in October of 1792. Although President Washington oversaw the construction of the house, he never lived in it. It was not until 1800, when the White House was nearly completed, that its first residents, President John Adams and his wife Abigail, moved in. Since that time, each President has made his own changes and additions. The White House is, after all, the President's private home. It is also the only private residence of a head of state that is open to the public free of charge.

The White House has a unique and fascinating history. It survived a fire at the hands of the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, and another fire in the West Wing in 1929 while Herbert Hoover was President. Throughout much of Harry S. Truman's presidency, the interior of the house was completely gutted and renovated while the Trumans lived at Blair House, right across Pennsylvania Avenue. Nonetheless, the exterior stone walls are those first put in place when the White House was constructed two centuries ago.

Presidents can express their individual style in how they decorate the house and in how they receive the public during their stay. Thomas Jefferson held the first Inaugural open house in 1805. Many of those who attended the swearing in ceremony at the U.S. Capitol simply followed him home, where he greeted them in the Blue Room. President Jefferson also opened the house for public tours, and it has remained open, except during wartime, ever since. In addition, he welcomed visitors to annual receptions on New Year's Day and the Fourth of July. In 1829, a horde of 20,000 Inaugural callers forced President Andrew Jackson to flee to the safety of a hotel while, on the lawn, aids filled washtubs with orange juice and whiskey to lure the mob out of the mud-tracked White House.

Soon after Abraham Lincoln's presidency, Inaugural crowds became far too large for the White House to accommodate them comfortably. However, not until Grover Cleveland's first presidency did this unsafe practice change. He held a presidential review of the troops from a flag-draped grandstand built in front of the White House. This procession evolved into the official Inaugural parade we know today. Receptions on New Year's Day and the Fourth of July continued to be held until the early 1930s.

President Clinton's open house on January 21, 1993, renewed a venerable White House Inaugural tradition. Two thousand citizens, selected by lottery, were greeted in the Diplomatic Reception Room by President and Mrs. Clinton and Vice President and Mrs. Gore.

Adapted from "The White House: The House of the People", by the White House Historical Association.

Источник: https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/articles/teaching-content/history-white-house/

George Washington, the commander of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, is unanimously elected the first president of the United States by all 69 presidential electors who cast their votes. John Adams of Massachusetts, who received 34 votes, was elected vice president. The electors, who represented 10 of the 11 states that had ratified the U.S. Constitution, were chosen by popular vote, legislative appointment, or a combination of both four weeks before the election.

Watch WASHINGTON on HISTORY Vault

According to Article Two of the U.S. Constitution, the states appointed a number of presidential electors equal to the “number of Senators and Representatives to which the state may be entitled in Congress.” Each elector voted for two people, at least one of whom did not live in their state. The individual receiving the greatest number of votes was elected president, and the next-in-line, vice president. (In 1804, this practice was changed by the 12th Amendment to the Constitution, which ordered separate ballots for the office of president and vice president.)

New York—though it was to be the seat of the new United States government—failed to choose its eight presidential electors in time for the vote on February 4, 1789. Two electors each from Virginia and Maryland were delayed by weather and did not vote. In addition, North Carolina and Rhode Island, which would have had seven and three electors respectively, had not ratified the Constitution and so could not vote.

That the remaining 69 unanimously chose Washington to lead the new U.S. government was a surprise to no one. As commander-in-chief during the Revolutionary War, he had led his inexperienced and poorly equipped army of civilian soldiers to victory over one of the world’s great powers. After the British surrender at Yorktown in 1781, Washington rejected with abhorrence a suggestion by one of his officers that he use his preeminence to assume a military dictatorship. He would not subvert the very principles for which so many Americans had fought and died, he replied, and soon after, he surrendered his military commission to the Continental Congress and retired to his Mount Vernon estate in Virginia.

READ MORE: 11 Key People Who Shaped George Washington's Life

When the Articles of Confederation proved ineffectual, and the fledging republic teetered on the verge of collapse, Washington again answered his country’s call and traveled to Philadelphia in 1787 to preside over the Constitutional Convention. Although he favored the creation of a strong central government, as president of the convention he maintained impartiality in the public debates. Outside the convention hall, however, he made his views known, and his weight of character did much to bring the proceedings to a close. The drafters created the office of president with him in mind, and on September 17, 1787, the document was signed. 

The next day, Washington started for home, hoping that, his duty to his country again served, he could live out the rest of his days in privacy. However, a crisis soon arose when the Constitution fell short of its necessary ratification by nine states. Washington threw himself into the ratification debate, and a compromise agreement was made in which the remaining states would ratify the document in exchange for passage of the constitutional amendments that would become the Bill of Rights. 

Government by the United States began on March 4, 1789. In April, Congress sent word to George Washington that he had unanimously won the presidency. He borrowed money to pay off his debts in Virginia and traveled to New York. 

On April 30, he came across the Hudson River in a specially built and decorated barge. The inaugural ceremony was performed on the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street, and a large crowed cheered after he took the oath of office. The president then retired indoors to read Congress his inaugural address, a quiet speech in which he spoke of “the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people.” The evening celebration was opened and closed by 13 skyrockets and 13 cannons.

As president, Washington sought to unite the nation and protect the interests of the new republic at home and abroad. Of his presidency, he said, “I walk on untrodden ground. There is scarcely any part of my conduct which may not hereafter be drawn in precedent.” He successfully implemented executive authority, making good use of brilliant politicians such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson in his Cabinet, and quieted fears of presidential tyranny. In 1792, he was unanimously reelected but four years later refused a third term.

In 1797, he finally began his long-awaited retirement at Mount Vernon. He died on December 14, 1799. His friend Henry Lee provided a famous eulogy for the father of the United States: “First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.”

Explore George Washington's life in our interactive timeline

Источник: https://www.history.com

Change and continuity in law

Keynote speech by Christine Lagarde, President of the ECB, at the ECB Legal Conference 2021

Frankfurt am Main, 26 November 2021

Introduction

Ladies and gentlemen,

The first President of the European Commission, Walter Hallstein, famously said that the European Union is a “community of law”[1] – an expression which was then picked up by the European Court of Justice in its judgments. The rule of law is one of the basic principles of our Union, and one we have to defend – especially at times when it is put at risk of being attacked.[2]

This principle means that EU law is the cement that keeps the European construction together. It is the precondition for the very existence of the EU institutions, including the ECB, and for the policies that they are mandated to carry out. But there is an ever-present tension between the role of law as an immutable anchor of society and its need to adapt as the world changes.

Europe’s reaction to the coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis has led to a number of institutional innovations, leading some to deem it a “Hamiltonian moment for Europe”. This epithet primarily reflects Alexander Hamilton’s guiding role in creating the US fiscal and monetary institutional set-up. But there is also a second reason why the description fits. Hamilton – a lawyer – was one of the first to introduce the question of the relationship between change and law, and of the role that interpretation – in particular the authoritative interpretation by judges – can have in this context.

This issue has developed into a decades-long debate between “originalism” and “realism” in US scholarship. The same question has also shaped the way in which the notion of an ever-closer Union, the foundation of the EU Treaties, has been developed by the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice. And it continues to shape Europe’s future direction today.

In my remarks this morning, I would like to review the evolution of this debate in US law, starting with Hamilton himself. I will then turn to EU law and ask whether the lessons we can draw from legal history can help give us a sense of direction for the challenges of today and tomorrow.

Hamilton and the Constitution

Hamilton is nowadays credited for having been the father of the US fiscal union, and – as further proof of how these two things go hand in hand – he was also the father of the first central bank of the United States. The US legislature then abolished and re-established a nationwide central bank twice before finally settling on the Federal Reserve System in 1913.

Change is the result of a process of trial and error, and one which can easily end up back at square one – as happened with the repeated attempts to do away with the institution of a central bank altogether to create a new monetary system. To cater for the right balance between the aspiration to experiment and the need to limit errors, legal frameworks include provisions of constitutional rank. These rules[3] provide an element of continuity which anchors the whole system and to which “regular” laws are hierarchically subordinated: laws can be passed by the majorities of the time, but the Constitution is typically very difficult to amend.

However, change in law is pursued not only through the enactment of new laws, but also in the way law is interpreted and applied. And, because they are difficult to amend, this is particularly important for legal provisions having a constitutional rank. Factual contexts can change, and the question then arises whether there is scope for the interpretation of such provisions to change as well, which may be better suited to new social or economic circumstances.

This question is primarily for courts to decide, which have been tasked with interpreting provisions with a constitutional rank. But it also applies to other institutions which have to apply those provisions.

Hamilton famously wrote that judges, in order to preserve the people’s rights and privileges, must have authority to check legislation and acts of the executive for constitutionality. But at the same time, the judiciary, by the very nature of its functions, will always be “the least dangerous” branch of government, for judges hold neither the sword nor the purse of the community; ultimately, they must depend upon the political branches to effectuate their judgments[4].

Hamilton was pointing to the very delicate balance which must be struck between the political legitimation of democratic bodies, which relies on the people, and the authority of independent institutions such as the judiciary – or even central banks – which relies on the law. Since the law is the only source of legitimation of these institutions, the exact meaning and scope of the law – in other words, its interpretation – becomes an issue of crucial importance.

The original meaning of the law in US legal scholarship: continuity and change

If the authority of courts – and the powers of other independent institutions – indeed relies on the law, a question that may be asked is “which law”?

Nobody would disagree with the law narrowly defined, i.e. the provisions under a certain legal framework, having been approved by a certain authority which is entrusted with this power, and following a certain procedure. But the answer becomes more complicated if one considers a broader interpretation, such as the adjudication of the law by the courts.

According to a traditional view, judges are just “the living voice of the Law”[5], while others deem that the idea of law should be stretched to include judicial adjudication[6]. This fascinating debate has been at the centre of legal scholarship for most of the last century, and in the United States it has become the cleavage in the US Supreme Court across which contentious wedge issues have spanned.

The more traditional, “formalist” approach posits that the legal system is composed of a hierarchical system of norms where each level is validated by a superior one. The prevalent view in US legal scholarship in the first part of the last century, which is still represented in the Supreme Court today, is that the aim of interpretation should be to find out the original meaning of the law as drafted by the legislators – or alternatively, the original intention of these drafters. The Constitution should not only be lex legum, a law of laws, but also lex immutabilis, unalterable law, unless explicitly changed via the amendment process. This school of thought is known as “originalism”.

In the 1930s, an opposing movement – the “realist movement” – arose in US legal scholarship. This movement challenged the understanding and very meaning of the concept of law, which in its view should have a much broader scope than legislation alone. That concept should include, inter alia, decision-making by judicial authorities, since “judges do and must legislate” – although only to the extent of filling gaps between positive norms by way of interpretation[7].

This debate between the originalist and realist schools of thought has animated US legal doctrine during the last century, and in more recent times has been personified in the amicable dissent between Supreme Court Justices Scalia and Ginsburg[8]. According to the realists, the very high bar to amend the US Constitution means that the originalist approach introduces an element of rigidity into the legal framework. And this becomes increasingly burdensome as time goes by and the world changes more and more from that which existed when the US Constitution was originally drafted. This is why the realist school has advocated using interpretation to make the legal framework more dynamic, allowing society to adapt to evolving circumstances.

The 14th Amendment, one of the amendments adopted after the War of Secession extending citizenship and civil rights, has been the battlefield par excellence for this debate. And it has been an extremely concrete debate for those people who did not originally benefit from constitutional rights and protections. Indeed, the first part of US constitutional history was defined by the extension of these rights and safeguards to once-excluded groups, such as people from ethnic minorities (including those who were formerly enslaved), men without property, and women[9].

Yet these important changes – which sound obvious to us today – happened to a large extent without changes to the text of the Constitution, so much so that originalist scholars rebelled against what they saw as an abusive use of powers by the Court[10]. In her Madison Lecture, Justice Ginsburg recalled that many of the framers of the Constitution spoke publicly against extending even voting rights to women or black people, who they explicitly saw as a danger.[11]

However, the US Constitution, which does not speak about “equality” with regard to individual rights, had within it the potential to become the foundation on which the rights of women and minorities could be grounded. Remarkably, Justice Ginsburg herself mentioned in the same Madison Lecture that “with prestige to persuade, but not physical power to enforce, with a will for self-preservation and the knowledge that they are not “a bevy of Platonic Guardians,” the Justices generally follow, they do not lead, changes taking place elsewhere in society”.[12]

The Treaty as a new step in the process of creating an ever-closer Union

This debate has shown that there is an inherent tension in law, between change on the one hand and the preservation of the legacy of the past on the other. Cutting across the ideals of change and continuity are the roles of legislation and interpretation in law. It should be no surprise that this tension also exists in EU law.

On the one hand, several elements can be used to argue in favour of the immutable nature of the Treaties as drafted by the Herren der Verträge: above all, the principle of conferral and, to a lesser extent, the principle of subsidiarity and the reference to constitutional identities. The burdensome process for introducing amendments also points in this direction.

On the other hand, the very wording of the Treaties lends itself to a dynamic interpretation, most tellingly when they refer to a “process of creating an ever-closer Union”, of which the Treaties themselves are only “a new step”. Indeed, there are several Treaty provisions that explicitly cater for the need to adapt to changes.

First, there is the general enabling clause, which foresees that the EU Council can unanimously adopt the measures necessary to attain one of the objectives of the Treaties when the Treaties themselves have not provided the necessary powers.[13] Second, there are other more specific provisions which allow the expansion of the tasks and powers assigned to the EU and its institutions. These include the provision on the basis of which the prudential supervision of banks was assigned to the ECB in 2014, without a Treaty change.[14]

There are also several provisions which, in a changing world, can be interpreted to cover new developments. Consider the digital euro or climate change: in both cases the provisions are already there but need to be interpreted to apply to new phenomena. To be the source of authoritative interpretation of EU law, including its founding Treaties, this role is assigned by the Treaties specifically to the European Court of Justice.

The discussions in the EU today on upholding the rule of law are a clear example of how a legal basis in the Treaties has been reinterpreted as the foundation of a whole new framework – a framework which had not been expressly provided for by the drafters of the Treaties, but which the Treaties had the potential to express, and which is in itself providing the basis for the independence of the judiciary in the national context. Even concepts such as the direct effect and primacy of EU law do not stem from the Treaties directly, but from their interpretation in early ground-breaking judgments such as Van Gend en Loos[15] and Costa Enel[16], respectively.

The jurisprudential origin of these concepts has been used by some Member States to challenge the legitimacy of the Court’s role and of the primacy of EU law itself. These challenges have taken place in the alleged defence of the real intentions of the Herren der Verträge when they signed the Treaties.

Proponents of change often call for new legislation to make change happen – most of the time because it is thought that only legislation can provide the necessary degree of clarity and certainty. However, pursuing the route of legislative change can serve as a way to resist reforms which would otherwise be possible in a context of the continuity of existing rules and their adapted interpretation. This is particularly true in a multilateral context like that of the EU, where a double majority in the European Parliament and EU Council is required to adopt legislation. The bar becomes even higher in the case of changes to the Treaties themselves, where the unanimity of Member States is required, including national ratification procedures which sometimes require referendums.

Member States provide important – although often silent – testimonials to the possibility of using the flexibility in the Treaties to adapt to change without amending the text itself. If Member States do not oppose an interpretation of the law which is developed in view of changed circumstances, it can be seen as a validation mechanism for the interpretative change. Indeed, since the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force, there have been almost no changes to the text of the Treaties[17], yet in this period the EU went through the global financial crisis, the migration crisis and more recently the COVID-19 crisis. The evolutive nature of EU law has allowed it to expand and refine the profile and type of intervention that the EU can propose in reaction to a crisis. Today, many measures are possible which 15 years ago would not have even seemed plausible.

Proponents of a careful scrutiny of the action of EU institutions to avoid them overstepping their mandates stress that an evolutive interpretation is not the law that was written in the Treaties, and that this represents undue interference by the Court of Justice in the sovereign decisions of Member States. At the same time, one has to observe that Treaty amendments are nowadays invoked as being required for changes which are often of a technical nature and relatively narrow in scope. This stands in contrast to the incremental evolution which took place in EU law during the first decades and in the absence of any change to the founding Treaties.

In a complex, multi-layered institutional framework such as the EU, one should not see this issue as being limited to a looming conflict between independent courts and Member States. Courts can rightly argue among themselves about different interpretations of the law, and even about the extent to which another court has been given a mandate by the law to give a binding interpretation.

Yet we have challenges that our US friends do not, because within a single system with a single ultimate jurisdictional authority, reconciliation is possible at the top. The language of legal pluralism has been useful to keep everything together, but there is a limit at which the presence of multiple voices, which claim for themselves the role of ultimate deciders, turns from being a resource into a risk – that is, the risk of perennial standstill, where no move is possible without Treaty change.

While this may be seen as a virtue by some – the EU version of the originalists – it is a risk insofar as such a system is inflexible and the idea that change is possible in continuity is denied. It is therefore increasingly becoming apparent that only discontinuity can deliver change. As institutions devoted to continuity, central banks should question if this is what we want.

Conclusion

Let me conclude.

Change can be pursued in many ways, and it is not necessarily true that those which are more eye-catching are also the most effective. Particularly effective are those changes which take place in continuity. One particular case is that of the law, which can be interpreted in a way that makes sense and adapts to societal changes, while remaining coherent with the fundamental principles of the legal system. This ensures continuity in the meaning of the law, in the sense that the text of the law has not changed at all.

Against this background, events like this conference are extremely important, because they offer an occasion to foster discussions, new ways of thinking and possible new ways of interpreting the law, without changing it, in a way that better suits the needs of today.

Following the lesson of Justice Ginsburg, independent institutions which ground their legitimation in the law should stand ready to adapt to the changes which happen in society. And they should interpret and apply the law consequentially, in the way that best serves the needs of the societies and polities which these institutions are meant to serve.

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Источник: https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/key/date/2021/html/ecb.sp211126~6fe408acd1.en.html

US Presidents




Biographies for Kids >> US Presidents for Kids

President's Day

What does President's Day celebrate?

This holiday is most commonly called President's Day, but the federal holiday is officially called Washington's Birthday. The day honors all of the previous presidents of the United States.

When is President's Day celebrated?

The third Monday in February

Who celebrates this day?

Washington's Birthday is a national federal holiday. Many states celebrate Washington's Day while other states officially call the day President's Day. The holiday is held on or around President George Washington's birthday, which is on February 22nd. President Abraham Lincoln's birthday, February 12, is also near this date and is often honored on President's day.

Fun Facts

In honor of President's Day we've put together some of our favorite fun facts about presidents:
  • George Washington was the only president unanimously elected. Meaning all of the state representatives voted for him.
  • John Adams died on the same day as Thomas Jefferson, July 4th, 1826. This day was also the 50th anniversary of the approval of the Declaration of Independence!
  • Thomas Jefferson was also an accomplished architect. He designed his famous home at Monticello as well as buildings for the University of Virginia.
  • James Madison and George Washington are the only presidents who signed the Constitution.
  • James Madison was the shortest president at 5 feet 4 inches tall and weighed 100 pounds. Abraham Lincoln was the tallest president at 6 feet 4 inches tall (Lyndon B. Johnson was also 6' 4").
  • James Monroe was the 5th president, but the 3rd to die on the 4th of July.
  • On the day he was shot, Lincoln told his bodyguard that he had dreamt he would be assassinated.
  • Abraham Lincoln often stored things like letters and documents in his tall stove-piped hat.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt met President Grover Cleveland when he was five years old. Cleveland said "I am making a wish for you. It is that you may never become president of the United States".
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to appear on television during a 1939 broadcast from the World's Fair.
  • At 42 years, 10 months, 18 days old Teddy Roosevelt was the youngest man to hold the office of president. Joe Biden was the oldest at 78 years, 61 days. John F. Kennedy was the youngest to be elected president.
  • Teddy Roosevelt was blind in his left eye due to an injury in a boxing match.
  • When Ronald Reagan was shot by an assassin in 1981, he joked "I forgot to duck".
  • The "S" in Harry S. Truman does not stand for anything.
  • John F. Kennedy was the first president who was a Boy Scout.
  • Woodrow Wilson was buried at the Washington National Cathedral. He is the only president buried in Washington D.C.
  • Andrew Jackson was shot in the chest during a gun dual, but managed to stay standing and shoot and kill his opponent. The bullet could not be safely removed and remained in his chest for the next 40 years.
  • George W. Bush is the only president to have earned a Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree.
  • Barack Obama won a Grammy Award in 2006 for his voice on the audio book Dreams From My Father.
  • After working at a Baskin-Robbins as a teen, President Obama no longer likes ice cream. Bummer!
  • Bill Clinton enjoys playing the saxophone and was a member of a band called "Three Blind Mice" in high school.
  • Martin Van Buren was the first president to be born as a citizen of the United States. The presidents before him were born as British subjects.
  • Martin Van Buren was the only president to speak English as a second language. His first language was Dutch.
  • William Henry Harrison was the 9th president. His grandson, Benjamin Harrison, was the 23rd president.
  • John Tyler had 15 children. The White House must have been hopping!
  • James K. Polk was the first president to have his photograph taken while in office.
  • William Henry Harrison died just 32 days after becoming president. He died from a cold he got while standing in the rain giving his inauguration speech.


Biographies for Kids >> US Presidents for Kids

Works Cited
Источник: https://www.ducksters.com/biography/uspresidents/president_fun_facts.php

After the Declaration of Independence in 1776, thirteen British colonies emerged to form a new nation. From the role’s creation in 1789 by its Founding Fathers until the eve of the Civil War, America saw 15 Presidents – each of whom helped shape the country’s history and define the presidential role.

Here are America’s first 15 Presidents in order:

1. George Washington (President from 1789-1797)

Washington became a national hero after commanding the Continental Army and leading it to victory over the British during the American Revolution (1775-1783).

After presiding over the convention that drafted the US Constitution, Washington was unanimously elected President – astutely aware of the precedent he’d set.

George. Where did it all go wrong? George Washington could have had a comfortable career as a loyal member of HIs Majesty's Virginia militia and colonial grandee. But no, he had to go and roll the dice. I am thrilled in this episode to be talking to historian Alexis Coe about her new biography of Washington. She has a fresh take on the first President, but no less scholarly for that.

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2. John Adams (1797-1801)

John Adams’s presidency was largely taken up with foreign affairs as Britain and France were at war, which directly affected American trade.

3. Thomas Jefferson (1801–1809)

Thomas Jefferson was America’s first Secretary of State and the primary author of the Declaration of Independence (1776).

As President, Jefferson stablised the US economy and successfully brokered the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803, buying 800,000 square miles for $15 million, which doubled the size of the US.

Depiction of the territory gained in the Louisiana purchase. Credit: Frank Bond / Commons.

4. James Madison (1809-1817)

James Madison co-wrote The Federalist Papers, earning him the nickname ‘Father of the Constitution’, which ratified the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

The controversial War of 1812 against Britain was fought during his presidency.

5. James Monroe (1817–1825)

James Monroe was America’s last President from its Founding Fathers, and best known for his ‘Monroe Doctrine’ opposing European colonialism in the Americas.

His first term became known as the ‘Era of Good Feelings’ following his tour of the country, his seeking to unite Republicans and Federalists in a common cause, and the beginnings of international relief.

On 13 September 1759, on the Plains of Abraham near the city of Quebec, an outnumbered British army fought a battle that would change the history of the world: the Battle of Quebec.

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6. John Quincy Adams (1825-1829)

Adams was the first US President who was the son of a President. Although a highly influential diplomat, hostile opposition from the Jacksonians meant many of his initiatives were either considered overambitious, failed to pass legislation or were badly underfunded.

7. Andrew Jackson (1829-1837)

Andrew Jackson, known as the “people’s president”, was the first to wield his veto power as a matter of policy. He founded the Democratic Party, destroyed the Second Bank of the United States (which he saw as corrupt), and instituted the Indian Removal Act of 1830 which forced the migration of Native Americans.

Jackson was also the target of the first presidential assassination attempt – and the first president to ride on a train, in 1833.

Portrait of Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States. (Public Domain).

8. Martin Van Buren (1837-1841)

Martin Van Buren – the first president born as a US citizen – had been known as the ‘Little Magician’ after his reputed skill as a politician. However, his time in office was dominated by the financial panic of 1837 and resulting economic depression. His popularity further waned after he blocked the annexation of Texas.

9. William Henry Harrison (1841)

William Henry Harrison was a military officer and politician. On his 32nd day as President, he became the first to die in office after developing pneumonia, and the shortest-serving president in US history.

10. John Tyler (1841-1845)

Nicknamed ‘His Accidency’, John Tyler was the first Vice President to succeed to the Presidency after the death of his predecessor. He was also the first president to have his veto overridden by congress, and the first to marry while holding office.

After vetoing bills aimed at reestablishing a national bank, Tyler was ostracized by congressional Whigs, becoming a president without a party.

11. James K. Polk (1845-1849)

During Polk’s presidency, the annexation of Texas as a state was concluded, resulting in the Mexican-American War which caused a bitter disagreement between the North and South over the expansion of slavery. Vast territories were also acquired in the Southwest and along the Pacific coast, along with the establishment of America’s northern border.

The stress of his presidency took a toll on Polk, and he died just 3 months after leaving office.

Susan Schulten presents a selection of maps from the fascinating collection of maps that feature in her book 'A History of America in 100 Maps'.

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12. Zachary Taylor (1849-1850)

Zachary Taylor had served in the US Army for nearly 40 years and was seen as a hero from the Mexican-American War.

After California’s population expanded following the Gold Rush, there was pressure to resolve the issue of its statehood. Though a slaveholder himself, Taylor’s time in the army had given him a strong sense of nationalism and he opposed the creation of new slave states. This incensed some southern leaders who threatened secession.

In early July 1850, he suddenly fell ill and died.

13. Millard Fillmore (1850-1853)

Millard Fillmore was a member of the Whig party – the last President not to be affiliated with either the Democratic or Republican parties.

Fillmore passed the Fugitive Slave Act (1850), making it a crime to support slaves trying to escape to free territories, and helped create the Compromise of 1850. Increased settlement in the west had led to clashes with Native Americans, and Fillmore approved one-sided treaties that forcibly moved them onto government reservations.

Reynolds’s Political Map of the United States 1856 (Public Domain).

14. Franklin Pierce (1853-1857)

Pierce hoped to ease North/South divisions but by signing the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which allowed settlers of a territory to decide whether slavery would be allowed within the new state’s borders, he hastened the disruption of the Union. Anger around this Act turned Kansas into a battleground for the country’s conflict over slavery, setting America on its path to civil war.

15. James Buchanan (1857-1861)

It was hoped Buchanan could avert a national crisis but his refusal to take a firm stand on either side and inability to halt southern states’ moves toward secession led to the Union breaking apart. By February 1861 seven Southern states had seceded. Civil war became increasingly inevitable.

Источник: https://www.historyhit.com/founding-fathers-the-first-15-us-presidents-in-order/
 Next President

 

Источник: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/1600/presidents/grovercleveland22
 Next President

 

Источник: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/1600/presidents/grovercleveland22

Room where Grover Cleveland was born

Room where Grover Cleveland was born
Jonathan Carlucci
Division of Parks and Forestry

Born in this modest house in Caldwell, New Jersey on March 18, 1837, Stephen Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th president of the United States, the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms.  The house was the residence of the minister at the local Presbyterian Church.  Built in 1832, the “Manse,” as it was known, consisted of a two-story frame main section with a one-story kitchen on the east side and a one-story lean-to at the rear.  Simple Federal and Greek Revival details add a touch of sophistication to a simple vernacular building.  The large Cleveland family lived here from 1834 to 1841.  Cleveland began his political career in western New York and rose quickly from mayor of Buffalo in 1881 to president of the United States in 1885.  Defeated by Republican Benjamin Harrison in 1888, he easily won reelection in 1892.  The Democrats did not re-nominate him in 1896; ultimately, he owed his defeat to the deep Depression of 1893.


In 1841, Cleveland’s father moved to a church in Fayetteville, New York, where young Grover (he rarely used his first name) received his schooling.  At the age of 13, he went to work to help family finances after his father became ill.  He abandoned his hopes of attending college when his father died in 1853.  He soon what was the first president of the united states to Buffalo, where he worked briefly on his uncle’s farm before entering a local law firm as an apprentice clerk.  In 1859, he passed the bar and opened his own law practice.  He became a prominent lawyer and Democratic politician.  Elected mayor of Buffalo in 1881, he soon developed a reputation as a reformer because of his opposition to corruption and patronage.  As governor of New York from 1883 to 1884, he exhibited bipartisan independence.  He worked closely with Republican Assembly member Theodore Roosevelt to pass municipal reform legislation that gained him national recognition, but angered New York City's powerful Tammany Hall Democratic organization.

Cleveland managed to become the Democratic presidential nominee in 1884 without Tammany support. The campaign was contentious and close.  Cleveland won the popular vote by amazon prime video com one-quarter of one percent, but the electoral votes gave him a majority of 219–182.  A popular chief executive, President Cleveland failed at his first attempt at reelection in 1888, but succeeded four years later.

Grover Cleveland artifacts on display

Grover Cleveland artifacts on display
Jonathan Carlucci
Division of Parks and Forestry

The Presbyterian Church Manse is one of the two oldest houses in Caldwell.  The church enlarged the house several times between 1848 and 1870.  Interest in preserving Cleveland’s birthplace began when he was governor of New York and grew as his political career continued. The birthplace house first opened to the public in 1913.  The State of New Jersey bought the house from the Cleveland Birthplace Memorial Association in 1934 and now operates it as a historic house museum. The Grover Cleveland Birthplace State Historic Site is the only house museum in the country dedicated to the interpretation of President Cleveland’s life. It is the nation’s leading repository of Cleveland artifacts and political memorabilia. Restored to their 1837 appearance when the Cleveland family lived in the house, the first floor rooms offer a glimpse at the modest what was the first president of the united states of the future president.  Among the artifacts on display from Cleveland’s early years are his cradle and original family portraits.  An exhibition gallery reflects his later life.


Plan your visit

The Grover Cleveland Birthplace is located at 207 Bloomfield Ave., Caldwell, NJ. The Grover Cleveland Birthplace State Historic Site is the only house museum in the country dedicated to the interpretation of President Cleveland’s life. It is the nation’s leading repository of Cleveland artifacts and political memorabilia. It is open to the public free of charge. The birthplace is open year round, Wednesday-Sunday from 10:00am to noon and from 1:00pm to 4:00pm. It is closed for all State and Federal holidays. For more information visit the New Jersey Division of Parks and Forestry Grover Cleveland Birthplace website or call 973-226-0001.

The Grover Cleveland Birthplace has been documented by the National Park Service’s Historic American Buildings Survey.

 
Источник: https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/presidents/grover_cleveland_birthplace.html

Washington, D.C., has not always looked like it does today. Once it was a sleepy little village with only a few buildings. There were no good roads into the village, and no good docks for boats.

About two hundred years ago, when the United States was a brand-new country, people began to talk about where the president should live. Should the president live in the North or the South? Should the president's house be a palace, like kings live in, or a simpler house?

While Congress debated what to build and where to build it, our first president, George Washington, lived in three houses. The first two were in New York City. The third was in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Finally, Washington decided to compromise. He picked a patch of land on the Potomac River.

Both Maryland and Virginia gave land for the new capital. The land was on the border of the North and the South. At that time, there were no western states! George Washington named the land the District of Columbia, in honor of Christopher Columbus.

President Washington hired people to plan a new city. Washington, D.C., is one of the only cities in the world that was designed before it was built. First, Benjamin Banneker and Andrew Ellicott made maps of the land. Then Pierre Charles L'Enfant decided where to put the roads. Washington decided to put the Capitol Building on a hill at one end of the city, and the president's house on a hill at the other end.

Next it was time to decide what kind of house to build for the president. Thomas Jefferson suggested having a contest. He advertised the contest in newspapers across the country. A committee picked a simple but elegant design by James Hoban, a young Irish American architect.

The first stone was laid on October 13, 1792. It took eight years to finish enough of the house to make it livable. The Capitol Building wasn't completed yet, and congressmen lived in boardinghouses surrounded by farmland. John Adams, the second president of the United States, moved into a cold, damp White House in November 1800. Abigail Adams hung her laundry up to dry in the East Room. She thought it would be bad manners to hang the president's laundry outside.

By the time our third president, Thomas Jefferson, moved into the White House in 1801, most of the outside structures were finished. The White House was the largest residential house in America! What was the first president of the united states ordered wallpaper and furniture from France. Every president since has ordered special things for the house. Today, you can see chairs that people sat on more than one hundred years ago! During this time, the building was called the President's Palace, and then the President's House.

Then James Madison was elected president. During his term of office, the United States went to war with England. It was the War of 1812. As the British troops got close to Washington, Madison's wife, Dolley, ordered a carriage to pick her up and take her to safety. But she would not leave the house until two men agreed to take down the famous portrait of George Washington. The troops set fire to the Capitol Building and the White House. Today, the picture that Dolley saved is the only thing that has been in the White House since it first opened. When the war was over, the house was rebuilt and repainted white to cover the smoke marks. People began to call it the White House.

Adapted from The Story of the White House by Kate Waters. (Copyright 1991. Published by Scholastic.)

 

History of The White House: An American Treasure

For almost 200 years, the White House has stood as a symbol of the Presidency, the United States government, and the American people. Its history and the history of the nation's 001 usa phone code began when President George Washington signed an Act of Congress in December of 1790 declaring that the federal government would reside in a district "not exceeding ten miles square. . on the river Potomac." President Washington, together with city planner Pierre L'Enfant, chose the site for the new residence, which is not 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue. As preparations began for the new federal city, a competition was held to find a builder for the "President's House." Nine proposals were submitted, and Irish-born architect James Hoban won what was the first president of the united states gold medal for his practical and handsome design.

Construction began when the first cornerstone was laid in October of 1792. Although President Washington oversaw the construction of the house, he never lived in it. It was not until 1800, when the White House was nearly completed, that its first residents, President John Adams and his wife Abigail, moved in. Since that time, each President has made his own changes and additions. The White House is, after all, the President's private home. It is also the only private residence of a head of state that is open to the public free of charge.

The White House has a unique and fascinating history. It survived a fire at the hands of the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, and another fire in the West Wing in 1929 while Herbert Hoover was President. Throughout much of Harry S. Truman's presidency, the interior of the house was completely gutted and renovated while the Trumans lived at Blair House, right across Pennsylvania Avenue. Nonetheless, the exterior stone walls are those first put in place when the White House was constructed two centuries ago.

Presidents can express their individual style in how they decorate the house and in how they receive the public during their stay. Thomas Jefferson held the first Inaugural open house in 1805. Many of those who attended the swearing in ceremony at the U.S. What was the first president of the united states simply followed him home, where he greeted them in the Blue Room. President Jefferson also opened the house for public tours, and it has remained open, except during wartime, ever since. In addition, he welcomed visitors to annual receptions on New Year's Day and the Fourth of July. In 1829, a horde of 20,000 Inaugural callers forced President Andrew Jackson to flee to the safety of a hotel while, on the lawn, aids filled washtubs with orange juice and whiskey to lure the mob out of the mud-tracked White House.

Soon after Abraham Lincoln's presidency, Inaugural crowds became far too large for the White House to accommodate them comfortably. However, not until Grover Cleveland's first presidency did this unsafe practice change. He held a presidential review of the troops from a flag-draped grandstand built in front of the White House. This procession evolved into the official Inaugural parade we know today. Receptions on New Year's Day and the Fourth of July continued to be held until the early 1930s.

President Clinton's open house on January 21, 1993, renewed a venerable White House Inaugural tradition. Two thousand citizens, selected by lottery, were greeted in the Diplomatic Reception Room by President and Mrs. Clinton and Vice President and Mrs. Gore.

Adapted from "The White House: The House of the People", by the White House Historical Association.

Источник: https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/articles/teaching-content/history-white-house/

Grover Cleveland

The First Democrat elected after the Civil War, Grover Cleveland was the only President to leave the White House and return for a second term four years cash app card activation phone number One of nine children of a Presbyterian minister, Cleveland was born in New Jersey in 1837. He was raised in upstate New York. As a lawyer in Buffalo, he became notable for his single-minded concentration upon whatever task faced him.

At 44, he emerged into a political prominence that carried him to the White House in three years. Running as a reformer, he was elected Mayor chase com log on Buffalo in 1881, and later, Governor of New York.

Cleveland won the Presidency with the combined support of Democrats and reform Republicans, the "Mugwumps," who disliked the record of his opponent James G. Blaine of Maine.

A bachelor, Cleveland was ill at ease at first with all the comforts of the White House. "I must go to dinner," he wrote a friend, "but I wish it was to eat a pickled herring a Swiss cheese and a chop at Louis' instead of the French stuff I shall find." In June 1886 Cleveland married 21-year-old Frances Folsom; he was the only President married in the White House.

Cleveland vigorously pursued a policy barring special favors to any economic group. Vetoing a bill to appropriate $10,000 to distribute seed grain among drought-stricken farmers in Texas, he wrote: "Federal aid in such cases encourages the expectation of paternal care on the part of the Government and weakens the sturdiness of our national character. . "

He also vetoed many private pension bills to Civil War veterans whose claims were what was the first president of the united states. When Congress, pressured by the Grand Army of the Republic, passed a bill granting pensions for disabilities not caused by military service, Cleveland vetoed it, too.

He angered the railroads by ordering an investigation of western lands they held by Government grant. He forced them to return 81,000,000 acres. He also signed the Interstate Commerce Act, the first law attempting Federal regulation of the railroads.

In December 1887 he called on Congress to reduce high protective tariffs. Told that he had given Republicans an effective issue for the campaign of 1888, he retorted, "What is the use of being elected or re-elected unless you stand for something?" But Cleveland was defeated in 1888; although he won a larger popular majority than the Republican candidate Benjamin Harrison, he received fewer electoral votes.

Elected again in 1892, Cleveland faced an acute depression. He dealt directly with the Treasury crisis rather than with business failures, farm mortgage foreclosures, and unemployment. He obtained repeal of the mildly inflationary Sherman Silver Purchase Act and, with the aid of Wall Street, maintained the Treasury's gold reserve.

When railroad strikers in Chicago violated an injunction, Cleveland sent Federal troops to enforce it. "If it takes the entire army and navy of the United States to deliver a post card in Chicago," he thundered, "that card will be delivered."

Cleveland's blunt treatment of the railroad strikers stirred the pride of many Americans. So did the vigorous way in which he forced Great Britain to accept arbitration of a disputed boundary in Venezuela. But his policies during the depression were generally unpopular. His party deserted him and nominated William Jennings Bryan in 1896.

After leaving the White House, Cleveland lived in retirement in Princeton, New Jersey. He died in 1908.

The Presidential biographies on WhiteHouse.gov are from “The Presidents of the United States of America,” by Frank Freidel and Hugh Sidey. Copyright 2006 by the White House Historical Association.


Learn more about Grover Cleveland 's spouse, Frances Folsom Cleveland.


Previous President 

George Washington, the commander of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, is unanimously elected the first president of the United States by all 69 presidential electors who cast their votes. John Adams of Massachusetts, who received 34 votes, was elected vice president. The electors, who represented 10 of the 11 states that had ratified the U.S. Constitution, were chosen by popular vote, legislative appointment, or a combination of both four weeks before the election.

Watch WASHINGTON on HISTORY Vault

According to Article Two of the U.S. What was the first president of the united states, the states appointed a number of presidential electors equal to the “number of Senators and Representatives to which the state may be entitled in Congress.” Each elector voted for two people, at least one of whom did not live in their state. The individual receiving the greatest number of votes was elected president, and the next-in-line, vice president. (In 1804, this practice was changed what was the first president of the united states the 12th Amendment to the Constitution, which ordered separate ballots for the office of president and vice president.)

New York—though it was to be the seat of the new United States government—failed to choose its eight presidential electors in time for the vote on February 4, 1789. Two electors each from Virginia and Maryland were delayed by weather and did not vote. In addition, North Carolina and Rhode Island, which would have had seven and three electors respectively, had not ratified the Constitution and so could not vote.

That the remaining 69 unanimously chose Washington to lead the new U.S. government was a surprise to no one. As commander-in-chief during the Revolutionary War, he had led his inexperienced and poorly equipped army of civilian soldiers to victory over one of the world’s great powers. After the British surrender at Yorktown in 1781, Washington rejected with abhorrence a suggestion by one of his officers that he use his preeminence to assume a military dictatorship. He would not subvert the very principles for which so many Americans had fought and died, he replied, and soon after, he surrendered his military commission to the Continental Congress and retired to his Mount Vernon estate in Virginia.

READ MORE: 11 Key People Who Shaped George Washington's Life

When the Articles of Confederation proved ineffectual, and the fledging republic teetered on the verge of collapse, Washington again answered his country’s call and traveled to Philadelphia in 1787 to preside over the Constitutional Convention. Although he favored the creation of a strong central government, as president of the convention he maintained impartiality in the public debates. Outside the convention hall, however, he made his views known, and his weight of character did much to bring the proceedings to a close. The drafters created the office of president with him in mind, and on September 17, 1787, the document was signed. 

The next day, Washington started for home, hoping that, his duty to his country again served, he could live out the rest of his days in privacy. However, a crisis soon arose when the Constitution fell short of its necessary ratification by nine states. Washington threw himself into the ratification debate, and a compromise agreement was made in which the remaining states would ratify the document in exchange for passage of the constitutional amendments that would become the Bill of Rights. 

Government by the United States began on March 4, 1789. In April, Congress sent word to George Washington that he had unanimously won the presidency. He borrowed money to pay off his debts in Virginia and traveled to New York. 

On April 30, he came across the Hudson River in a specially built and decorated barge. The inaugural ceremony was performed on the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street, and a large crowed cheered after he took the oath of office. The president then retired indoors to read Congress his inaugural address, a quiet speech in which he spoke of “the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people.” The evening celebration was opened and closed by 13 skyrockets and 13 cannons.

As president, Washington sought to unite the nation and protect the interests of the new republic at home and abroad. Of his presidency, he el21 key card, “I walk on untrodden ground. There is scarcely any part of my conduct which may not hereafter be drawn in precedent.” He successfully implemented executive authority, making good use of brilliant politicians such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson in his Cabinet, and quieted fears of presidential tyranny. In 1792, he was unanimously reelected but four first commerce bank corpus christi later refused a third term.

In 1797, he finally began his long-awaited retirement at Mount Vernon. He died on December 14, 1799. His friend Henry Lee provided a famous eulogy for the father of the United States: “First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.”

Explore George Washington's life in our interactive timeline

Источник: https://www.history.com

Was John Hanson the Real First President of the United States?

John Hanson (April 14, 1721 to November 15, 1783)was an American Revolutionary leader who served as a delegate to Second Continental Congress and, in 1781, was elected the first "President of the United States in Congress assembled.” For this reason, some biographers argue that John Hanson rather than George Washington was actually the first President of the United States.

Fast Facts: John Hanson

  • Known For:Elected President of the United States in Congress assembled in 1781
  • Born: April 14, 1721 in Charles County, Maryland
  • Parents:Samuel and Elizabeth (Storey) Hanson
  • Died:November 15, 1783 in Prince George's County, Maryland
  • Spouse:Jane Contee
  • Children: 8, including (known) Jane, Peter, and Alexander
  • Fun Fact: Established the observation of Thanksgiving Day in 1782

Early Life

John Hanson was born on his wealthy family’s “Mulberry Grove” plantation in Port Tobacco Parish in Charles County, Maryland, on April 14, 1721. His parents, Samuel and Elizabeth (Storey) Hanson, were well-known members of Maryland's social and what was the first president of the united states elite. Samuel Hanson was a successful planter, landowner, and politician who served two terms in the Maryland General Assembly.

While few details of Hanson’s early life are known, historians presume he was educated at home by private tutors as were most children of wealthy Colonial American families. Hanson then joined his father as a planter, enslaver, and public official.

Early Political Career

After serving as sheriff of Charles County for five years, Hanson was elected to the lower house of the Maryland General Assembly in 1757. An active and persuasive member, he was a major opponent of the Stamp Act of 1765 and chaired a special committee that coordinated Maryland’s participation in the Stamp Act Congress. In protest of the British-enacted Intolerable Acts, Hanson co-signed a resolution calling for a boycott of all British imports to the Colonies until the acts were repealed.

In 1769, Hanson resigned from the Maryland General Assembly to pursue business interests. After selling his Charles County land and plantation, he moved to Frederick County in western Maryland, where he held a variety of appointed and elected offices, including surveyor, sheriff, and treasurer.  

Hanson Goes to Congress

As relations with Great Britain went from bad to worse and the colonies traveled down the road to the American Revolution in 1774, Hanson became recognized as one of Maryland’s foremost Patriots. He personally orchestrated the passage of a resolution denouncing the Boston Port Act (which punished the people of Boston for the Boston Tea Party). As a delegate to the First Annapolis Convention in 1775, Hanson signed the Declaration of the Association of the Freemen of Maryland, which, while expressing a desire to reconcile with Great Britain, called for military resistance to British troops in place to enforce the Intolerable Acts.

Once the Revolution broke out, Hanson helped recruit and arm local soldiers. Under his leadership, Frederick County, Maryland what was the first president of the united states the first troops from the Southern Colonies north to join General George Washington’s newly-formed Continental Army. Sometimes paying the local soldiers out of his own pocket, Hanson urged the Continental Congress to declare independence.

In 1777, Hanson was elected to his first of what was the first president of the united states one-year terms in the new Maryland House of Delegates, which named him as the state’s delegate to the Second Continental Congress in late 1779. On March 1, 1781, he signed the Articles of Confederation on the behalf of Maryland, the last state needed to ratify the Articles and bring it into full effect.

First President of the USA

On November 5, 1781, the Continental Congress elected Hanson as “President of the United States in Congress assembled.” This title is also sometimes called "President of the Continental Congress." This election has led to the contention that Hanson, rather than George Washington, was the first President of the United States.

Under the Articles of Confederation, the U.S. central government had no executive branch, and the position of president was largely ceremonial. Indeed, most of Hanson’s “presidential” duties consisted of dealing with official correspondence and signing documents. Finding the work so tedious, Hanson threatened to resign after just one week in office. After his colleagues in Congress appealed to his well-known sense of duty, Hanson agreed to continue to serve as president until the end of his one-year term on November 4, 1782.

Under the Articles of Confederation, presidents were elected to one-year terms. Hanson was neither the first person to serve as president or to be elected to the position under the Articles of Confederation. When the Articles went into full effect in March 1781, rather than elect a new president, Congress simply allowed Samuel Huntington of Connecticut to continue serving as president. On July 9, 1781, Congress elected Samuel Johnston of North Carolina as the first president after the ratification of the Articles. When Johnston declined to serve, Congress elected Thomas McKean of Delaware. However, McKean served for less than four months, resigning in October 1781. It was not until the next session of Congress convened in November 1781, that Hanson was elected as the first president to serve a full term as president.

Hanson was responsible for establishing Thanksgiving Day. On October 11, 1782, he issued a proclamation setting aside the last Thursday in November as “a day of Solemn Thanksgiving to God for all His mercies…” and urging all Americans to celebrate progress in negotiations with Britain ending the Revolutionary War.

Later Life and Death

Already in poor health, Hanson retired from public service immediately after completing his one-year term as president of Congress in November 1792. He died just one year later at age 62, on November 15, 1783, while visiting his nephew Thomas Hawkins Hanson’s plantation in Prince George's County, Maryland. Hanson is buried in Fort Washington, Maryland, in the cemetery of Saint John’s Episcopal Church.

Sources

Источник: https://www.thoughtco.com/john-hanson-biography-4178170

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